(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Bulletin"

THE INDIAN TRIBES 
OF NORTH AMERICA 



Q-r jn J SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

' ' BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

BULLETIN 145 

THE INDIAN TRIBES 
OF NORTH AMERICA 

By 
JOHN R. SWANTON 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS 
CITY OF WASHINGTON 



Standard Book Number 87474-092-4 
Library of Congress catalog card number 52-61970 

Distributed in the United States and Canada by 

Random House, Inc. 

Distributed in the United Kingdom and Europe by 

David & Charles (Publishers), Ltd., South Devon House, 

Newton Abbot, Devon 

Originally published 1952 
Reprinted 1968, 1969 

Printed in the United States of America 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction 1 

Maine 13 

New Hampshire 17 

Vermont 18 

Massachusetts 19 

Rhode Island 27 

Connecticut 29 

New York 33 

New Jersey 48 

Pennsylvania 55 

Delaware 57 

Maryland and the District of Columbia 57 

Virginia 61 

West Virginia 74 

North Carolina 74 

South Carolina 90 

Georgia 104 

Florida 120 

Alabama 153 

Mississippi 174 

Louisiana 196 

Arkansas 212 

Tennessee 215 

Kentucky 229 

Ohio 230 

Indiana 230 

Illinois 240 

Michigan 243 

Wisconsin 250 

Minnesota 260 

Iowa 265 

Missouri 269 

North Dakota 273 

South Dakota 278 

Nebraska 285 

Kansas 292 

Oklahoma 299 

Texas 307 

New Mexico 327 

Arizona 349 

Colorado 370 

Utah 372 

Nevada 375 

Wyoming 384 

V 



VI BUEEATJ OP AMEKICAN ETHNOLOGY 

PAGE 

Montana 387 

Idaho 398 

Washington 412 

Oregon 451 

California 478 

Alaska 529 

Canada 544 

The West Indies 

Indian tribes of Haiti 608 

Indian tribes of Cuba 610 

Indian tribes of Puerto Rico 611 

Indian tribes of Jamaica 611 

Mexico and Central America 611 

Bibliography 643 

Index 683 



ILLUSTRATIONS 
MAPS 

PAGE 

1. Outline map of North America showing relative position of the four fol- 

lowing maps illustrating the locations of the Indian tribes of North 

America 11 

2. Northwestern North America (section 1 of map 1) 26 

3. Northeastern North America (section 2 of map 1) 106 

4. Southwestern North America (section 3 of map 1) 186 

5. Southeastern North America (section 4 of map 1) 298 



THE INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 



By John R. Swanton 



INTRODUCTION 

From the date of its first appearance in 1891 the Powell map of 
"Linguistic Families of American Indians North of Mexico" has 
proved of the widest utility. It has been reissued several times and 
copied into numerous publications. There has, however, been almost 
equal need of a map giving the location of the tribes under the several 
families. 

To one familiar from his readings in early American history with 
the names and locations of our prominent eastern "tribes," such as 
the Delaware, Iroquois, Cherokee, and Choctaw, the preparation of a 
tribal map would seem to be simple, and it would indeed be so if all 
Indians had been grouped into bodies as clearly marked as those 
mentioned. But even in the eastern United States the term "tribe" 
is quickly found to have no uniform application. The Creeks were a 
confederation of a few dominant tribes and a number of subordinate 
bodies, each formerly independent. The name "Delaware" is com- 
monly said to have covered three tribes or subtribes, but while two of 
these seem never to have been independent of each other, the third, 
the Munsee, is often treated as if it were entirely separate. The name 
"Powhatan" was applied to about 30 tribes or subtribes which had 
been brought together by conquest only a few years before Virginia 
was settled, and the term "Chippewa," or "Ojibwa," is used for a 
multitude of small bands with little claim to any sort of governmental 
unity. In the case of the Iroquois, on the other hand, the tribe was 
only a part of the governmental unit, the Iroquois Confederation, or 
Longhouse. 

The northern Plains tribes present a certain coherence but farther 
south and west our difficulties multiply. An early explorer in Texas 
states that in that region, by "nation" was to be understood only a 
single town or perhaps a few neighboring villages, and in fact the 
number of tribal names reported from this section seems almost 
endless. In the governmental sense, each Pueblo community was a 
tribe, and if we were to attempt a complete list we should have in the 
first place a large number of existing, or at least recently existing, 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

tribes, little and big, and a still greater number kno\vii only through 
the early writers or by tradition. In California, Kroeber (1925) states 
that there were no tribes in the strict sense of the term except among 
the Yokuts of the San Joaquin Valley and their immediate neighbors. 
Elsewhere in California, and in western Oregon and Washington as 
well, tribe and town might be considered convertible terms. As the 
number of these was continually shifting, it would be impracticable 
to enter them in that capacity in a work of the present kind. 

North of the International Boundary, conditions are, if possible, 
worse, except in the southernmost section of Canada where lived tribes 
similar to those in the eastern parts of the United States, such as the 
Huron, Chippewa, Assiniboin, and Blackfoot, though the Chippewa, 
as aheady mentioned, require a somewhat elastic extension of our 
common concept of a tribe. On the north Pacific coast, however, the 
conditions noted in western Oregon and Washington are continued. 
We have numerous local groups associated into several major divisions 
on linguistic grounds alone. Still farther north and east, among the 
Algonquians, Athapascans, and Eskimo, we are confronted with a 
bewildering array of bands and local groups, usually confined to one 
town and taking their name from it or from a certain territory over 
which its members hunted, and the numbers and names of these are 
uncertain even at the present time. Nothing remotely resembling 
scientific accuracy is possible in placing these bands, if we aim at 
chronological uniformity, and we must either enter great Hnguistic 
groups, embracing sometimes almost an entire stocK, or make an 
arbitrary selection of bands with the idea of including those which 
we esteem the most important. 

Northeastern Mexico and some parts of Central America may also 
be defined as band areas, but most of North America below the Rio 
Grande was occupied by well-recognized tribal divisions. 

From all of the West Indies except Haiti, Cuba, and Puerto Rico 
nothing like a complete list of tribes has survived, and even for the 
best documented of these, Haiti, it is impossible to say how many of 
the caciquedoms mentioned should be given tribal status. 

A short study of the conditions above outlined shows that only 
two alternatives are open in a work like the present. Either one 
must, in effect, alter it to a town and band map, entering the most 
minute recorded subdivisions and setting his results forth, not on one 
map but on dozens, or he must be satisfied with a relatively conven- 
tional classification, having in view popular convenience rather than 
scientific uniformity, and making the best gi-ouping he can of those 
peoples which did not have real tribal organizations. In the present 
undertaking the latter plan has been followed, but clues to the more 
scientific study have been given by including lists of "subdivisions" 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 3 

and "villages," There is no profession that these lists are complete; a 
perfect presentation of them would demand an investigation for 
which there is as yet no opportunity. The rest of the accompanying 
text has been devoted to certain items of information likely to be 
called for first by the general reader, including: the origin of the tribal 
name and a brief list of the more important synonyms, the linguistic 
connections of the tribe — it has not seemed feasible to try to include 
the physical and cidtural connections — its location, a brief sketch of 
its history, its estimated and actual population at different periods 
(based mainly on Mooney's (1928) study and the reports of the 
United States and Canadian Indian Offices), and the "connection in 
which it has become noted," particularly the extent to which its 
name has been perpetuated geographically or otherwise. I have also 
included references to the more important sources of information. 
Two works have been used as basal authorities. One, the Handbook 
of American Indians (Hodge, 1907, 1910), is general in scope and may 
be assumed throughout except for the tribes of Mexico, Central 
America, and the West Indies. The other, Kroeber's Handbook of 
the Indians of California (1925), is the basal authority used in treating 
the Indian groups of that State. In the Gulf area I have utilized the 
results of my own studies, published and unpublished. 

As far as possible each tribe, or group has been treated by itself, 
but in Washington, Oregon, California, and Alaska, to avoid needless 
repetition, the history of the tribes is considered as a whole. The 
section on Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies represents 
an afterthought. Both map and text material were drawn originally 
from the "Indian Languages of Mexico and Central America" 
(Thomas and Swanton, 1911), and Dr. Lehmann's (1920) monumental 
work on"Zentral Amerikas," but they have been made over thoroughly 
in the light of the classification and map of Dr. J. Alden Mason (1940) 
and Frederick Johnson (1940), and no attempt has been made to 
take up the history of the several tribes or indicate other authorities. 

A brief history of the present undertaking will perhaps enable the 
reader to obtain a better understanding of it, appreciate the difficulties 
encountered in the compilation, and in consequence view its short- 
comings, of which as the compiler I am keenly aware, with due charity. 
It represents an evolution both in method of procedure and in the 
extent of territory covered. In the beginning I was governed by the 
older tradition regarding map work of the kind, the idea of entering 
a tribe in the place where it was first encountered by Wliites, but an 
attempt to carry .out this plan soon presented difficulties because 
neighboring tribes were often encountered a centmy or more apart 
and their relative positions may have changed utterly in the interval. 
There is no certainty, for instance, that the Indians outside of the 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

narrow strip of territory opened to our vision by De Soto's army in 
1539-43 were in the same relative position when Carohna was 
settled about 1670 and Louisiana in 1699. It is particularly to be 
noted that, while De Soto found eastern Arkansas full of towns, it 
was almost deserted when Marquette and La Salle visited it in 1673 
and 1682, We also know that great alterations took place in the 
St. Lawrence Valley between the voyages of Cartier in 1534-43 and 
Champlain's appearance there in 1603. 

In view of these difficulties, I gave up this plan and tried the device 
of putting each tribe in the region with which it was most closely 
associated historically. But with what region were the Shawnee, 
Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, and some other tribes most 
closely associated? The Middle West or the Plains are rather too 
general terms. Moreover, tribes acquired this close association with 
certain sections at very different periods and, if this plan were carried 
out, the map as a whole would be historically inaccurate. Thus the 
Delaware upon the whole were associated most closely with the valley 
of the river which bears their name, but when the Foxes had reached 
Iowa and the Dakota had occupied South Dakota, where they are best 
known, the Delaware had removed many hundred miles from this 
region. The Abnaki were most closely associated with western Maine 
but were uprooted in the middle of the eighteenth century and moved 
to Canada. The Huron are most closely connected historically with 
the region of Lake Simcoe, Ontario, but they were driven from there 
in the middle of the seventeenth century, and a hundred years later 
under the name Wyandot they, or at least part of them, came to be 
"closely associated" with Ohio. Thus we have here two associations 
of the same tribe. 

For a time it seemed as if some of these inconsistencies were un- 
avoidable and that any attempt at chronological accuracy was out 
of the question. Such is indeed the case if we insist upon absolute, 
documented accuracy, because Alaska, western Canada, and the 
northwestern part of the United States were almost wholly unknown 
until the latter half of the eighteenth century and there is no authentic 
information regarding many tribes until the beginning of the nine- 
teenth when many eastern tribes, and some of those on the Plains, 
had been displaced or destroyed. But on experimenting along this 
line I discovered that if we select the year 1650, or rather a few years 
prior to that date and assume a fairly static condition for 30 or 40 
years afterward, we can determine the location of most of the tribes 
of the eastern and southern United States and eastern Canada in a 
fairly satisfactory manner, and this arrangement was finally decided 
upon. Up to 1649 the Hurons were stiU in Ontario; the Erie, the 
Neutral Nation, and the Susquehanna had not been destroyed by the 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 5 

Iroquois; and King Philip's War, which was to scatter the New 
England Indians, did not break out until 1675. The Virginia Indians 
had suffered very much as a result of their risings in 1622 and 1644 
but continued to occupy the same general territories in which the 
colonists found them. By 1650 the Gulf region had been traversed 
by Spanish expeditions and Florida had been settled nearly a hundred 
years, but there had been Uttle displacement of the aborigines even 
in Florida, and between the accounts of the Spanish chroniclers and 
the later narratives of Virginia traders, and the South CaroUna colo- 
nists after 1670 we are able to get a fair idea of the position of the 
principal Southeastern peoples at that date. Meantime the French 
penetrated into the Ohio Valley and as far south on the Mississippi 
as the mouth of the Arkansas by 1673, and to the ocean by 1682, 
and they founded Louisiana in 1699. La SaUe's Texas colony, estab- 
lished in 1685, however unfortunate for himself and the other partici- 
pants in the venture, gives a more than fair view of the Indians of 
that great territory, soon supplemented by the reports of those who 
accompanied the later Spanish expeditions. Moreover, this data may 
be checked in some measure by the much earher reports of Cabeza 
de Vaca bearing on the years 1528 to 1536 and the chroniclers of 
Moscoso's invasion of east Texas in 1542. Moving still farther west, 
we find that New Mexico had been occupied by Spaniards long before 
the date selected, that Coronado had crossed the southern Plains, 
and that travelers by sea and land had visited southern California. 
In the meantime eastern Canada had been penetrated by two Euro- 
pean nations from two directions — by the French along St. Lawrence 
River and the Great Lakes and by the English Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany through their posts on the body of water which gives them their 
name. Moose Factory was founded in 1671, Fort Nelson in 1682, 
and Fort Churchill in 1688. From these as bases explorers and traders 
soon worked their way far inland, and on the other hand the com- 
mandants collected considerable information from the natives them- 
selves regarding the regions from whence they came. 

As has been said, there was beyond a great tract of country which 
remained unvisited by Europeans until well into the eighteenth cen- 
tury, but over much of this area there is no evidence of recent tribal 
movements, and some movements are known sufficiently well to justify 
an attempt to reconstruct the earlier conditions. Thus the migration 
of Haida from the northern end of the Queen Charlotte Islands to 
Prince of Wales Island evidently occurred in recent times, not earlier 
than the eighteenth century, and it is clear that they replaced the 
Tlingit there since the names of their towns in the invaded country are 
all derived from Tlingit. Whether the movement of the Tsimshian 
to the coast of British Columbia and the, probably contemporary, 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

removal of a part of the Tlingit northward, happened before or after 
1650 we shall never know, but it seems to have taken place long be- 
fore the Haida emigration just mentioned. It was formerly believed 
that mass migrations of impressive character took place in the Colum- 
bia River Valley about the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
This idea was perhaps set in motion by George Gibbs (1877) in speak- 
ing of the migrations of Klikitat Indians, and was suggested in some 
particulars by Mooney (1928) but elaborated by James Teit (1928) 
and adopted and amplified by Berreman (1937). This involved the 
assumption that before that time both banks of Columbia River from 
The Dalles to the mouth of Snake River were in possession of Salishan 
tribes, that south of them lay the Cayuse and Molala, and south of 
them again the ancestors of all of the Shahaptian peoples except the 
Nez Perces; and that about the beginning of the nineteenth century 
the Shoshoneans of the interior moved northward, pushing the Sha- 
haptians ahead of them; and that these in turn, after disrupting the 
Cayuse and Molala, expelled the Salishans from the valley of the 
Columbia in the region just indicated. More recent researches by 
Ray, Murdock, Blyth, and Steward (1938) seem to indicate that this 
is entirely erroneous and that, except for a displacement of the Mo- 
lala and a relatively recent expansion of Shahaptians toward the 
south at the expense of the Shoshoneans, the tribes and stocks seem 
to have occupied substantially the same areas in the earliest times 
of which we have any record as they did when the reservations were 
established. At any rate, supposition of stability in tribal location 
makes the work of the cartographer much simpler, and we will accept 
the tribal distribution shown by Ray in his paper published in 1938 
as being as near the probable situation in 1650 as can now be deter- 
mined. From the fact that he indicates the northern boundary of 
Shoshonean peoples in the eighteenth century, it is assmned that he 
regards the rest of his map as valid for that century. 

For the position of the interior Athapascan tribes before they were 
attacked by the Cree, I am indebted to Dr. Diamond Jenness, formerly 
Chief of the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum 
of Canada, who was also kind enough to go over most of my Canadian 
section and has made many valuable suggestions and amplifications. 

The scope of the work has also been expanded territorially as it 
progressed. Originally it was intended merely as a convenient guide 
to the tribes of the several states of the American Union and Alaska, 
demand for such a work being considerable. But since the original 
linguistic map of the Bureau had included the Dominion of Canada 
and Greenland, it was later determined to make this of the same ex- 
tent. And finally, owing to the representations of a leading an thro- 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 7 

pologist, it was amplified to take in Mexico, Middle America, and the 
West Indies. 

The method of treatment for Canada and Greenland has been 
practically identical with that for the United States, but it was thought 
best to represent on the map not merely the tribes but the band divi- 
sions of the larger northern tribes, such as the Chippewa, Cree, Algon- 
kin, Montagnais, and several of the Athapascan groups, including the 
Kutchin and K!hotana of the far Northwest and Alaska. Many of 
these band names are English and wholly modern, but it is highly 
probable that some of them correspond to more ancient divisions 
and, since they have found a place in literature, the identification of 
their locations will be convenient. For the placing of those in the 
Northeast I am particularly indebted to the late anthropologists Dr. 
Frank G. Speck, of the University of Pennsylvania, and Dr. John 
M, Cooper, of the Catholic University of America. 

Objection has been made to entering the names of Eskimo tribes or 
bands on the map, since almost all refer simply to "people living at 
such-and-such a place," most of them had little permanence, and there 
was an enormous number of them, the ones I have mentioned being 
merely a selection. On the other hand, it may be urged that some 
groups, notably those in Alaska, had considerable continuity, that 
most of them probably owed their existence to certain natural food 
supplies which would tend to reproduce other tribes at the same spots 
even though these were broken up, and that finally most of the tribes 
here entered have obtained a place in Eskimo literature and it is 
convenient to know where they lived even though they may have 
been no more important than other tribes not mentioned. Besides, 
if this were not done, the map would have little more value, so far as 
the Eskimo country is concerned, than the linguistic map. In the 
text I have indicated the relative lack of importance of the Eskimo 
tribes by treating all under the one head "Eskimo," and their names, 
like the band names of the northern Indians just mentioned, are in 
different type. The West Greenland names are, of course, quite 
modern but are thought to represent the principal bands of an earlier 
date. 

As already stated, that portion of the map south of the territory of 
the United States is based on the map of Mexico and Central America 
published by Dr. Thomas and myself (1911), on the work of Lehmann 
(1920) mentioned above, but particularly on the papers of Mason 
(1940) and Johnson (1940). Although European influence in this 
region goes back to the early part of the sixteenth century, relatively 
little tribal displacement had taken place by 1650. On the West 
Indies, however, it was very different, and, if we were to note only the 
tribes extant there in 1650, little could be inserted. However, it 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

has seemed best to submit to the anachronism here by giving the 
tribes in occupancy when Spaniards first came among them at the end 
of the fifteenth century and beginning of the sixteenth. In this part 
of the map I have followed Lehmann except in Jamaica and Haiti, 
but I have omitted several of his Jamaica names which seem to be 
merely those of towns. The tribal distribution in Haiti is the result 
of my studies of Peter Martyr's "De Orbo Novo," and I have increased 
the five "provinces" given by Las Casas (1875-76) because it seems to 
me that Marien in the northwest and Maguana in the center should 
have independent status. Probably the caciquedoms here and in 
the other islands were in a constant state of flux. 

In treating the linguistic stocks, considerable compromise has been 
found necessary. Since the publication of Powell's map (1891) the 
investigations of various students have rendered certain changes 
necessary, but other proposed changes have not been accepted by 
all students, and some are violently opposed. 

The connection between Shahaptian, Waiilatpuan, and Lutuamian, 
first suggested by Hewitt (1897) and recently confirmed by Jacobs 
(1937), has made it necessary to put these three groups of languages 
into one stock which is here called Shapwailutan, a name made up of 
the first three syllables of the original stock names and in that form 
suggested by Hewitt many years ago. The connection of Natchez 
with the Muskhogean family, originally proposed by Brinton and 
confirmed by me, has been recognized in the present classification. 
I have also placed the former Tonikan, Chitimachan, and Attacapan 
stocks under the stock name Tunican in accordance with the results 
of my own researches though the inclusion of the first mentioned is 
not entirely beyond question. Dr. J. P. Harrington's studies (1910) 
have made the relationship between Kiowan and the Tanoan tongues 
so evident that they have been placed in one family and given the 
name Kiowa-Tanoan. There no longer seems to be any excuse for 
keeping the old Shoshonean, Piman, and Nahuatlan stocks apart, 
and I have followed Buschmann (1859) and Brinton (1891) in uniting 
them as Uto-Aztecan. Kiowa-Tanoan is probably related to this 
but the fact has still to be demonstrated. 

In California we are confronted by some puzzling questions as to 
relationships, which have been made the basis of violent differences of 
opinion. Some of our ethnologists have been very skeptical regarding 
the Algonquian connection of Yurok and Wiyot but I let it stand as on 
Kroeber's Handbook (1925) pending exact determination. On the 
other hand, the validity of the so-called Penutian stock seems to be 
recognized by all of those who have had the best opportunities to study 
the languages composing it and is admitted here. The relationship 
between some of the languages of the other great stock created by 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 9 

Dixon and Kroeber (1919), the Hokan, is also allowed by other stu- 
dents. A doubt still remains whether all of the languages classified 
under this head, even in the original and most conservative usage of the 
term, should go with it. Or rather, it seems doubtful whether our 
information is sufficient to justify the erection of this stock over against 
the Penutian. Mr. J. P. Harrington (personal information) is of the 
opinion that the distinction betweem Hokan and Penutian is artificial 
and that the languages of both groups and of various others not as 
yet brought together are probably related. But since the name Hokan 
has received literary recognition, it seems best to continue it provision- 
ally for the forms of speech first placed in that category. Kroeber's 
confirmation of Brinton's suggestion regarding the Serian and Te- 
quistlatecan stocks has served to add them to the Hokan family 
through Yuman, and Sapir proposed extension to Subtiaba and 
Coahuilteco. I am favorably disposed toward very considerable ex- 
tensions of the present family boundaries but feel that more una- 
nimity of opinion is desirable before including the more radical sugges- 
tions in a general work of this kind. Personally, I am convinced that 
a very large part of the vocabulary and structure of the Siouan and 
Muskhogean languages has had a common origin and believe that it 
will ultimately be found best to consider them as branches of one 
stock, but adequate proof has not yet been presented. The Tunican 
stock also shares certain well-marked structural peculiarities with 
Muskhogean while having connections also with the ancient Texas 
stocks, but the meaning of this has yet to be determined. It is plain 
that the structural parallelism between Athapascan and Tliiigit is not 
accidental, and some striking similarities extend to Haida. Whether 
the somewhat similar parallelism between Salishan, Chimakuan, and 
Wakashan means genetic relationship is another problem, but the 
answers to these are not as yet sufficiently assured to incorporate any 
changes from the older classification in this work. It is evident that 
a future map devoted to the distribution of languages in North 
America must give something more tban stocks or supposed stocks. 
It must show the degree of relationship between languages as well in- 
side as outside of stock boundaries. 

No doubt the positions assigned to certain tribes in the present map 
will surprise many ethnologists. This will be particularly true of the 
placing of some of those of the Plains like the Arapaho, Kiowa, Kiowa 
Apache, and Arikara. In fact, some of these locations are extremely 
speculative but they are governed by the necessity of harmonizing 
them with the locations of other tribes at the time selected as standard, 
1650. In the case of certain tribes removed from their original seats 
before 1650, or whose locations were learned only at a considerably 
later time, the date of known occupancy is indicated in parentheses. 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdli,. 145 

The present work was well under way before it was learned that 
something similar was being undertaken by Professor Kroeber, and 
Kroeber's work has since appeared (1939) as "Cultural and Natural 
Areas of Native North America." This magnificent publication will 
undoubtedly continue to occupy a place all by itself f6r a long time 
but it is evidently intended mainly for the universitv student, though 
its usefulness will by no means be confined to such students, and in 
other particulars the purposes of that study were quite distinct from 
those which the present writer has entertained. 

"It aims," says Prof. Kroeber, "first, to review the environmental 
relations of the native cultures of North America. Its second purpose 
is to examine the historic relations of the culture areas, or geographical 
units of cultures." My own compilation has no such ambitious 
purposes. It is merely intended to inform the general reader what 
Indian tribes occupied the territory of his State and to add enough 
data to indicate the place they occupied among the tribal groups of 
the continent and the part they played in the early period of our 
history and the history of the States immediately to the north and 
south of us. It attempts to be rather a gazetteer of present knowledge 
than a guide to the attainment of more knowledge. 

The preparation of this manuscript extended over several years 
and some new material was added indeed until my retirement from 
active membership on the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
in 1944. It is admittedly defective in the use of material published 
during the years since that date. 

In the synonymy only those forms have been given which differ 
so much from the popular designation of the tribe as to make identifi- 
cation difficult. 

Although I have usually leaned very largely on Mooney's popula- 
tion figures (1928) in my over-aU estimates, my own for the South- 
eastern tribes, as shown by those on map 3 of Bulletin 137 (Swanton, 
1946), would generally be considerably smaller. 

The work has been done from the point of view of the United 
States, and therefore the Chippewa have been treated under Minne- 
sota, the Huron under Ohio, and the Assiniboin under Montana, 
although their centers were rather north of the International Boundary. 

On the maps the boundary lines between modern political nations 
and states are indicated by long dashes; those between linguistic 
stocks or major divisions of that type by short dashes and divisions 
between smaller tribal or group bodies by dots.^ 

I Note: This has not been consistently carried through on the maps.— J. E. S. 



SW ANTON] 



INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 



11 




Map 1. — Outline map of North America showing relative position of the four 
following maps illustrating the locations of the Indian tribes of North America: 
Section 1, Northwestern North America (map 2, facing p. 26); section 2, 
Northeastern North America (map 3, facing p. 106) ; section 3, Southwestern 
North America (map 4, facing p. 186) ; section 4, Southeastern North America 
(map 5, facing p, 298). 



MAINE 

Abnaki. Properly Wabanaki, "those living at the sunrise," "those 
living at the east," "easterners." Also called: 

Alnanbal, own name, meaning "Indians," or "men." 

Aquannaque, Wabanaki as pronounced by Huron. 

Bashabas, name given them from a principal chief. 

Cannon-gageh-ronnons, name given by Mohawk. 

Moassones, from a name applied to their country; perhaps from Penobscot 

Maweshenook, "berry place." 
Narankamigdok epitsik arenanbak, "villages of the Narankamigdog," 

said to be a collective name for all the Abnaki villages. 
Natio Luporum, "Wolf Nation." 
Natsdgana, name given by Caughnawaga Iroquois. 
Onagungees, Onnogonges, Anagonges, or Owenagunges, name given by 

the Iroquois. 
Skacewanilom, name given by the Iroquois. 
Tarrateens, name given by the tribes of southern New England. 

Connections. — The Abnaki belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
family, their closest connections being with their neighbors to the 
east and west. Indeed their name has very commonly been extended 
to include the Malecite, Penobscot, and Pennacook, and even the 
Micmac, though on the other hand the Sokoki have sometimes been 
left out. 

Location. — The main body was in western Maine, in the valleys 
of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, and Saco Rivers and on the neighbor- 
ing coast, overlapping also into Carroll County, N. H. A single 
tribe, the Missiassik, was in northwestern Vermont, representing 
probably a late intrusion. (See also New Hampshire and Vermont.) 

Subdivisions 

Amaseconti, on Sandy River, Franklin County. 

Arosaguntacook, on the lower course of Androscoggin River. 

Missiassik, in the valley of Missisquoi River, Franklin County, Vt. 

Norridgewock, on Kennebec River. 

Ossipee, on Ossipee River and Lake in Maine and New Hampshire. 

Pequawket, on Lovell's Pond and the headwaters of Saco River, Maine and 

New Hampshire. 
Rocameca, on the upper course of Androscoggin River. 

Sokoki, on Saco River and in the adjacent parts of Cumberland and York Counties. 
Wawenoc, on the seacoast of Sagadahoc, Lincoln, and Knox Counties. 

Villages 

Amaseconti; there were two villages of this tribe, at Farmington Falls and New 

Sharon, respectively. 
Aquadocta, westward of Saco. 
Arosaguntacook town, probably near Lewiston. 

13 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Cobbosseecontee, a town or band on the stream of that name, which empties 

into the Kennebec River at Gardiner. 
Ebenecook, at Ebenecook Harbor, Southport Island. 
Kennebec, between Augusta and Winslow. 
Ketangheanycke, near the mouth of Kennebec River. 
Masherosqueck, near the coast and not certainly Abnaki. 
Mecadacut, on the coast between Penobscot and Kennebec Rivers. 
Missiassik, belonging to the Missiassik tribe, on Lake Champlain at the mouth 

of Missisquoi River, Vt. 
Moratiggon, probably on the Maine or New Hampshire coast and possibly not 

Abnaki. 
Moshoquen, on or near the coast. 

Muscongus, on the coast and probably near Muscongus Island. 
Negusset, about the site of Woolwich. 
Ossaghrage, Iroquois name of an Abnaki village. 
Ossipee, probably on Ossipee Lake. 
Ouwerage, probably on Ossipee Lake. 
Pasharanack, probably on the coast. 
Pauhuntanuc, probably on the coast. 
Pemaquid, near Pemaquid, Lincoln County. 
Pequawket town, about Fryeburg. 
Pocopassum, probably on the coast. 

Sabino, at the mouth of the Kennebec River, possibly on the west side. 
Sagadahoc, at the mouth of the Kennebec River. 
Satquin, on the coast southwest of the Kennebec River. 
Segotago, probably identical with Sagadahoc. 
Sowocatuck, perhaps the chief village of the Sokoki, Saco River. 
Taconnet, at the falls of the Kennebec near Waterville. 
Unyjaware, Iroquois name for an Abnaki village. 
Wacoogo, probably on or near the coast. 

History. — The Abnaki and their neighbors claim to have immigrated 
into their historic seats from the southwest. Aside from possible 
Norse visitants in 1000-1010, John Cabot, during his second voyage 
in 1498, probably brought the first white men within sight of Abnaki 
territory, but he seems to have had no dealings with the people. 
From that time on, Breton, Basque, Norman, and English fishermen 
constantly visited the coast. In 1604 Champlain passed along it 
from north to south and visited several Abnaki bands, and in 1605 
Waymouth penetrated the Wawenoc country. In 1607-08 came an 
abortive attempt on the part of the Plymouth Company to make a 
permanent settlement at the mouth of the Kennebec River, but it is 
probable that English fishermen were on Monhegan Island almost 
continuously after that date. Pemaquid was also occupied at an 
early period. The Abnaki were soon afterward missionized from 
Canada and became attached to the French interest. For a time 
they were successful in driving the English colonists away but later 
they suffered several severe defeats — particularly the capture of 
Norridgewock in 1724 and the defeat of the Pequawket in 1725 — 
were much reduced in numbers, and finally withdrew to Canada where 



SWANXON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 15 

they were settled at B^cancour and Silleiy, and later at St. Francis, 
along with other refugee tribes from the south. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates this at 3,000 in 1600, includ- 
ing the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy. The St. Francis Indians, 
including remnants of other New England tribes, numbered 395 in 
1903, and 280 in 1924. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The activities of the 
missionary Rasles, compilation by him of the Abnald dictionary, the 
destruction of Norridgewock, and the defeat of the Pequawket on 
Lovell Pond, as mentioned above, have made the Abnaki famous. 

Malecite. They extended into the northeastern part of the State of 

Maine from Canada (q. v.). 
Passamaquoddy. Signifying "Those who pursue the pollock," but 

strictly "pollock-plenty-place" (Eckstorm). Also called: 

Machias Tribe, applied to some living on Machias River. 
Quoddy, abbreviation of Passamaquoddy. 
St. Croix Indians, from one of the rivers they inhabited. 
Scotuks, from the name of the Schoodic Lakes. 
Unchechauge or Unquechauge. 

Connections. — The Passamaquoddy belong to the Algonquian lin- 
guistic family, their closest connections being the Malecite, and their 
more remote relatives the Abnaki, Penobscot, and Pennacook. 

Location. — On Passamaquoddy Bay, St. CroLx River, and the 
Schoodic Lakes. (See also Canada.) 

Villages 
Gunasquamekook, on the site of St. Andrews, N. B. 
Imnarkuan, on the site of Pembroke, Washington County. 
Sebaik, at Pleasant Point, Passamaquoddy Bay, near Perry, Washington County. 

Other towns were on Lewis Island and at Calais, in Maine, and on the New 
Brunswick side of St. Croix River. 

History. — The early history of the Passamaquoddy was identical 
with that of the Malecite (q. v.). When the territory of the 13 
colonies was separated from English rule, the greater part of this 
tribe was left on the south side of the boundary. They enjoy, jointly 
with the Penobscot, the privilege of having a representative in the 
Maine State legislature, though he speaks only on matters of concern 
to the two tribes. 

Population. — The population of the Passamaquoddy was estimated 
at about 150 in 1726, 130 in 1804, 379 in 1825, 400-500 in 1859; and 
was enumerated as 386 in 1910. In 1930, 435 Indians were returned 
from Washington County, and practically all of these must have 
belonged to this tribe. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Passamaquoddy 
have given their name to Passamaquoddy Bay, which forms part of 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

the eastern boundary of the State of Maine and are the easternmost 

body of Indians in the United States. 

Pennacook. The Accominta and Newichawanoc of the extreme 

southwestern part of the State belonged to this tribe. (See New 

Hampshire.) 
Penobscot. Meaning "the rocky place," or "the descending ledge 

place" (Eckstorm), referring to the falls between Oldtown and 

Bangor. Also called: 

Pentagouet, from the name of their principal village near Castine. 

Connections. — The Penobscot belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock, their nearest connections being the Abnaki, Passamaquoddy, 
Malecite, and Pennacook, with whom they were frequently clasiced 
under the name of the fu"st mentioned. 

Location. — On both sides of Penobscot Bay and in the entire drain- 
age area of Penobscot River. 

Subdivisions 
A body of Penobscot on Moosehead Lake were known as "Moosehead Lake 
Indians," but their separation from the rest was probably temporary. 

Villages 
Agguncia, said to have been a small settlement near Brewer, Penobscot County, 

from which the fabulous city of "Norumbega" derived its name. 
Asnela, a settlement on an island of the same name in Penobscot Bay. 
Catawamtek, at Rockland. 

Kenduskeag, at Bangor, near the site of the Penobscot Exchange Hotel. 
Mattawamkeag, about Mattawamkeag Point, Penobscot County. 
Meecombe, on the lower course of Penobscot River. 
Negas, in Penobscot County. 

Olamon, on an island in Penobscot River near Greenbush. 
Oldtown, the present village on an island of the same name. 
Passadumkeag, on an island in Penobscot River near the present Passadumkeag. 
Pentagouet, at or near Castine. 
Precaute, on the southeast coast of Maine; it may have been a Passamaquoddy 

town. 
Segocket, near the mouth of Penobscot River. 
Wabigganus, probably near the mouth of the Penobscot River. 

History. — Native tradition brings the Penobscot from the South- 
west. They were encountered by French and Enghsh fishermen and 
explorers early in the sixteenth century, and one of their to\vns came 
to have a European reputation as a city of fabulous size and impor- 
tance under the name of Norumbega. In the seventeenth century 
their chief, known to the Whites as Bashaba, seems to have extended 
his authority, probably his moral authority only, over the tribes to 
the westward as far as the Merrimac. The Penobscot were visited 
by Champlain in 1604 and by numerous later explorers. They assisted 
the French against the English until 1749, when they made peace 



Sw ANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 17 

and in consequence did not remove to Canada with the Abnaki. 
They have remained in their old country to the present day, their 
principal settlement being on Oldtovvn Island. Conjointly with the 
Passamaquoddy, they have a representative at the sessions of the 
Maine State legislature privileged to speak on tribal affairs only. 

Population. — The followmg are early estimates of the Penobscot 
population: 650 in 1726, 1,000 in 1736, 700 in 1753, 400 in 1759, 700 
in 1765, 350 in 1786. According to the United States Census of 1910, 
there were 266, including 13 scattered outside of the State of Maine. 
The census of 1930 returned 301 Indians from Penobscot County, 
practically all belonging to this tribe. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Penobscot have 
given their name to a bay, a river, and a county in the State of Maine, to 
a post village in Hancock County, and a branch post office in Detroit. 
The title of the chief above mentioned, Bashaba or Bessebes, became 
the center of a myth among the Whites in which he was elevated to 
the dignity of a local king or emperor. The widely quoted myth of 
Norumbega should also be mentioned in this comiection. This tribe 
and the Passamaquoddy constitute the only bodies of Indians of any 
size remaining in New England. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Abnaki. Parts of Grafton County were occupied by the Ossipee and 

Pequawket bands, affiliated wdth the Sokoki of the Abnaki tribe. 

(See Maine.) 
Pennacook. Gerard (Hodge, 1910) says the name is ''cognate with 

Abnaki pendkuk, or pena^'kuk, 'at the botton of the hill or higliland,' " 

but Speck says simply "down hill." Also called: 

Merrimac, from the river of that name. 
Nechegansett, name given by Gookin (1792). 
Owaragees, Iroquois name (fide Golden (1747)). 

Connections. — The Pennacook belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock, their nearest relatives being the Abnaki, with whom they were 
frequently classed, and the Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, and Malecite. 

Location. — In southern and central New Hampshire, northeastern 
Massachusetts, and the southernmost part of Maine. (See also 
Maine, Massachusetts, and Vermont.) 

Siihdivisions and Villages 
Accominta, at or near the site of York, Maine. 
Agawam, at Ipswich, Mass. 

Amoskeag, at Amoskeag Falls on the Merrimack River, 

Coosuc, a division along Gonnecticut River between Upper and Lower Ammo- 
noosuc Rivers, the principal village apparently near the mouth of the latter. 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Nashua, a division along the upper course of Nashua River, the village being near 

Leominster, Mass. 
Naumkeag, at Salem, Mass. 
Newichawanoc, a division on upper Piscataqua River and Salmon Falls River in 

Maine and New Hampshire, the principal village being near Berwick, Maine. 
Pennacook, a division on both banks of Merrimack River above and below Concord, 

the village of the same name being on the site of Concord. 
Pentucket, at Haverhill, Mass. 
Piscataqua, on Piscataqua River near Dover. 
Souhegan, a division on Souhegan River, Hillsborough County, with the village 

of the same name probably near Amherst, formerly called Souhegan. 
Squamscot, on Exeter River near Exeter, Rockingham County. 
Wachuset, a division on the upper Nashua River, Mass., the village of the same 

name being located probably near Princeton. 
Wamesit, a division on the south bank of Merrimack River below the mouth of 

Concord River, Mass., the village of the same name being near Lowell. 
Weshacum, at Weshacum Ponds, near Sterling, Mass. 
Winnecowet, in Rockingham County. 
Winnipesaukee, around the lake of the same name. 

History. — The early history of the Pennacook was like that of the 
Abnaki except that they were earlier affected by the English settle- 
ments on Massachusetts Bay. In King Philip's War (1675-76) the 
Nashua and Wachuset tribes joined the hostiles, but the greater part 
of the Pennacook, under Wannalancet, remained on friendly terms 
until the treacherous seizure of about 200 of their number by Waldron 
in 1676. They then abandoned their country and the greater part 
removed to Canada, where they ultimately joined the Abnaki and other 
Indians of St. Francis. The remainder were finally settled at Scati- 
cook, Rensselaer County, N. Y. 

Population. — The number of Pennacook is estimated by Mooney 
(1928) at 2,000 in 1600 and 1,250 ui 1676. The remnant is included 
among the 280 St. Francis Indians returned in 1924. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The town of Penacook 
and Lake Penacook, Merrimack County, are named after the Penna- 
cook, as well as a branch station of the Concord Post Office, and their 
name also appears in Whittier's poem "The Bridal of Pennacook." 

VERMONT 

Abnaki. An Abnaki band known as the Missiassik was at one time 
settled on Missisquoi River in Franklin County. (See Maine.) 

Mahican. Bands of the Mahican hunted in the southwestern and 
western parts of the State and made temporary settlements from 
time to time. One Mahican village (Winooskeek) is thought to 
have been located at the mouth of Winooski River. (See New 
York.) 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 19 

Pennacook. The eastern margins of Vermont were occupied by the 
Pennacook, who must have hunted considerably within its borders. 
(See New Hampshire.) 

Pocomtuc. The northernmost bands of the Pocomtuc extended 
into the southern parts of the State. (See Massachusetts.) 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Mahican. The Mahican extended over most of Berkshire County, 
where they were represented mainly by the Housatonic or Stock- 
bridge Indians, (See New York.) 
Massachuset. Meaning "at the range of hills," by which is meant 
the hills of Milton. 

Connections. — The Massachuset belonged to the Algonquian lin- 
guistic stock, their tongue being an 7i-dialect, and formed one group 
with the Narraganset, Niantic (East and West), and Wampanoag, and 
probably the Nauset. 

Location. — In the region of Massachusetts Bay between Salem on 
the north and Marshfield and Brockton on the south. Later they 
claimed lands beyond Brockton as far as the Great Cedar Swamp, 
territories formerly under the control of the Wampanoag. 

Subdivisions 
Johnson (1881) says that there were "three kingdoms or sagamoreships having 
under them seven dukedoms or petty sagamores." Some of these undoubtedly 
correspond to the divisions recently worked out by Speck (1928) by means of pro- 
vincial documents. He identifies six main divisions, two of them further subdi- 
vided, all called by the names of their chiefs, as follows: 

(1) Band of Chickataubut (including the later bands of Wampatuck and some 
other of his heirs and a district and band earlier controlled by Obatinnewat or 
Obtakiest), all of the Massachuset territory south of Charles River and west of 
the neighborhood of Ponkapog Pond. 

(2) Band of Nanepashemet, all the Massachuset territory north of Charles 
River. Nanepashemet's domain was afterward divided among his three sons: 
Winnepurkit, owning about Deer Island and in Boston Harbor; Wonohaquaham, 
owning about Chelsea and Saugus; and Montowampate, owning about Lynn 
and Marblehead. 

(3) Band of Manatahqua, about Nahant and Swampscott. 

(4) Band of Cato, a tract 5 miles square east of Concord River. 

(5) Band of Nahaton, around Natick. 

(6) Band of Cutshamakin, Cutshamequin, or Kutchamakin, about Dorchester, 
Sudbury, and Milton. 

Villages 
Conohasset, about Cohasset. 

Cowate, "Praying Indians," at the Falls of Charles River. 
Magaehnak, probably "Praying Indians," 6 miles from Sudbury. 
Massachuset, location uncertain. 
Mishawum, at Charlestown. 
Mystic, at Medford. 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

Nahapassumkeck, in the northern part of Plymouth County, probably on the 

coast. 
Natick, "Praying Indians," near the present Natick. 
Neponset, on Neponset River about Stoughton. 
Nonantum, on Nonantum hill, in Newton. 
Pequimmit, "Praying Indians," near Stoughton. 
Pocapawmet, on the south shore of Massachusetts Bay. 
Punkapog, "Praying Indians," near Stoughton. 
Sagoquas, south of Cohasset. 
Saugus, near Lynn. 

Seccasaw, in the northern part of Plymouth County. 

Titicut, "Praying Indians," possibly Wampanoag, in Middleborough town. 
Topeent, on the north coast of Plymouth County. 
Totant, at or near Boston. 

Totlieet, on the north coast of Plymouth County. 
Wessagusset, near Weymouth. 
Winnisimmet, at Chelsea. 
Wonasquam, near Annisquam, Essex County, perhaps a later outvillage. 

History. — The Massachuset were visited by several voyagers, be- 
ginning at least as far back as the time of John Cabot but were first 
particularly noted by Captain John Smith, who coasted their terri- 
tory in 1614. In 1617 they were much reduced by a pestilence and 
about the same time they were depleted by wars with their north- 
eastern neighbors. The Puritans settled in their country in 1629, 
and mission work was soon begun among them, and was pursued 
with particular zeal b}'' John Eliot. The converts were gathered into 
separate villages, where they gradually declined in numbers and 
presently disappeared as distinct bodies, though a few descendants of 
the Punkapog town people are still living in Canton, Mattapan, and 
Mansfield. 

Population. — The number of Massachuset is estimated by Mooney 
(1928) to have been 3,000 in 1600. In 1631 it was reduced to about 
500, and soon considerably below that figure by smallpox. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Massachuset gave 
their name to Massachusetts Bay and through that to the present 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The Massachuset are also noted 
as the tribe in which the famous apostle to the Indians, John Eliot, 
labored, through whom a large part of them were gathered into vil- 
lages of "Praying Indians." The "Eliot Bible" and other works by 
him have preserved a knowledge of the Massachuset language to our 
own day. Crispus Attucks, who was killed in the Boston massacre 
and is generally regarded as the first victim of the American Revolu- 
tion, was of mixed Negro-Massachuset ancestry. The marriage of 
Winnepurkit, a Massachuset chief whose lands were about Boston 
Harbor, to the daughter of Passaconavv^ay, chief sachem of the 
Pennacook, was made by Whittier the subject of a poem, "The 
Bridal of Pennacook." 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 21 

Nauset. Meaning unknown. Also called: 

Cape Indians, from their situation. 
Connections. — (See under discussion of the IVIassachuset.) 
Location. — All of Cape Cod except the extreme western end. 

Subdivisiona 

Speck (1928) has identified the following: lyanough, Wiananno, or Hyannis 
(centering about Barnstable); Manomoy, or Monomoy (about Chatham); 
Nauset (from Eastham to Truro). 

Villages 

Aquetnet, at Skauton Neck, Sandwich, Barnstable County. 

Ashimut or Ashimuit, at a large spring near the junction of Falmouth, Mashpee, 
and Sandwich Townships, Barnstable County. 

Coatuit, near Osterville, Barnstable County. 

Codtaumut or Cataumut, in Mashpee Township. 

Cummaquid, at Cummaquid Harbor. 

Manamoyik, near Chatham. 

Mashpee, on the coast of Mashpee Township. 

Mattakees or Mattakeset, in Barnstable and Yarmouth Townships. 

Meeshawn, in Provincetown or Truro Township. 

Nauset, near Eastham. 

Nemskaket, on or near Nemskaket Creek. 

Nobsqussit or Nobscusset, near Dennis. 

Pamet, near Truro. 

Pawpoesit, near Barnstable. 

Pispogutt or Pispoqutt, in the western part of Barnstable County, near Buz- 
zards Bay. 

Poponesset, near Poponesset Bay. 

Potanumaquut, on Pleasant Bay near Harwich. 

Punonaknit, at Billingsgate near Wellfleet. 

Satuit, on Cotuit River near Mashpee. 

Sawkatuket or Satucket, in Brewster or Harwich. 

Skauton, near Sandwich, probably on Buzzards Bay, 

Sokones or Succonesset, near Falmouth. 

Wakoquet, or Waquoit, near Waquoit or Weequakit, in Barnstable Township. 

Wessquobs or Weesquobs, near Pocasset. 

Many of these contained Wampanoag Indians and some Indians of other 
tribes. 

History. —Yrom. the exposed position of the Nauset on Cape Cod 
their territory came under the observation of many of the earliest 
explorers, but actual contact with the people was not so simple a 
matter. In 1606 Champlain had an encounter with them. In 1614 
Hunt carried off 7 Nauset Indians and 20 Patuxet of the Wampanoag 
tribe whom he sold into slavery. They seem to have escaped the great 
New England pestilence of 1617. Although they behaved in a hostile 
manner toward the Pilgrims at their first landing in 1620, they soon 
became firm friends and even rendered some assistance against King 
Philip (1675-76). Most of them had been Christianized before this 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

time and collected into churches. In 1710 many died of fever, but the 
number of Indians in Nauset territory was increased by additions 
from other tribes driven from their proper territories, so that the 
population of the principal Indian settlement at Mashpee has not 
fallen below 200 down to the present day, though a great deal of 
mixture with other races has taken place. 

Population. — The number of the Nauset was estimated by Mooney 
(1928) at 1,200 in 1600. In 1621 they were believed to number 500; 
in 1674, 462 were reported in the various inhabited centers on Cape 
Cod, containing Nauset, Wampanoag, and other Indians. In 1698, 
515 Indians were reported from Mashpee, mainly Nauset and Wam- 
panoag. In 1767, 292 were reported at the same place and the 
number has varied between 200 and 300 down to 1930. The United 
States Census of 1910 reported 206 Indians of this band, all but 5 in 
Massachusetts, Speck (1928) estimates that there were 230 in 1920, 
all of whom were mixed-bloods. The census of 1930 returned only 
38 Indians from Barnstable County and 54 from Massachusetts, but 
it may be incomplete. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — As already remarked, 
it was in the Nauset territory and in considerable measure through 
their blood that the Massachusetts aborigines maintained their 
existence longest. Nauset Beach, Nauset Harbor, and Nauset Light 
perpetuate the name. 

Nipmuc. From Nipmaug, "fresh water fishing place." 

Connections. — The Nipmuc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
family, their language being an Z-dialect. Their nearest relatives 
were the other tribes of Massachusetts and the tribes of Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, and the Hudson River VaUey. 

Location. — The Nipmuc occupied the central plateau of Massachu- 
setts, particularly the southern part of Worcester County, but they 
extended into northern Rhode Island and Connecticut. (See also 
Connecticut and Rhode Island.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

Acoomemeck, location uncertain. 

Attawaugan, near Attawaugan in the town of Killingly, Conn. 

Chabanakongkomun, near Dudley. 

Chachaubunkkakowok, location uncertain. 

Coweset, in northern Rhode Island west of Blackstone River. 

Hassanamesit, at Grafton. 

Magunkaquog, at Hopkinton. 

Manchaug, near Oxford. 

Manexit, near Thompson, Conn. 

Mashapaug, at Mashapaug Pond in the town of Union, Conn. 

Medfield, at Medfield, native name unknown. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OP NORTH AMERICA 23 

Menemesseg, near New Braintree. 

Metewemesick, near Sturbridge. 

Missogkonnog, location uncertain. 

Muskataquid, location uncertain. 

Nashobah, near Magog Pond, in Littleton. 

Nichewaug, about Nichewaug, near Petersham. 

Okommakamesit, near Marlborough. 

Pakachoog, near Worcester, probably in Millbury. 

Quabaug, near Brookfield. 

Quadick, near the present Quadick Reservoir, Thompson County, Conn. 

Quantisset, on Thompson Hill, near Thompson, Conn. 

Quinebaug, on Quinebaug River near Quinebaug Station, town of Thompson, 

Conn. 
Quinetusset, near Thompson in northeast corner of Connecticut. 
Segunesit, in northeastern Connecticut. 

Tatumasket, west of Mendon, in the southern part of Worcester County. 
Wabaquasset, about 6 miles from Quinebaug River, south of Woodstock, Conn., 

sometimes regarded as an independent tribe. 
Wacuntug, on the west side of Blackstone River, near Uxbridge. 
Wenimesset, at New Braintree. 

History. — There was no coherence among the people bearing the 
name of Nipmuc and some of them were from time to time attached 
to the more powerful tribes in their neighborhood, such as the Massa- 
chuset, Wampanoag, Narraganset, and Mohegan. The Whites 
first met them after Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay were settled. 
In 1674 there were seven villages of Christian Indians among the 
Nipmuc but in 1675 practically all took part with King Philip against 
the colonists and at its close fled to Canada or to the tribes on Hudson 
River. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 500 inde- 
pendent Nipmuc in 1600. If we consider as Nipmuc the Indians re- 
turned from Worcester County, Mass., and Windham and Tolland 
Counties, Conn., in 1910, there were then 81. 

Pennacook. The following bands of Pennacook lived in the north- 
eastern part of Massachusetts: Agawam, Nashua, Naumkeag, 
Pentucket, Wachuset, Wamesit, and Weshacum. (See New 
Hampshire.) 

Pocomtuc. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — The Pocomtuc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 

family, and spoke an r-dialect, their nearest relatives probably being 

the Wappinger. 
Location. — The Pocomtuc home was in the present counties of 

Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden, Mass., and in the neighboring 

parts of Connecticut and Vermont. 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Subdivisions and Villages 

Agawam, aVjout Springfield, their principal village of the same name being on 

Long Hill. 
Mayawaug, near W. Suffield, town of Suffield, Conn. 
Nameroke, in the town of Enfield, east of Thompsonville, Conn. 
Nonotuc, a division and village about Northampton. 
Pocomtuc, a division in Deerfield River Valley and the adjacent parts of the 

Connecticut River Valley, the principal town of the same name being near 

Deerfield. (See also Vermont.) 
Scitico, near the place of that name in the eastern part of the town ol Enfield, 

Conn. 
Squawkeag, on both sides of Connecticut River in the northern part of Franklin 

County, their principal village, of the same name, being near Northfield. 

History. — The fort of the Pocomtuc proper, on Fort Hill near 
Deerfield, was destroyed by the Mohawk in 1666. The Pocomtuc 
combined with the Narraganset and Tunxis in attacks on the Mohegan 
chief, Uncas, and later joined the hostile Indians under King Philip. 
At the close of the war they fled to Scaticook on the Hudson, where 
some of them remained until 1754, going then to St. Francis, Canada. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,200 
Pocomtuc in 1600. If we count as Pocomtuc the Indians returned 
from Hampden and Hampshu-e Counties in 1910, there were then 23 
left, but they may have been of qaite other origin. 

Wampanoag. The name has the same meaning as Abnaki, "eastern 
people." Also called: 

Massasoits, from the name of their famous chief. 
Philip's Indians, from King Philip. 

Connections. — The Wampanoag belonged to the Algonquian lin- 
guistic stock, speaking an n-dialect like the neighboring Massachuset, 
Narranganset, Niantic (East and West), and the Nauset. 

Location. — The Wampanoag occupied Rhode Island east of Narra- 
gansett Bay; Bristol County, Mass.; the southern part of Plymouth 
County, below Marshfield and Brockton; and the extreme western 
part of Barnstable. The Indians of Martha's Vineyard should also be 
added to them, and it wiU be convenient to treat under the same head 
those of Nantucket and the Saconnet, or Sakonnet, of Sakonnet Point, 
R. I., whose connection was more remote. They controlled Rhode 
Island in Narragansett Bay until the Narraganset tribe conquered it 
from them. (See also Rhode Island.) 

Subdivisions 

Speck (1928) gives the following mainland subdivisions: 

(1) Band of Massasoit, in a territory called Sowwams on the east side of Narra- 

gansett Bay; the western part of Bristol County, Mass.; all of Bristol 
County, R. I.; and the eastern part of Providence County, R. I. 

(2) Band of Annawon, about Squannaconk swamps in Rehoboth Township. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 25 

(3) Band of Weetamoe, a chieftainess, their territory being called Pocasset, in 

southeastern Rhode Island, about Tiverton and adjacent parts of Bristol 
County, Mass. 

(4) Band of Corbitant or Caunbatant, about Swansea. 

(5) Band of Tispaquin or Tuspaquin, lands called Assawampset, about Assa- 

wampset Pond*. 

(6) Band of Tyasks or Tyashk, about Rochester and Acushnet. 

(7) Band of Totoson, in a territory centering about Mattapoisett and Rochester. 

(8) Band of Coneconam or Cawnacome, in a territory known as Manomet, 

extending from Manomet to Woods Hole. 

(9) Band of Piowant or Plant, between Assonet Bay and Taunton River. 
There were several vacant tracts not occupied by any of the above. In 1861 

there were bands of Wampanoag at Herring Pond, Dartmouth, Mamatakesett 
Pond, Tumpum Pond, and Watuppa Pond. 

Speck (1928) gives the following bands on Martha's Vineyard, but the classi- 
fication applies to a time when Indians from various parts of the mainland had 
begun to settle there: 

(1) Band of Nohtooksaet who came from Massachusetts Bay, about Gay Head. 

(2) Band of Mankutquet (including the bands of Wannamanhut who came from 

near Boston (Christian town) and Toohtoowee, on the north shore of 
Chilmark), in the western part of Martha's Vineyard excluding the pre- 
ceding. 

(3) Band of Tewanticut (including the bands of Cheesehahchamuk, about 

Homes' Hole; Wampamag, of Sanchakankachet; and Tom Tyler, about 
Edgartown), in the eastern section of Martha's Vineyard. 

(4) Band of Pahkepunnasso, on the island of Chappaquiddick. 

There were two bands on Nantucket, the names of which are unknown, and we 
must also add the Sakonnet, on Sakonnet Point, R. I., and the Indians of the 
EHzabeth Islands. 

Villages 

Mainland: Mainland — Continued 

Acushnet, about Acushnet. Mattapoiset, near Mattapoiset, Plym- 

Agawam, about Wareham. outh County. 

Assameekg, probably near Dart- Munponset, location unknown. 

mouth. Namasket, about Middleboro. 

Assawompset, in Middleborough Nasnocomacack, on the coast and 

Township. probably a few miles north of 

Assonet, conjectural village near the Plymouth. 

present Assonet. Nukkehkummees, near Dartmouth. 

Coaxet, near Little Compton, R. I. Pachade, near Middleboro. 

Cohannet, about Fowling Pond near Patuxet, at Plymouth. 

Taunton. Pocasset, near Tiverton, R. I. 

Comassakumkanit or Herring Pond, Pokanoket, on Bristol Peninsula, R. I. 

Herring Pond, Plymouth County. Quittaub, in the southwestern part of 

Cooxissett, probably in Plymouth Plymouth County. 

oun y. . ^, , ^ , , Saltwater Pond, in Plymouth County. 
Cowsumpsit, m Rhode Island. 

Jones' River, in Kingston Township. Shawonet, near Somerset. 
Kitteaumut, near Monument Pond, Wauchimoqut, probably near See- 
Plymouth County. konk. 
Loquasquscit, near Pawtucket, R. I. Wawayontat, on Weweantitt River 
Mattakeset, near Duxbury. near Wareham. 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Martha's Vineyard: Nantucket — Continued 

Chaubaqueduck, on the main island Quays, a district and probably village, 

or on Chappaquiddick Island. Sasacacheh, a district and probably 

Gay Head, at Gay Head, village. 

Nashamoiess, in the southeastern Shaukimmo, a district and probably 

part of the island. village, south of Nantucket Harbor, 

Nashanekammuck, at Chilmark, Siasconsit, a district and probably 

Nunnepoag, location uncertain, village, including the site of the 

Ohkonkemme, near Tisbury, present Siasconset, 

Sanchecantacket, near Edgartown. Squam, a district and probably village. 

Seconchqut, location uncertain, r,^ „ . , , • 

T-T ^ , , Talhanio, location uncertain, 

Nantucket: 

Miacomit, location uncertain, Tetaukimmo, a district and probably 

Podpis, a district and probably village. 

village, Toikiming, location uncertain. 

History. — With many older writers on the Norse voyages to America, 
Mount Hope Bay, in the territory of the Wampanoag, was a favorite 
site for the supposed Icelandic colony (ca, 1000-1010), but the theory 
is now less popular. In 1602 Gosnold touched at Martha's Vineyard 
and was kindly treated by the natives. Soon after the Pilgrims had 
established themselves at Plymouth in 1620 they made a treaty of 
friendship with the Wampanoag head chief, Massasoit, who played 
a great part in the early history of the colony. He died in 1662 and 
was succeeded by two sons in succession, the second of whom, Meta- 
comet or Metacom, is the King Philip of history. Observing the 
steady influx of White colonists into Indian lands. King Phihp organ- 
ized a native confederacy against them and a bloody war followed 
(1675-76), in which King Phihp was killed and the power of the 
tribes of southern New England finally destroyed. The Wampanoag 
survivors settled with the Sakonnet, who had remained neutral, 
and formed towns with the Nauset in the western part of Barnstable 
County, In 1763 they suffered severely from an epidemic, but a 
number of bands have preserved their autonomy, in a much mixed 
condition, to the present day. The Indians of Martha's Vineyard 
and Nantucket, like the Sakonnet, had refused to join the confederacy 
and consequently maintained their numbers relatively intact for a 
longer period. They continued to dechne, however, and in 1764 two- 
thirds of the Nantucket Indians were destroyed by a fever. Two or 
three mixed-bloods were left in 1809, and in 1855 Abram Quary, the 
last of these, died. The Indians of Martha's Vineyard, on the other 
hand, received considerable accessions from the mainland and have 
maintained themselves down to our day though, like the mainland 
Indians, much mixed with other tribes and other races. 

Population. — Of Wampanoag proper Mooney (1928) estimated that 
there were 2,400 in 1600. They probably suffered severely in the 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 27 

epidemic of 1617, but in 1630 they are said to have had about 30 
villages. In 1700 the Sakonnet Indians, including most of the 
Wampanoag remnants, were estimated at 400. In 1861 a partial 
census gives 258, and we may suppose that the total was about 300. 
Martha's Vineyard: The estimates of the Indian population of 
Martha's Vinej'^ard vary greatly. Mooney (1928) estimated the 
number of Indians at 1,500 in 1600, perhaps taken from an estimate 
of 1642, which gives the same figure, while a later writer places their 
number as "not less than 3,000" (Hare, 1932, p. 44). An estimate 
made in 1698 gave 1,000. In 1764, 313 were returned; in 1807, 360, 
only about 40 of whom were full-bloods. In 1861, 393 were returned, 
but in 1910 only 147. Nantucket: Mooney estimates the Indian 
population of Nantucket to have been 1,500 in 1600 and Mayhew 
(Speck, 1928) gives the same number in 1642. Hare (1932, p. 44) 
also estimates the Indian population to have been 1,500. In 1763 
there were 358; in 1790, 20; in 1809, 2 or 3. An informant of Dr. 
Speck gives the total number of Indians in Barnstable, Plymouth, 
and Bristol Counties in 1928 as 450. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Wampanoag 
made their mark in history chiefly through the activities of their 
chiefs, Massasoit and King Philip, One of the two largest bodies of 
Indians in southern New England to maintain their identity down to 
the present day were the Wampanoag of Martha's Vineyard. 

RHODE ISLAND 

Narraganset. Their name means "people of the small point." 

Connections. — The Narraganset belonged to the Algonquian lin- 
guistic family and spoke an n- dialect like the neighboring Massa- 
chuset, Wampanoag, and probably the Niantic (East and West) 
and the Nauset. 

Location. — The Narraganset occupied the greater part of Rhode 
Island west of Narragansett Bay, between Providence and Pawcatuck 
Rivers. At one time they dominated the Coweset (see Nipmuc) 
north of them and the Eastern Niantic, and they drove the Wampa- 
noag from the island which gives its name to the State of Rhode Island 
and the Pequot from some territory they held in the west. (See also 
Massachusetts and Connecticut.) 

Suhdiviiions 

There are said to have been eight chiefs over as many territorial divisions, all 
under one head chief. 

Villages 

Chaubatick, probably within a few miles of Providence. 
Maushapogue, in Providence County. 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Mittaubscut, on Pawtuxet River, 7 or 8 miles above its mouth. 
Narraganset, above the site of Kingston. 
Pawchauquet, in western Rhode Island. 
Shawomet, near Warwick. 

History. — The Narraganset traced their origin to the Southwest. 
They escaped the great pestilence of 1617 and were in. fact increased 
in numbers by bands of refugees. In 1633 the Narraganset lost 700 
in a smallpox epidemic. In 1636 Roger Williams settled among them 
and through their favor was enabled to lay the foundations of the 
present State of Rhode Island. They remained on good terms with 
the Whites until King Philip's war (1675-76), into which they threw 
their whole strength. In the celebrated swamp fight at Kingston 
they lost nearly 1,000 killed and captured, and the remnants of the 
tribe were soon forced to abandon the country. Some probably 
joined the Mahican and Abnaki or even got as far as Canada and 
never returned to their own people, but others obtained permission to 
come back and were settled among the Eastern Niantic who had taken 
no part in the contest. From that time on the combined tribes were 
known as Narraganset. In 1788 many of these united with the 
Brotherton Indians in New York, and a few have gone to live with the 
Mohegan in Connecticut. The remainder are near Charlestown, 
R.I. 

Population. — The Narraganset are estimated by Mooney (1928) to 
have numbered 4,000 in 1600, including the Eastern Niantic, and were 
perhaps as numerous in 1675. Along with the Eastern Niantic, they 
had a total population of about 140 in 1812, and 80 in 1832, while the 
census of 1910 returned 16. The same year, however, 284 Indians 
all told were returned from Rhode Island, and in 1930, 130. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Narraganset were 
famed as the most powerful tribe of southern New England and became 
noted also on account of Roger Williams' dealings with them and his 
report regarding them. Narragansett Bay, the Town of Narragansett 
in Washington County, and Narragansett Pier, the well-known 
summer resort, were named after them. 

Niantic, Eastern. The word Niantic signifies, according to Trumbull 
(1818) "at a point of land on a (tidal) river or estuary." 
Connections. — The Eastern and the Western Niantic were parts of 

one original tribe split in two perhaps by the Pequot; the nearest 

relatives of both were probably tlie Narraganset. 

Location. — The western coast of Rhode Island and neighboring 

coast of Connecticut. 

Village 

Wekapaug, on the great pond near Charlestown. 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 29 

History. — As has just been stated, the Eastern Niantic were closely 
connected with the Narraganset, but they refused to join them in 
King Philip's war and at its close the remnants of the Narraganset 
were settled among them. Their subsequent history has been given 
under Narraganset. 

Population. — (See Narraganset.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Niantic, in the town of 
Westerly, Washington County, R. I., perpetuates the name. (See 
Niantic, Western, under Connecticut.) 

Nipmuc. The Coweset and some other bands of Nipmuc extended 
into the northwestern part of the State but most of these were 
under the domination of the Narraganset. (See Massachusetts.) 

Pequot. - The Pequot originally occupied some lands in the western 
part of Rhode Island of which the Narraganset dispossessed them. 
(See Connecticut.) 

Wampanoag. The Wampanoag occupied the mainland sections of 
Rhode Island east of Narragansett Bay and Providence River. 
At one period they also held the island which gives this State its 
name but they were driven from it by the Narraganset. (See 
Massachusetts.) 

CONNECTICUT 

Mahican. The northwestern corner of Litchfield County was occu- 
pied by the Wawyachtonoc, a tribe of the Mahican Confederacy of 
the upper Hudson, though their main seats were in Columbia and 
Dutchess Counties, N. Y. (See New York.) 

Mohegan. The name means "wolf." They are not to be confused 
with the Mahican. Also called: 

River Indians. 

Seaside People. 

Unkus [Uncas] Indians, from the name of their chief. 

Upland Indians. 

Connections. — The Mohegan belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock and spoke a y-dialect closely related to Pequot. 

Location. — The Mohegan originally occupied most of the upper val- 
ley of the Thames and its branches. Later they claimed authority 
over some of the Nipmuc and the Connecticut River tribes, and in the 
old Pequot territory. (See also New York.) 

Villages 

Ashowat, between Amston and Federal. 

Catantaquck, near the head of Pachaug River. 

Checapscaddock, southeast of the mouth of Shetucket River in the town of 

Preston. 
Kitemaug, on the west wide of Thames River between Uncasville and Massapeag. 
Mamaquaog, on Natchaug River northeast of Willimantic. 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Mashantackack, near Palmertown, town of Montville. 

Massapeag, at the place now so-called on the west side of Thames River. 

Mohegan, at the present town of Mohegan on the west side of Thames River. 

Moosup, at the present Moosup in the town of Plainfield. 

Nawhesetuck, on Fenton River north of Willimantic. 

Pachaug, at the present Pachaug in the town of Griswold. 

Paugwonk, near Gardiner Lake in the town of Salem. 

Pautexet, near the present Jewett City in the town of Griswold. 

Pigscomsuck, on the right bank of Quinebaug River near the present line between 

New London and Windham Counties. 
Poquechanneeg, near Lebanon. 
Poquetanock, near Trading Cove, town of Preston. 
Shantuck, on the west side of Thames River just north of Mohegan. 
Showtucket or Shetucket, near Lisbon in the fork of the Shetucket and Quinebaug 

Rivers. 
Wauregan, on the east side of Quinebaug River in the town of Plainfield. 
Willimantic, on the site of the present city of Willimantic. 
Yantic, at the present Yantic on Yantic River. 

History. — The Mohegan were probably a branch of the Mahican. 
Originally under Sassacus, chief of the Pequot, they afterward became 
independent and upon the destruction of the Pequot in 1637, Uncas, 
the Mohegan chief, became ruler also of the remaining Pequot and 
set up pretensions to territory north and west beyond his original 
borders. At the end of King Philip's War, the Mohegan were the 
only important tribe remaining in southern New England, but as 
the White settlements advanced they were reduced progressively both 
in territory and in numbers. Many joined the Scaticook, and in 1788 
a still larger body united with the Brotherton in New York, where they 
formed the largest single element in the new settlement. The rest 
continued in their old town at Mohegan, where a remnant of mixed- 
bloods still survives. 

Population. — The number of Mohegan were estimated by Mooney 
(1928) at 2,200 in 1600; in 1643, including the remnant of the Pequot 
and perhaps other tribes, at between 2,000 and 2,500. In 1705 
they numbered 750; in 1774, 206 were reported; in 1804, 84; in 1809, 
69; in 1825, 300; in 1832, about 350; in 1910, 22. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Mohegan became 
celebrated on account of the services rendered the Whites by Uncas. 
Today their name is perpetuated in Mohegan, on Thames River, and 
the name of their chief in Uncasville on the same stream. There is 
a post village of this name in McDowell County, W. Va., and a 
Mohegan Lake in Westchester County, N. Y., but this is named 
after the Mahican. 

Niantic, Western. Regarding the name, see Niantic, Eastern, under 
Rhode Island. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 31 

Connections. — These were the same as for the Eastern Niantic. 
(See Rhode Island.) 
Location. — On the seacoast from Niantic Bay to Connecticut River. 

Villages 

Niantic or Nehantucket, near the present town of Niantic. There was another 
near Old Lyme. 

History. — Originally the Western Niantic are thought to have con- 
stituted one tribe with the Eastern Niantic and to have been cut apart 
from them by the Pequot. They were nearly destroyed in the 
Pequot war and at its close (1637) were placed under the control of 
the Mohegan. About 1788 many joined the Brotherton Indians. 
A small village of Niantic was reported as existing near Danbury in 
1809, but this perhaps contained remnants of the tribes of western 
Connecticut, although Speck (1928) found several Indians of mixed 
Niantic-Mohegan descent living with the Mohegan remnant, de- 
scendants of a pure-blood Niantic woman from the mouth of Niantic 
River. 

Population. The Western Niantic population was estimated by 
Mooney (1928) at 600 in 1600; there were about 100 in 1638; 85 in 
1761. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name of the West- 
ern Niantic is perpetuated in Niantic village, Niantic River, and 
Niantic Bay, in New London County. Post villages in Macon 
County, 111., and Montgomery County, Pa., bear the name Niantic. 

Nipmuc. Some bands of this tribe extended into the northeastern 
part of the State. (See Massachusetts.) 

Pequot. The name means, according to Trumbull (1818), "de- 
stroyers." Also called: 

Sickenames, in a Dutch deed quoted by Ruttenber (1872). 

Connections. — The Pequot belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock, and spoke a ^/-dialect closely related to Mohegan. 

Location. — The Pequot occupied the coast of New London County 
from Niantic River nearly to the Rhode Island State line. Until 
driven out by the Narraganset, they extended into Rhode Island 
as far as Wecapaug River. (See also Rhode Island.) 

Villages 

Asupsuck, in the interior of the town of Stonington. 

Aukumbumsk or Awcumbuck, in the center of the Pequot country near Gales 

Ferry. 
Aushpook, at Stonington. 
Cosattuck, probably near Stonington. 
Cuppanaugunnit, probably in New London County. 
Mangunckakuck, probably on Thames River below Mohegan. 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

Maushantuxet, at Ledyard. 

Mystic, near West Mystic on the west side of Mystic River. 

Monhunganuck, near Beach Pond in the town of Voluntown. 

Nameaug, near New London. 

Noank, at the present place of that name. 

Oneco, at the place of that name in the town of SterUng. 

Paupattokshick, on the lower course of Thames River. 

Pawcatuck, probably on the river of the same name, Washington County, R. I. 

Pequotauk, near New London. 

Poquonock, inland from Poquonock Bridge.' 

Sauquonckackock, on the west side of Thames River below Mohegan. 

Shenecosset, near Midway in the town of Groton. 

Tatuppequauog, on the Thames River below Mohegan. 

Weinshauks, near Groton. 

Wequetequock, on the east side of the river of the same name. 

History. — The Pequot and the Mohegan are supposed to have 
been invaders from the direction of Hudson River. At the period 
of first White contact, the Pequot were warlike and greatly dreaded 
by their neighbors. They and the Mohegan were jointly ruled by 
Sassacus until the revolt of Uncas, the Mohegan chief. (See 
Mohegan.) About 1635 the Narraganset drove them from a corner 
of the present Rhode Island which they had previously held, and 
2 years later the murder of a trader who had treated some Indians 
harshly involved the Pequot in war with the Whites. At that time 
their chief controlled 26 subordinate chiefs, claimed authority over 
aU Connecticut east of Connecticut River, and on the coast as far 
west as New Haven or Guilford, as well as all of Long Island except 
the extreme western end. Through the influence of Roger Williams, 
the English secured the assistance or neutrality of the surrounding 
tribes. Next they surprised and destroyed the principal Pequot 
fort near Mystic River along with 600 Indians of all ages 
and both sexes, and this disaster crippled the tribe so much that, 
after a few desperate attempts at further resistance, they determined 
to separate into small parties and abandon the country (1637). 
Sassacus and a considerable body of followers were intercepted near 
Fairfield while trying to escape to the Mohawk and almost all were 
killed or captured. Those who surrendered were divided among 
the Mohegan, Narraganset, and Niantic, and their territory passed 
under the authority of Uncas. Their Indian overlords treated them 
so harshly, however, that they were taken out of their hands by 
the colonists in 1655 and settled in two villages near Mystic River, 
where some of their descendants still live. Numbers removed to 
other places — Long Island, New Haven, the Nipmuc country, and 
elsewhere — while many were kept as slaves among the English in 
New England or sent to the West Indies. 



SwA.NTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 33 

Population. — The Pequot population was estimated by Mooney 
C1928) at 2,200 in 1600; in 1637, immediately after the Pequot war, 
there were said to be 1,950, but the figure is probably too high. 
In 1674 the Pequot in their old territory numbered about 1,500; in 
1762, 140. In 1832 there were said to be about 40 mixed-bloods, 
but the census of 1910 gave 66, of whom 49 were in Connecticut and 
17 in Massachusetts. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Pequot are 
remembered principally on account of the bitter and, to them, 
disastrous war related above. The name is borne by a post village 
in Crow Wing County, Minn. 

Wappinger. The valley of Connecticut River was the home of a 
number of bands which might be called Mattabesec after the name 
of the most important of them, and this in turn was a part of the 
Wappinger. (See New York.) 

NEW YORK 

Delaware. Bands of two of the main divisions of the Delaware 
Indians, the Munsee and Unami, extended into parts of New 
York State, including the island of Manhattan. (See New Jersey.) 

Erie. The Erie occupied parts of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus 
Counties. (See Ohio.) 

Iroquois. From Algonkin Iri°akhoiw, "real adders," with the French 
suffix -ois. Also called: 

Ongwano°sionni', their own name, meaning "We are of the extended 
lodge," whence comes the popular designation, "People of the long- 
house." 

Canton Indians. 

Confederate Indians. 

Five Nations, from the five constituent tribes. 

Mat-che-naw-to-waig, Ottawa name, meaning "bad snakes." 

Mingwe, Delaware name. 

Nadowa, name given by the northwestern Algonquians and meaning 
"adders." 

Six Nations, name given after the Tuscarora had joined them. 

Connections. — The Iroquois belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic 
stock, their nearest relations being the Tuscarora, Neutral Nation, 
Huron, Erie, and Susquehanna. 

Location. — In the upper and central part of the Mohawk Valley 
and the lake region of central New York. After obtaining guns from 
the Dutch, the Iroquois acquired a dominating influence among the 
Indians from Maine to the Mississippi and between the Ottawa and 
Cumberland Rivers. (See also Indiana, Kansas, Ohio, Oklahoma, 
Pennsjdvania, Wisconsin, and Canada.) 



34 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Subdivisions 

There were five tribes, as follows: Cayuga, about Cayuga Lake; Mohawk, in 
the upper valley of Mohawk River; Oneida, about Oneida Lake; Onondaga, in 
Onondaga County and the neighboring section; Seneca, between Lake Seneca 
and Genesee River. Later there were added to these, for the most part not on 
terms of perfect equality, the Tuscarora from North Carolina, some Delaware, 
Tutelo, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy, New England Indians, and other fragments 
of tribes, besides entire towns from the Huron, Erie, Andaste, and other conquered 
peoples. 

Villages 
Cayuga: 

Chondote, on the east side of Cayuga Lake a few miles south of Cayuga. 

Gandasetaigon, near Port Hope, Ont. 

Ganogeh, at Canoga. 

Gayagaanhe, near the east shore of Cayuga Lake 3}^ miles south of Union 

Springs. 
Gewauga, at Union Springs, town of Springport. 

Goiogouen, on the east side of Cayuga Lake on Great Gully Brook, about 4 
miles south of the present Union Springs, and 4 leagues from the town of 
Tiohero. 
Kawauka, (?), Kente, on Quinte Bay, Lake Ontario, Ont. 
Neodakheat, at Ithaca. 
Oneniote, at Oneida on Cayuga Lake. 
Onnontare, probably east of Seneca River and at Bluff Point, near Fox Ridge, 

Cayuga County. 
Owego, on the right bank of Owego Creek, about 2 miles from the Susquehanna 

River, in Tioga County. 
Skannayutenate, on the west side of Cayuga Lake, northeast of Canoga, 

Seneca County. 
Tiohero, 4 leagues from Goiogouen. 

Mohawk : 

Canajoharie, on the east bank of Otsquago Creek nearly opposite Fort Plain. 
Canastigaone, on the north side of Mohawk River just above Cohoes Falls. 
Canienga, near the bank of Mohawk River. 
Caughnawaga, on Mohawk River near the site of Auriesville. 
Chuchtononeda, on the south side of Mohawk River — named from a band. 
Kanagaro, on the north side of Mohawk River in Montgomery County or 

Herkimer County. 
Kowogoconnughariegugharie, (?) . 
Nowadaga, at Danube, Herkimer County. 
Onoalagona, at Schenectady. 

Osquake, at Fort Plain and on Osquake Creek, Montgomery County. 
Saratoga, about Saratoga and Stillwater. 
Schaunactada, at and south of Albany. 
Schoharie, near Schoharie. 
Teatontaloga, on the north side of Mohawk River and probably near the mouth 

of Schoharie Creek in Montgomery County. 
Tewanondadon, in the peninsula formed by the outlet of Otsego Lake and 

Shenivas Creek. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 35 

Oneida: 
Awegen. 

Cahunghage, on the south side of Oneida Lake. 

Canowdowsa, near junction of Lackawanna and Susquehanna Rivers. 
Chittenango, on Chittenango Creek, Madison County. 
Cowassalon, on creek of same name in Madison County. 
Ganadoga, near Oneida Castle, Oneida County. 
Hostayuntwa, at Camden. 
Oneida, name of several of the main towns of the tribe, in the valleys of Oneida 

Creek and Upper Oriskany Creek. 
Opolopong, on the east branch of Susquehanna, about 30 miles above Shamokin 

and 10 miles below Wyoming, Pa. 
Oriska, near Oriskany in Oneida County. 
Ossewingo, a few miles above Chenango, Broome County. 
Ostogeron, probably above Toskokogie on the Chenango River. 
Schoherage, probably on the west branch of Chenango River (?) below Tuskokogie. 
Sevege, a short distance above Owego on the west side of the east branch of 

the Susquehanna River. 
Solocka, about 60 miles above Shamokin, on a creek issuing from the Great 

Swamp north of the Cashuetunk Mountains, Pa. 
Tegasoke, on Fish Creek in Oneida County. 
Teseroken, (?). 
Teiosweken, (?). 
Tkanetota, (?). 
Onondaga: 
Ahaouet, (?). 
Deseroken, traditional. 

Gadoquat, at Brewerton, Onondaga County. 

Gannentaha, a mission on Onondaga Lake about 5 leagues from Onondaga. 
Gistwiahna, at Onondaga Valley. 
Onondaga, the principal town of the tribe, which occupied several distinct sites, 

the earliest known probably 2 miles west of Cazenovia and east of West 

Limestone Creek, Madison County. 
Onondaghara, on Onondaga River 3 miles east of Onondaga Hollow. 
Onondahgegahgeh, west of Lower Ebenezer, Erie County. 
Onontatacet, on Seneca River. 

Otiahanague, at the mouth of Salmon River, Oswego County. 
Teionontatases, (?). 
Tgasunto, (?). 

Touenho, south of Brewerton, at the west end of Lake Oneida. 
Tueadasso, near Jamesville. 
Seneca: 

Buckaloon, on the north side of Allegheny River near the present Irvine, 

Warren County, Pa. 
Canadasaga, near Geneva. 
Canandaigua, near Canandaigua. 
Caneadea, at Caneadea. 
Catherine's Town, near Catherine. 
Cattaraugus, on a branch of Cattaraugus Creek. 
Chemung, probably near Chemung. 
Cheronderoga, (?). 



36 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Chinklacamoose, probably mainly Delaware but frequented by Seneca, on the 
site of Clearfield, Pa. 

Chinoshahgeh, near Victor. 

Condawhaw, at North Hector. 

Connewango, 2 villages, one at Warren, Pa., and one on the left bank of Alle- 
gheny River above the site of Tionesta, Pa. 

Dayoitgao, on Genesee River near Fort Morris. 

Deonundagae, on Livingston River west of Genesee River. 

Deyodeshot, about 2 miles southeast of East Avon, on the site of Keinthe. 

Deyohnegano, 2 villages: one near Caledonia; one on Allegheny Reservation, 
Cattaraugus County. 

Deyonongdadagana, on the west bank of Genesee River near Cuylerville. 

Dyosyowan, on Buffalo Creek, Erie County, Pa. 

Gaandowanang, on Genesee River near Cuylerville. 

Gadaho, at Castle. 

Gahato, probably Seneca, in Chemung County. 

Gahayanduk, location unknown. 

Ganagweh, near Palmyra. 

Ganawagus, on Genesee River near Avon. 

Ganeasos, (?). 

Ganedontwan, at Moscow. 

Ganos, at Cuba, Allegany County. 

Ganosgagong, at Dansville. 

Gaonsagaon, (?). 

Gaousge, probably Seneca, on Niagara River. 

Gaskosada, on Cayuga Creek w^est of Lancaster. 

Gathtsegwarohare, (?). 

Geneseo, near Geneseo. 

Gistaquat, (?). 

Goshgoshunk, mainly Munsee and Unami, 3 villages on Allegheny River in the 
upper part of Venango County, Pa. 

Hickorytown, mainly Munsee and Unami, probably about East Hickory or 
West Hickory, Forest County, Pa. 

Honeoye, on Honeoye Creek, near Honeoye Lake. 

Joneadih, on Allegheny River nearly opposite Salamanca. 

Kanagaro, 2 villages, one on Boughton Hill, directly south of Victor, N. Y.; 
one with several different locations from 1}^ to 4 miles south from the first, 
and southeast from Victor, on the east side of Mud Creek. 

Kanaghsaws, about 1 mile northeast of Conesus Center. 

Kannassarago, between Oneida and Onondaga. 

Kashong, on Kashong Creek at its entrance into Lake Seneca. 

Kaskonchiagon, (?). 

Kaygen, on the south bank of Chemung River below Kanestio River. 

Keinthe, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, later transferred to Bay of Quinte. 

Lawunkhannek, mainly Delaware, on Allegheny River above Franklin, Venango 
County, Pa. 

Mahusquechikoken, with Munsee and other tribes, on Allegheny River about 
20 miles above Venango, Pa. 

Middle Town, 3 miles above the site of Chemung. 

New Chemung, at or near the site of Chemung. 

Newtown, on Chemung River near Elmira. 

Oatka, at Scottsville, on the west bank of Genesee River. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 37 

Old Chemung, about 3 miles below New Chemung. 

Onnahee, on the east side of Fall Brook, in the western part of lot 20, town of 

Hopewell, Ontario County. 
Onoghsadago, near Conewango (?). 

Onondarka, north of Karaghyadirha on Guy Johnson's map of 1771. 
Owaiski, near Wiscoy on the west bank of Genesee River, Allegheny County. 
Sheshequin, about 6 miles below Tioga Point, Bradford County, Pa. 
Skahasegao, at Lima, Livingston County. 
Skoiyase, at Waterloo. 

Sonojowauga, at Mount Morris, Livingston County. 
Tekisedaneyout, in Erie County. 
Tioniongarunte, (?). 

Tonawanda, on Tonawanda Creek, Niagara County. 

Totiakton, on Honeoye outlet not far from Honeoye Fails in Monroe County. 
Venango, at Franklin, at the mouth of French Creek, Venango County, Pa. 
Yorkjough, about 12 miles from Honeoye and 6 from New Genesee, probably 

in Livingston County. 
Yoroonwago, on upper Allegheny River near the present Cory don, Warren 

County, Pa. 

Iroquoian villages of unspecified tribe 

Adjouquay, (?). 

Anpuaqun, (?). 

Aratumquat, (?). 

Cahunghage, on the south side of Oneida Lake. 

Caughnawaga, on Sault St. Louis, Quebec Province, Canada. 

Chemegaide, (?). 

Churamuk, on the east side of Susquehanna River, 18 miles above Owego. 

Codocararen, (?). 

Cokanuk, (?). 

Conaquanosshan, (?), 

Conihunta, 14 miles below Unadilla. 

Connosomothdian, (?). 

Conoytown, of mixed Conoy and Iroquois, on Susquehanna River between Bain- 
bridge and Sunbury, Pa. 

Coreorgonel, of mixed Tutelo and Iroquois, on the west side of Cayuga Lake inlet 
and on the border of the Great Swamp 3 miles from the south end of Cayuga 
Lake. 

Cowawago, (?). 

Cussewago, principally Seneca, on the site of the present Waterford, Erie County, 
Pa. 

Ganadoga, near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

Ganagarahhare, at Venango, Crawford County, Pa. 

Ganeraske, at the mouth of Trent River, Ontario, Canada. 

Ganneious, at the site of Napanee, Ontario, Canada. 

Glasswanoge, (?). 

Indian Point, at Lisbon, N. Y. 

Janundat, on Sandusky Bay, Erie County, Ohio. 

Jedakne, Iroquois or Delaware, on the west branch of Susquehanna River, prob- 
ably at Dewart, Northumberland County, Pa. 

Johnstown, location not given. 



38 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

Jonondes, location unknown. 

Juaniata, on Duncan Island in Susquehanna River, near the mouth of the Juniata. 

Juraken, 2 villages, one on the right bank of the Susquehanna at Sunbury, Pa., 

the other on the left bank of the east branch of the Susquehanna. 
Kahendohon, location unknown. 

Kanaghsaws, about 1 mile northwest of Conesus Center, N. Y. 
Kannawalohalla, at Elmira, N. Y. 

Kanesadageh, a town of the Turtle Clan mentioned in the Iroquois Book of Rites. 
Karaken, location unknown. 
Karhationni, location unknown. 
Karhawenradonh, location unknown. 
Kayehkwarageh, location unknown. 
Kickenapawling, mixed Delaware (?) and Iroquois, 5 miles north of the present 

Stoyestown, Pa., at the fork of Quemahoning and Stony Creeks. 
Kittanning, mixed Iroquois, Delaware, and Caughnawaga, about the present 

Kittanning, Armstrong County, Pa. 
Kuskuski, mixed Delaware and Iroquois, on Beaver Creek, near Newcastle, Pa. 
La Montague, on a hill on Montreal Island, Quebec Province, Canada. 
La Prairie, at La Prairie, Quebec, Canada. 
Logstown, Shawnee, Delaware, and Iroquois, on the right bank of the Ohio River, 

14 miles below Pittsburgh. 
Loyalhannon, on Loyalhanna Creek, Pa. 
Manckatawangum, near Barton, Bradford Count}', Pa. 
Matchasaung, on the left bank of the east branch of the Susquehanna River, about 

13 miles above Wyoming, Pa. 
Mingo Town, near Steubenville, Ohio. 

Mohanet, probably Iroquois, on the east branch of the Susquehanna River, Pa. 
Nescopeck, mixed Iroquois, Shawnee, and Delaware, formerly at the mouth of 

Nescopeck River, Luzerne County, Pa. 
Newtown, 4 towns: one, probably of the Seneca, on Chemung River near Elmira, 

N. Y. ; one, probably of Iroquois and Delaware, on the north bank of Licking 

River, near Zanesville, Ohio; one, probably of Iroquois and Delaware, on 

Muskingum River near Newtown, Ohio; and one, probably of Iroquois and 

Delaware, on the west side of Wills Creek, near Cambridge, Ohio. 
Newtychanning, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River and the north side 

of Sugar Creek, near North Towanda, Pa. 
Ohrekionni, (?). 
Oka, mixed Iroquois, Nipissing and Algonkin, on Lake of the Two Mountains, 

near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 
Onaweron, location unknown. 
Onkwe lyede, location unknown. 
Opolopong, on the east branch of the Susquehanna River about 30 miles above 

Shamokin and 10 miles below Wyoming, Pa. 
Oskawaserenhon, location unknown. 
Ostonwackin, Delaware and Iroquois, at the mouth of Loyalstock Creek on the 

west branch of the Susquehanna River, at Montoursville, Pa. 
Oswegatchie, at Ogdensburg, N. Y. 
Otsiningo, on Chenango River, Broome County, N. Y. 
Otskwirakeron, location unknown. 
Ousagwentera, "beyond Fort Frontenac." 

Pluggy's Town, a band of marauding Indians, chiefly Mingo, at Delaware, Ohio, 
Runonvea, near Big Flats, Chemung County, N. Y. 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OP NORTH AMERICA 39 

Saint Regis, on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River at the international 

boundary and on both sides. 
Sault au Recollet, near the mouth of the Ottawa River, Two Mountains County, 

Quebec, Canada. 
Sawcunk, mixed Delaware, Shawnee, and Mingo, on the north bank of the Ohio 

River near the mouth of Beaver Creek and the present town of Beaver, Pa. 
Schohorage, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River, a short distance above 

the Indian town of Oquaga, Pa. 
Sconassi, on the west side of the Susquehanna River below the west branch, 

probably in Union County, Pa. 
Scoutash's Town, Mingo or Shawnee, near Lewistown, Logan County, Ohio. 
Seneca Town, Mingo, on the east side of Sandusky River in Seneca County, Ohio. 
Sevege, a short distance above Owego on the west side of the east branch of 

Susquehanna River, N. Y. 
Sewickley, a Shawnee town occupied in later years by a few Mingo and Delaware, 

on the north side of Allegheny River about 12 miles above Pittsburgh, near 

Springdale, Pa. 
Shamokin, Delaware, Shawnee, and Iroquois, a short distance from the forks of 

the Susquehanna and on the northeast branch. 
Shenango, 3 towns: one, on the north bank of the Ohio River a short distance 

below the present Economy, Pa.; one, at the junction of the Conewango 

and Allegheny Rivers; and one, some distance up the Big Beaver near Kuskuski 

(see above). 
Sheshequin, Iroquois and Delaware, about 8 miles below Tioga Point, Pa. 
Sittawingo, in Armstrong County,* Pa. 
Skenandowa, at Vernon Center, Oneida County, Pa. 
Solocka, about 60 miles above Shamokin on a creek issuing from the Great Swamp 

north of the Cashuetunk Mountains, Pa. 
Swahadowri, (?). 

Taiaiagon, near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 
Tioga, at Athens, Pa. 

Tohoguses Town, at junction of Plum and Crooked Creeks, Armstrong County, Pa. 
Tonihata, on an island in the St. Lawrence River supposed to be Grenadier Island, 

Leeds County, Ontario, Canada. 
TuUihas, mixed Delaware, Mahican, and Caughnawaga, on the west branch of 

the Muskingum River, Ohio, above the forks. 
Tuskokogie, just above Schoherage (q. v.) on Chenango River (?). 
Unadilla, near Unadilla, Otsego County. 
Wakerhon, (?). 

Wauteghe, on upper Susquehanna River between Teatontaloga and Oquaga. 
Youcham, (?). 

History. — In Cartier's time the five Iroquois tribes seem to have 
been independent and in a state of constant mutual warfare. At a 
later period, not before 1570 according to Hewitt (1907), they were 
induced by two remarkable men, Dekanawida and Hiawatha, to form 
a federal union. While the immediate object of the league was to 
bring about peace between these and other neighboring tribes, the 
strength which the federal body acquired and the fact that they were 
soon equipped with guns by the Dutch at Albany incited them to 
undertake extensive wars and to build up a rude sort of empire. 



40 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

The related Tuscarora of North Carolina joined them in successive 
migrations, the greater part between 1712 and 1722, and the remainder 
in 1802. In the French-English wars they took the part of the English 
and were a very considerable factor in their final victory. Later all 
but the Oneida and part of the Tuscarora sided against the American 
colonists and as a result their principal towns were laid waste by 
Sullivan in 1779. The Mohawk and Cayuga, with other Iroquoian 
tribes in the British interest, were given a reservation on Grand River, 
Ontario. The remainder received reservations in New York except 
the Oneida, who were settled near Green Bay, Wis. The so-called 
Seneca of Oklahoma consist of remnants from all of the Iroquois 
tribes, the Conestoga, Hurons, and perhaps others, which Hewitt 
{in Hodge, 1910) thinks were gathered around the Erie and perhaps 
the Conestoga as a nucleus. 

Population. — In 1600 the Iroquois are estimated by Mooney (1928) 
to have numbered 5,500; in 1677 and 1685 their numbers were placed 
at about 16,000; in 1689 they were estimated at about 12,850; in 
1774, 10,000 to 12,500; in 1904 they numbered about 16,100, of whom 
10,418 were in Canada; in 1923 there were 8,696 in the United States 
and 11,355 in Canada; total, 20,051. By the census of 1910 there 
were reported in the United States 2,907 Seneca, 2,436 Oneida, 365 
Onondaga, 368 Mohawk, 81 Cayuga, 1,219 St. Regis, and 61 unspeci- 
fied, a total of 7,437, besides 400 Tuscarora. In 1930 the figure, 
including Tuscarora, was 6,866. In 1937, 3,241 Oneida were hving 
in Wisconsin and 732 "Seneca" in Oldahoma. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The group of tribes 
known as the Iroquois is famous from the fact that it had attained the 
highest form of governmental organization reached by any people north 
of the valley of Mexico. It is also noted, largely in consequence of the 
above fact, for the dominating position to which it attained among the 
Indian tribes of northeastern North America, and for its long contin- 
ued alliance with the English in their wars with the French. Hia- 
watha, the name of one of the founders of the confederation, was 
adopted by Longfellow as that of his hero in the poem of the name, 
though the story centers about another people, the Chippewa. Lewis 
H. Morgan (1851) based his theories regarding the rfature of primitive 
society, which have played a very important part in ethnology and 
sociology, on studies of Iroquois organization. The name Iroquois 
has been given to a branch of the Kankakee River, 111., to an Illinois 
County and a village in the same, and to villages in South Dakota 
and Ontario. The names of each of the five constituent tribes have 
also been widely used. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 41 

Mahican. The name means "wolf." This tribe is not to be con- 
fused with the Mohegan of Connecticut (q. v.), though the names 
are mere varieties of the same word. Also called: 

Akochakanefi, meaning "Those who speak a strange tongue." (Iroquois 

name.) 
Canoe Indians, so called by Whites. 
Hikanagi or Nhfkana, Shawnee name. 
Loups, so called by the French. 
Orunges, given by Chauvignerie (1736), in Schoolcraft (1851-57, vol. 3, 

p. 554). 
River Indians, Dutch name. 
Uragees, given by Golden, 1747. 

Connections. — The Mahican belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
family, and spoke an r-dialect, their closest connections being with 
the southern New England Indians to the east. 

Location. — On both banks of the upper Hudson from Catskill Creek 
to Lake Champlain and eastward to include the valley of the 
Housatonic. (See also Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, and 
Wisconsin.) 

Subdivisions 

Mahican proper, in the northern part of the territory. 

Mechkentowoon, on the west bank of Hudson River above Catskill Creek. 

Wawyachtonoc, in Dutchess and Columbia Counties and eastward to the 

Housatonic River in Connecticut. 
Westenhuck (or Housatonic?), near Great Barrington, Mass. 
Wiekagjoc, on the eastern bank of the Hudson River near Hudson. 

Villages 

Aepjin, at or near Schodac. 

Kaunaumeek, in New York about halfway between Albany and Stockbridge, 

Mass. 
Kenunckpacook, on the east side of Housatonic River a little above Scaticook. 
Maringoman's Castle, on Murderer's Creek, at Bloominggrove, Ulster County. 
Monemius, on Haver Island, in Hudson River near Cohoes Falls, Albany County, 
Nepaug, on Nepaug River, town of New Hartford, Litchfield County, Conn. 
Peantani, at Bantam Lake, Litchfield County, Conn. 
Potic, west of Athens, Greene County. 
Scaticook, 3 villages in Dutchess and Rensselaer Counties, and in Litchfield 

County, Conn., the last on Housatonic River near the junction with Ten Mile 

River. 
Wequadnack, near Sharon, Litchfield County, Conn. 
Wiatiac, near Salisbury, Litchfield County, Conn. 
Wiltmeet, on Esopus Creek, probably near Kingston, 

Winooskeek, on Lake Champlain, probably at the mouth of Winooski River, Vt. 
Wyantenuc, in Litchfield County. Conn. 

History. — The traditional point of origin of the Mahican was in 
the West. They were found in occupancy of the territory outlined 
above by the Dutch, and were then at war with the Mohawk who, in 



42 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

1664, compelled them to move their capital from Schodac near Albany 
to the present Stockbridge. They gradually sold their territory and 
in 1721 a band was on Kankakee River, Ind., while in 1730, a 
large body settled close to the Delaware and Munsee near Wyoming, 
Pa., afterward becoming merged with those tribes. In 1736 those in 
the Housatonic Valley were gathered into a mission at Stockbridge 
and were ever afterward known as Stockbridge Indians. In 1756 a 
large body of Mahican and Wappinger, along with Nanticoke and 
other people, settled in Broome and Tioga Counties under Iroquois 
protection. In 1788 another body of Indians drawn from New York, 
Connecticut, and Rhode Island, including Mahican, settled near the 
Stockbridges at Marshall, N. Y. The Stockbridge and Brotherton 
Indians later removed to Wisconsin, where they were probably joined 
by part at least of the band last mentioned. A few Mahican re- 
mained about their old home on Hudson River for some years after 
the Revolution but disappeared unnoticed. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were about 3,000 
Mahican in 1600; the Stockbridges among the Iroquois numbered 
300 in 1796, and 606 in 1923, including some Munsee. The census of 
1910 gave 533 Stockbridges and 172 Brotherton. The census of 1930 
indicated about 813. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Mahican tribe 
has probably attained more fame from its appearance in the title of 
Cooper's novel. "The Last of the Mohegans," than from any cir- 
cumstance directly connected with its history. There is a village 
called Mohegan in the northern part of Westchester County, N. Y., 
and another, known as Mohican in Ashland County, Ohio, while 
an affluent of the Muskingum also bears the same name. 

Mohegan. (See Connecticut.) 
Montauk. Meaning "uncertain." 

Connections. — The Montauk belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
family and spoke an r-dialect like that of the Wappinger. 

Location. — In the eastern and central parts of Long Island. 

Subdivisions 
Corchaug, in Riverhead and Southold Townships. 
Manhasset, on Shelter Island. 

Massapequa, in the southern part of Oyster Bay and Huntington Townships. 
Matinecock, in the townships of Flushing, North Hempstead, the northern part 

of Oyster Bay and Huntington, and the western part of Smithtown. 
Merric, in the eastern part of Hempstead Township. 
Montauk proper, in Southampton Township. 

Nesaquake, in the eastern part of Smithtown and the territory east of it. 
Patchogue, on the southern coast from Patchogue to Westhampton. 
Rockaway, in Newtown, Jamaica, and Hempstead Townships. 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 43 

Secatogue, in Islip Township. 

Setauket, on the north shore from Stony Brook to Wading River. 

Shinnecock, on the coast from Shinnecock Bay to Montauk Point. 

Villages 

Aquebogue, on a creek entering the north side of Great Peconic Bay. 

Ashamomuck, on the site of a White town of the same name in SufiFolk County. 

Cutchogue, at Cutchogue in Suffolk County. 

Massapequa, probably at Fort Neck. 

Mattituck, on the site of the present Mattituck, Suffolk County. 

Merric, on the site of Merricks, Queens County. 

Montauk, above Fort Pond, Suffolk County. 

Nesaquake, at the present Nissequague, about Smithtown, Suffolk County. 

Patchogue, near the present Patchogue, Suffolk County. 

Rechquaakie, near the present Rockaway. 

There were also villages at Flushing, Glen Cove, Cold Spring, Huntington, 
Cow Harbor, Fireplace, Mastic, Moriches, Westhampton, and on Hog Island in 
Rockaway Bay. 

History. — The Montauk were in some sense made tributary to the 
Pequot, until the latter were destroyed, when they were subjected 
to a series of attacks by the Narraganset and took refuge, about 1759, 
with the Whites at Easthampton. They had, meanwhile, lost the 
greater part of their numbers by pestUence and, about 1788, most 
of those that were left went to live with the Brotherton Indians in 
New York. A very few remained on the island, whose mixed-blood 
descendants are still officially recognized as a tribe by the State of 
New York, principally under the name Shinnecock. 

Population. — Including Canarsee, the Montauk are estimated by 
Mooney (1928) at 6,000 in 1600. In 1658-59 an estimate gives about 
500; in 1788, 162 were enumerated; in 1829, 30 were left on Long 
Island; in 1910, 167 "Shinnecock," 29 "Montauk," and 1 "Possepa- 
tuck." In 1923, 250 were returned, including 30 Montauk, 200 
Shinnecock, and 20 Poospatock (Patchoag). 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name of the 
Montauk is perpetuated in that of the easternmost point of land on 
Long Island, a post village in the same county, and one in Dent 
County, Mo. They were among those tribes most active in the 
manufacture of siwan or wampum. 

Neutrals. So called by the French because they remained neutral 
during the later wars between the Iroquois and Huron. Also called: 

Hatiwa°ta-runh, by Tuscarora, meaning "Their speech is awry"; in 
form it is close to the names applied by the other Iroquois tribes and 
more often quoted as Attiwandaronk. 

Connections. — The Neutrals belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic 
stock; their position within this is uncertain. 



44 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Location. — In the southern part of the province of Ontario, the 
westernmost part of New York, in northeastern Ohio, and in south- 
eastern Michigan. (See also Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Canada.) 

Subdivisions 

It seems impossible to separate these from the names of the villages, except 
perhaps in the cases of the Aondironon (in Ontario bordering Huron territory), 
and the Ongniaahra (see below). 

Villages 

There were 28, but only the names of the following have been preserved: 
Kandoucho, in Ontario near the Huron country, i. e., in the northern part of 

Neutral territory. 
Khioetoa, apparently a short distance east of Sandwich, Ontario. 
Ongniaahra, probably on the site of Youngstown, N.Y. 
Ounontisaston, not far from Niagara River. 
Teotongniaton, in Ontario. 

History. — Shortly after the destruction of the Huron, the Neutrals 
became involved in hostilities with the Iroquois and were themselves 
destroyed in 1650-51, most of them evidently being incorporated 
with their conquerors, though an independent body is mentioned as 
wintering near Detroit in 1653. 

Population. — The Neutrals were estimated by Mooney (1928) to 
number 10,000 in 1600; in 1653 the independent remnant included 
800. They were probably incorporated finally with the Iroquois 
and Wyandot. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The chief claim of the 
Neutrals to permanent fame is the fact that the name of one of their 
subdivisions, the Ongniaahra, became fixed, in the form Niagara, to 
the world-famous cataract between New York and Ontario. 

Saponi. Some years after leaving Fort Christanna, Va., the Saponi 
settled among the Iroquois and were formally adopted by the Cay- 
uga tribe in 1753. (See Virginia.) 

Tuscarora. After their defeat in the Tuscarora War, 1712-13, bands 
of this tribe began moving north and in course of time the majority 
settled in New York so that the Iroquois came to be known after- 
wards as the "Six Nations" instead of the "Five Nations." (See 
North Carolina.) 

Tutelo. The Tutelo accompanied the Saponi from Virginia and 
were adopted by the Cayuga at the same time. (See Virginia.) 

Wappinger. From the same root as Abnaki and Wampanoag, and 
meaning "Easterners" 
Connections. — The Wappinger belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 

family and spoke an r-dialect, their nearest allies being the Mahican, 

the Montauk, and next the New England tribes. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 45 

Location. — The east bank of the Hudson Kiver from Manhattan 
Island to Poughkeepsie and the territory eastward to the lower 
Connecticut Valley. (See also Connecticut.) 

Subdivisions or "Sachemships" 

Hammonasset, west of the Connecticut River, Conn., at its mouth. 
Kitchawank, in the northern part of Westchester County beyond Croton River 

and between Hudsoo River and the Connecticut. 
Massaco, in the present towns of Simsbury and Canton on Farmington River, Conn. 
Menunkatuck, in the present town of Guilford, Conn. 
Nochpeem, in the southern part of Dutchess County, N. Y. 
Paugusset, in the eastern part of Fairfield County and the western edge of New 

Haven County, Conn. 
Podunk, in the eastern part of Hartford County, Conn., east of Connecticut River. 
Poquonock, in the towns of Windsor, Windsor Locks, and Bloomfield, Hartford 

County, Conn. 
Quinnipiac, in the central part of New Haven County, Conn. 
Sicaog, in Hartford and West Hartford, Conn. 
Sintsink, between Hudson, Croton, and Pocantico Rivers. 
Siwanoy, in Westchester County and part of Fairfield County, Conn., between 

the Bronx and Five Mile River. 
Tankiteke, mainly in Fairfield County, Conn., between Five Mile River and 

Fairfield and extending inland to Danbury and even into Putnam and Dutchess 

Counties, N. Y. 
Tunxis, in the southwestern part of Hartford County, Conn. 
Wanguuk, on both sides of Connecticut River from the Hartford city line to 

about the southern line of the town of Haddam. 
Wappinger proper, about Poughkeepsie in Dutchess County, N. Y. 
Wecquaesgeek, between the Hudson, Bronx, and Pocantico Rivers. 

Villages 

Alipconk, in the Weckquasgeek sachemdom, on the site of Tarrytown, N. Y. 

Appaquag, on the Hockanum River east of Hartford, Conn., in the Podunk 
sachemdom. 

Aspetuck, near the present Aspetuck in Fairfield County, Conn., in the Tankiteke 
sachemdom, 

Canopus, in Canopus Hollow, Putnam County. 

Capage, near Beacon Falls on Naugatuck River, Conn., in the Paugusset sachem- 
dom. 

Cassacuhque, near Mianus in the town of Greenwich, Conn., Siwanoy sachemdom. 

Cockaponset, near Haddam in Middlesex County, Conn., in the Wangunk sachem- 
dom. 

Coginchaug, near Durham, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom. 

Cossonnacock, near the line between the towns of Haddam and Lyme, Conn., 
in the Wangunk sachemdom. 

Cupheag, given as the'probable name of a town at Stratford, Conn., but this was 
perhaps Pisquheege. 

Hockanum, at the mouth of Hockanum River, Hartford County, Conn., in the 
Podunk sachemdom. 

Keskistkonk, probably on Hudson River, south of the highlands, in Putnam 
County, in the Nochpeem sachemdom. 



46 BUREAIi OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

Kitchiwank, about the mouth of Croton River, N. Y., in the Kitchiwank sachem- 
dom. 
Machamodus, on Sahnon River in Middlesex County, Conn., in the Wangunk 

sachemdom. 
Massaco, near Simsbury on Farmington River, Conn., in the Massaco sachemdom. 
Mattabesec, on the site of Middletown, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom. 
Mattacomacok, near Rainbow in the town of Windsor, Conn., in the Wangunk 

sachemdom. 
Mattianock, at the mouth of Farmington River in the Poquonock sachemdom. 
Menunketuck, at Guilford, Conn., in the Menunketuck sachemdom. 
Meshapock, near Middlebury, C6nn., in the Paugussett sachemdom. 
Mioonktuck, near New Haven, Conn,, in the Quinnipiac sachemdom. 
Namaroake, on Connecticut River in the town of East Windsor, Conn., in the 

Podunk sachemdom. 
Naubuc, near Glastonbury, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom. 
Naugatuck, near Naugatuck, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom. 
Newashe, at the mouth of Scantic River, in the Podunk sachemdom. 
Nochpeem, in the southern part of Dutchess County. 
Noroaton, at the mouth of Noroton River, in the Siwanoy sachemdom. 
Norwauke, at Norwalk, Conn., in the Siwanoy sachemdom. 
Ossingsing, at the site of Ossining, N. Y. 

Pahquioke, near Danbury, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom. 
Pashesauke, on Lyndes Neck at the mouth of the Connecticut River in the 

Hammonassett sachemdom. 
Pasquasheck, probably on the bank of Hudson River in Dutchess County. 
Pataquasak, near Essex Post Office, Conn., in the Hammonassett sachemdom. 
Pattaquonk, near Chester, Conn., in the Hammonassett sachemdom. 
Paugusset, on the bank of Housatonic River about 1 mile above Derby, Conn., 

in the Paugusset sachemdom. 
Pauquaunuch, in Stratford Township, Fairfield County, Paugusset sachemdom, 

apparently the same town as Pisquheege. 
Pequabuck, near Bristol, Conn., in the Tunxis sachemdom. 
Pisquheege, near Stratford, Fairfield County, in the Paugusset sachemdom, 
Pocilaug, on Long Island Sound near Westbrook, Conn., in the Hammonassett 

sachemdom. 
Pocowset, on Connecticut River opposite Middletown, Conn., in the Wangunk 

sachemdom. 
Podunk, at the mouth of Podunk River, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom. 
Pomeraug, near Woodbury, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom. 
Poningo, near Rye, N. Y., in the Siwanoy sachemdom, 
Poquannuc, near Poquonock in Hartford County, Conn,, in the Poquonock 

sachemdom. 
Potatuck, the name of one or two towns on or near Potatuck River, in the town 

of Newtown, Fairfield County, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom. 
Pyquag, near Wethersfield, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom. 
Quinnipiac, on Quinnipiac River north of New Haven, Conn,, in the Quinnipiac 

sachemdom, 
Ramapo, near Ridgefield, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom, 
Sackhoes, on the site of Peekskill, N. Y., in the Kitchawank sachemdom. 
Saugatuck, at the mouth of Saugatuck River, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom. 
Scanticook, on Scantic River near its junction with Broad Brook, Hartford Coun- 
ty, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom. 
Senasqua, at the mouth of Croton River, in the Kitchawank sachemdom. 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 47 

Sbippan, near Stamford, Conn., in the Siwanoy sachemdom. 

Sioascauk, near Greenwich, Conn., in the Siwanoy sachemdom. 

Squantuck, on the Housatonic River, above Derby, Conn., in the Paugussett 
sachemdom. 

Suckiauk, near W. Hartford, Conn., in the Sicaog sachemdom. 

Titicus, near Titicus in the town of Ridgefield, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachem- 
dom. 

Totoket, near Totoket in the town of N. Branford, New Haven County, Conn., 
in the Quinnipiac sachemdom. 

Tunxis, in the bend of Farmington River near Farmington, Conn., in the Tunxis 
sachemdom. 

Turkey Hill, near Derby, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom, perhaps given 
under another name. 

Unkawa, between Danbury and Bethel, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom. 

Weantinock, near Fairfield, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom. 

Wecquaesgeek, at Dobbs Ferry, in the Wecquaesgeek sachemdom. 

Weataug, near Weatogue in the town of Simsbury, Conn., in the Massaco sachem- 
dom. 

Wepowaug, near Milford, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom. 

Werawaug, near Danbury, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom. 

Woodtick, near Woodtick in the town of Wolcott, New Haven County, Conn., 
in the Tunxis sachemdom. 

Woronock, near Milford, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom, evidently another 
name for Wepowaug. 

History. — The Wappinger were found by Henry Hudson in 1609 in 
occupancy of the lands above mentioned. The Connecticut bands 
gradually sold their territory and joined the Indians at Scaticook and 
Stockbridge. The western bands suffered heavily in war with the 
Dutch, 1640-45, but continued to occupy a tract along the coast 
in Westchester County until 1756, when most of those who were 
left joined the Nanticoke at Chenango, Broome County, N. Y., 
and were finally merged, along with them, into the Delaware. Some 
joined the Moravian and Stockbridge Indians while a few were still 
living in Dutchess County in 1774, and a few mixed-bloods live now on 
Housatonic River below Kent. These belong to the old Scaticook 
settlement founded by a Pequot Indian named Mauwehu or Mahwee, 
and settled mainly by individuals of the Paugusset, Unkawa, and 
Potatuck towns of the Paugusset sachemdom. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the population of the New 
York divisions of Wappinger at about 3,000 in 1600, and places that 
of the various Connecticut bands at 1,750, a total of 4,750. The war 
with the Dutch is said to have cost the western bands 1,600, but we 
have no estimates of their population at a later date, except as parts 
of the Stockbridge, Brotherton, and Iroquois Indians, and a few 
mixed-bloods at Scaticook, Conn., a few miles below Kent. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Wappinger bands 
were among those particularly engaged in the manufacture of siwan 



48 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

or wampum. They occupied much of the mainland territory of the 
present Greater New York but not Manhattan Island. Wappingers 
Falls in Dutchess County, N. Y., preserves the name. 

Wenrohronon. Probably meaning "The people or tribe of the place 

of floating scum," fromthe famous oil spring of the town of Cuba, 

Allegany County. 

Connections. — The Wenrohronon belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic 
stock. Their closest affiliations were probably with the Neutral 
Nation, which part of them finally joined, and with the Erie, who 
bounded them on the west. 

Location. — Probably originally, as indicated in the explanation of 
their name, about the oil spring at Cuba, N. Y. (See also Penn- 
sylvania.) 

History. — The Wenrohronon maintained themselves for a long time 
in the above territory, thanks to an alliance with the Neutral Nation, 
but when the protection of the latter was withdrawn, they left their 
country in 1639 and took refuge among the Hurons and the main 
body of the Neutrals, whose fate they shared. 

Population. — Before their decline Hewitt {in Hodge, 1910) estimates 
the Wenrohronon at between 1,200 and 2,000. Those who sought 
refuge with the Hurons in 1639 numbered more than 600. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Wenrohronon are 
noted merely on account of their association with the oil spring above 
mentioned. 

NEW JERSEY 

Delaware. The name is derived from that of Delaware River, which 
in turn, was named for Lord Delaware, second governor of Virginia. 
Also called: 

Abnaki or Wabanaki, "Easterners," from their position relative to many 

other Algonquian tribes. (See Abnaki under Maine, Wampanoag under 

Massachusetts, and Wappinger under New York.) 
A-ko-tca-ka'ng", "One who stammers in his speech," the Mohawk name. 

The Oneida and Tuscarora names were similar. 
Anakwan'kl, Cherokee name, an attempt at Wabanaki. 
Lenni Lenape (their own name), meaning "true men," or "standard men," 
Loup, "wolf," so called by the French. 
Mochomes, "grandfather," name given by those Algonquian tribes which 

claimed descent from them. 
Nar-wah-ro, Wichita name. 
Renni Renape, a form of Lenni Lenape. 
Tca-kS,'n6°, shortened form of Mohawk name given above. (The names 

in the languages of the other four Iroquois tribes are about the same). 

Connections. — The Delaware belonged to the Algonquian linguis- 
tic stock, their closest relatives being the Nanticoke, Conoy, and 
Powhatan Indians to the south and the Mahican, Wappinger, and 



SwAXTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 49 

southern New England Indians on the north. The dialect of the 
northernmost of their major divisions, the Munsee, differed consid- 
erably from that of the southern groups. 

Location. — The Delaware occupied all of the State of New Jersey, 
the western end of Long Island, all of Staten and Manhattan Islands 
and neighboring parts of the mainland, along with other portions of 
New York west of the Hudson, and parts of eastern Pennsylvania, 
and northern Delaware. (See also Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, 
Kansas, Marjdand and the District of Columbia, Missouri, New 
York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, and the Munsee under Kansas, 
Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) 

Subdivisions 

There were three major divisions or subtribes, the Munsee in northern New 
Jersey and adjacent portions of New York west of the Hudson, the Unalachtigo 
in northern Delaware, southeastern Pennsylvania, and southern New Jersey, 
and the Unami in the intermediate territory, extending to the western end of 
Long Island. Each comprised a great many minor divisions which it is not 
always easy to classify under the three main heads. As Munsee may probably 
be reckoned the following: 

Catskill, on Catskill Creek, Greene County, N. Y. 

Mamekoting, in Mamakating Valley, west of the Shawangunk Mountains, N. Y. 

Minisink, on the headwaters of Delaware River in the southwestern part of Ulster 
and Orange Counties, N. Y., and the adjacent parts of New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania. 

Waranawonkong, in the country watered by the Esopus, Wallkill, and Shawan- 
gunk Creeks, mainly in Ulster County, N. Y. 

Wawarsink, centered about the junction of Wawarsing and Rondout Creeks, 
Ulster County, N. Y. 
We may class as Unami the following: 

Aquackanonk, on Passaic River, N. J., and lands back from it including the 
tract called Dundee in Passsaic. 

Assunpink, on Stony Creek near Trenton. 

Axion, on the eastern bank of Delaware River between Rancocas Creek and 
Trenton. 

Calcefar, in the interior of New Jersey between Rancocas Creek and Trenton. 

Canarsee, in Kings County, Long Island, on the southern end of Manhattan 
Island, and the eastern end of Staten Island, N. Y. 

Gachwechnagechga, on Lehigh River, Pa. 

Hackensack, in the valleys of Hackensack and Passaic Rivers. 

Haverstraw, on the western bank of the lower Hudson, in Rockland County, N. Y. 

Meletecunk, in Monmouth County. 

Mosilian, on the eastern bank of Delaware River about Trenton. 

Navasink, on the highlands of Navesink, claiming the land from Barnegat to the 
Raritan. 

Pompton, on Pompton Creek. 

Raritan, in the valley of Raritan River and on the left bank of Delaware River 
as far down as the falls at Trenton. 

Reckgawawanc, on the upper part of Manhattan Island and the adjacent main- 
land of New York west of the Bronx. 



50 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Tappan, on the western bank of Hudson River in Rockland County, N. Y., and 

Bergen County. 
Waoranec, near Esopus Creek, Ulster County, N. Y. 

The following may be considered as Unalachtigo, though I am in some doubt 
about the Neshamini: 

Amimenipaty, at site of a large pigment plant of the Du Pont Company at Edge- 
moor, Del. 

Asomoche, on the eastern bank of Delaware River between Salem and Camden. 

Chikohoki, at site of Crane Brook Church, on west side of Delaware River near 
its junction with the Christanna River. 

Eriwonec, about Old Man's Creek in Salem or Gloucester County. 

Hopokohacking, on site now occupied by Wilmington, Del. 

Kahansuk, about Low Creek, Cumberland County. 

Manta, about Salem Creek. 

Memankitonna, on the present site of Claymont, Del., on Naaman's Creek, 

Nantuxet, in Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

Naraticon, in southern New Jersey, probably on Raccoon Creek. 

Neshamini, on Neshaminy Creek, Bucks County, Pa. 

Okahoki, on Ridley and Crum Creeks, Delaware County, Pa. 

Passayonk, on Schuylkill River, Pa., and along the western bank of Delaware 
River, perhaps extending into Delaware. 

Shackamaxon, on the site of Kensington, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Siconesse, on the eastern bank of Delaware River a short distance above Salem. 

Tirans, on the northern shore of Delaware Bay about Cape May or in Cumberland 
County. 

Yacomanshaghking, on a small stream about the present Camden. 

Villages 

It will not be practicable to separate the villages belonging to the three great 
divisions in all cases. The following are entered in the Handbook of American 
Indians (Hodge, 1907, 1910) : 

Achsinnink, Unalachtigo village on Hocking River, Ohio, about 1770. 

Ahasimus, probably Unami, in northern New Jersey. 

Alamingo, a village, probably Delaware, on Susquehanna River. 

AUaquippa, possible name of a settlement at the mouth of the Youghiogheny 

River, Pa., in 1755. 
Anderson's Town, on the south side of White River about Anderson, Ind. 
Au Glaize, on a southeastern branch of Maumee River, Ohio. 
Bald Eagle's Nest, on the right bank of Bald Eagle Creek near Milesburg, Pa. 
Beaversville, near the junction of Buggy Creek and Canadian River, Okla. 
Beavertown, on the east side of the extreme eastern head branch of Hocking 

River near Beavertown, Ohio. 
Black Hawk, probably Delaware, about Mount Auburn, Shelby County, Ind. 
Black Leg's Village, probably Delaware, on the north bank of Conemaugh River 

in the southeastern part of Armstrong County, Pa. 
Buckstown, probably Delaware, on the southeast side of White River, about 3 

miles east of Anderson, Ind. 
Bulletts Town, probably Delaware, in Coshocton County, Ohio, on Muskingum 

River about halfway between Walhonding River and Tomstown. 
Cashiehtunk, probably Munsee, on Delaware River near the point where it is 

met by the New Jersey State line. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 51 

Catawaweshink, probably Delaware, on or near Susquehanna River, near Big 
Island, Pa. 

Chikohoki, a Manta village on the site of Burlington, Burlington County, N. J. 

Chilohocki, probably Delaware, on Miami River, Ohio. 

Chinklacamoose, probably Delaware, on the site of Clearfield, Pa. 

Clistowacka, near Bethlehem, Pa. 

Communipavv, village of the Hackensack, at Communipaw. 

Conemaugh, probably Delaware, about Conemaugh, Pa. 

Coshocton, on the site of Coshocton, Ohio. 

Crossweeksung, in Burlington County, probably about Crosswicks. 

Custaloga's Town, Unalachtigo, two villages, one near French Creek, opposite 
Franklin, Pa., the other on Walhonding River, near Killbucks Creek in Coshoc- 
ton County, Ohio. 

Edgpiiliik, in western New Jersey. 

Eriwonec, about Old Man's Creek in Salem or Gloucester County. 

Frankstown, probably Delaware, about Frankstown, Pa. 

Friedenshiitten, a Moravian mission town on Susquehanna River a few miles 
below Wyalusing, probably in Wyoming County, Pa. 

Friedensstadt, in Beaver County, Pa., probably near Darlington. 

Gekelemukpechuenk, in Ohio, and perhaps identical with White Ej^es' Town. 

Gnadenhiitten, three Moravian Mission villages, one on the north side of Mahon- 
ing Creek near its junction with the Lehigh about the present Lehighton; a 
second on the site of Weissport, Carbon County, Pa. ; and a third on the Mus- 
kingum River near the present Gnadenhutten, Ohio. (Brinton (1885) says 
there were two more towns of the same name.) 

Goshgoshunk, with perhaps some Seneca, on Allegheny River about the upper 
part of Venango County, Pa. 

Grapevine Town, perhaps Delaware, 8 miles up Captina River, Belmont County, 
Ohio. 

Greentown, on the Black Fork of Mohican River near the boundary of Richland 
and Ashland Counties, Ohio. 

Gweghkongh, probably Unami, in northern New Jersey, near Staten Island, or 
on the neighboring New York mainland. 

Hespatingh, probably Unami, apparently in northern New Jersey, and perhaps 
near Bergen or Union Hill. 

Hickorytown, probably about East Hickory or West Hickory, Pa. 

Hockhocken, on Hocking River, Ohio. 

Hogstown, between Venango and Buffalo Creek, Pa., perhaps identical with 
Kuskuski. 

Jacobs Cabins, probably Delaware, on Youghiogheny River, perhaps near Jacobs 
Creek, Fayette County, Pa. 

Jeromestown, near Jeromesville, Ohio. 

Kalbauvane, probably Delaware, on the headwaters of the west branch of Susque- 
hanna River, Pa. 

Kanestio, Delaware and other Indians, on the upper Susquehanna River, near 
Kanestio Creek in Steuben County, N. Y. 

Kanhangton, about the mouth of Chemung River in the northern part of Bradford 
County, Pa. 

Katamoonchink, perhaps the name of a Delaware village near West Whiteland, 
Chester County, Pa. 

Kickenapawling, probably Delaware and Iroquois, at the junction of Stony 
Creek with Conemaugh River, approximately on the site of Johnstown, Pa. 



52 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Kiktheswemud, probably Delaware, near Anderson, Ind., perhaps identical with 

Buckstown or Little Munsee Town. 
Killbuck's Town, on the east side of Killbuck Creek, about 10 miles south of 

Wooster, Ohio. 
Kishakoquilla, two towns successively occupied by a chief of the name, one about 

Kishacoquillas, Mifflin County, Pa., the other on French Creek about 7 miles 

below Meadville, Crawford County, Pa. 
Kiskiminetas, on the south side of lower Kiskiminetas Creek, near its mouth, 

Westmoreland County, Pa. 
Kiskominitoes, on the north bank of Ohio River between the Hocking and Scioto 

Rivers, Ohio. 
Kittanning, divided into several settlements and mixed with Iroquois and 

Caughnawaga, near Kittanning on Allegheny River, Armstrong County, Pa. 
Kohhokking, near "Painted Post" in Steuben County, N. Y., or Elmira, Chemung 

County, N. Y. 
Kuskuski, with Iroquois, on Beaver Creek, near Newcastle, in Lawrence County, 

Pa. 
Languntennenk, Moravian Delaware near Darlington, Beaver County, Pa. 
Lawunkhannek, Moravian Delaware on Allegheny River above Franklin, Ve- 
nango County, Pa. 
Lichtenau, Moravian Delaware on the east side of Muskingum River, 3 miles 

below Coshocton, Ohio. 
Little Munsee Town, Munsee, a few miles east of Anderson, Ind. 
Macharienkonck, Minisink, in the bend of Delaware River, Pike County, Pa., 

opposite Port Jervis. 
Macocks, some distance north of Chikohoki, which was probably at Wilmington, 

Del., perhaps the village of the Okahoki in Pennsylvania. 
Mahoning, on the west bank of Mahoning River, perhaps between Warren and 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Mechgachkamic, perhaps Unami, probably near Hackensack, N. J. 
Meggeckessou, on Delaware River at Trenton Falls, N. J. 
Meniolagomeka, on Aquanshicola Creek, Carbon County, Pa. 
Meochkonck, Minisink, on the upper Delaware River in southeastern New York. 
Minisink, Minisink, in Sussex County, N. J., near where the State line crosses 

Delaware River. 
Munceytown, Munsee, on Thames River northwest of Brantford, Ontario, Canada. 
Muskingum, probably Delaware, on the west bank of Muskingum River, Ohio. 
Nain, Moravian Indians, principally Delaware, near Bethlehem, Pa. 
Newcomerstown, village of Chief Newcomer, about the site of New Comerstown, 

Tuscarawas County, Ohio. 
Newtown, the name of three towns probably of the Delaware and Iroquois, one 

on the north bank of Licking River, near the site of the present Zanesville, 

Ohio; a second about the site of Newtown, Ohio; and a third on the west side 

of Wills Creek near the site of Cambridge, Ohio. 
Nj^ack, probably Canarsee, about the site of Fort Hamilton, Kings County, 

Long Island, afterward removed to Staten Island. 
Nyack, Unami probably, on the west bank of Hudson River about the present 

Nyack, N. Y. 
Ostonwackin, with Cayuga, Oneida, and other Indians, on the site of the present 

Montoursville, Pa. 
Outaunink, Munsee, on the north bank of White River, opposite Muncie, Ind. 
Owl's Town, probably Delaware, on Mohican River, Coshocton County, Ohio. 
Pakadasank, probably Munsee, about the site of Crawford, Orange County, N. Y. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 53 

Papagonk, probably Munsee, in Ulster County, N. Y., also placed near Pepacton, 

Delaware County, N. Y. 
Passycotcung, on Chemung River, N. Y. 

Peckwes, Munsee or Shawnee, about 10 miles from Hackensack. 
Pematuning, probably Delaware, near Shenango, Pa. 
Pequottink, Moravian Delaware, on the east bank of Huron River, near Milan, 

Ohio. 
Playwickey, probably Unalachtigo, in Bucks County, Pa. 
Pohkopophunk, in eastern Pennsylvania, probably in Carbon County. 
Queenashawakee, on the upper Susquehanna River, Pa. 
Ramcock, Rancocas, in Burlington County. 
Raystown, (?). 

Remahenonc, perhaps Unami, near New York City. 
Roymount, near Cape May. 
Salem, Moravian Delaware, on the west bank of Tuscarawas River, l}i miles 

miles southwest of Port Washington, Tuscarawas County, Ohio. 
Salt Lick, probably Delaware, on Mahoning River near Warren, Ohio. 
Sawcunk, with Shawnee and Mingo, near the mouth of Beaver Creek, about the 

site of the present Beaver, Pa. 
Sawkin, on the east bank of Delaware River in New Jersey. 
Schepinaikonck, Minisink, perhaps in Orange County, N. Y. 
Schipston, probably Delaware, at the head of Juniata River, Pa. 
Schoenbrunn, Moravian Munsee, about 2 miles below the site of New Philadel- 
phia, Ohio. 
Seven Houses, near the ford of Beaver Creek just above its mouth, Beaver County, 

Pa. 
Shackamaxon, on the site of Kensington, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Shamokin, with Shawnee, Iroquois, and Tutelo, on north sides of Susquehanna 

River including the island at the site of Sunbury, Pa. 
Shannopin's Town, on Allegheny River about 2 miles above its junction with the 

Monongahela. 
Shenango, with other tribes, the name of several towns, one on the north bank of 

Ohio River a little below Economy, Pa.; one at the junction of Conewango and 

the Allegheny; and one some distance up Big Beaver, near Kuskuski (q. v.). 
Sheshequin, with Iroquois, about 6 miles below Tioga Point, Bradford County, Pa. 
Soupnapka, on the east bank of Delaware River in New Jersey. 
Three Legs Town, named from a chief, on the east bank of Muskingum River 

a few miles south of the mouth of the Tuscarawas, Coshocton County, Ohio. 
Tioga, with Nanticoke, Mahican, Saponi, Tutelo, etc., on the site of Athens, Pa. 
Tom's Town, on Scioto River, a short distance below the present Chillicothe and 

near the mouth of Paint Creek, Ohio. 
Tullihas, with Mahican and Caughnawaga, on the west branch of Muskingum 

River, Ohio, about 20 miles above the forks. 
Tuscarawas, with Wyandot, on Tuscarawas River, Ohio, near the mouth of Big 

Sandy River. 
Venango, with Seneca, Shawnee, Wyandot, Ottawa, etc., at the site of Franklin, 

Venango County, Pa. 
Wechquetank, Moravian Delaware, about 8 miles beyond the Blue Ridge, 

northwest from Bethlehem, Pa., probably near the present Mauch Chunk. 
Wekeeponall, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River, about the mouth of 

Loyalstock Creek in Lycoming County, Pa., probably identical with Queen 

Esther's Town. 
Walagamika, on the site of Nazareth, Lehigh County, Pa. 



54 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdli,. 145 

White-eyes Village, named from a chief, on the site of Duncan's Falls, 9 miles 

below Zanesville, Ohio. 
White Woman's Town, near the junction of Walhonding and Killbuck Rivers, 

about 7 miles northwest of the forks of the Muskingum River, in Coshocton 

County, Ohio. 
Will's Town, on the east bank of Muskingum River at the mouth of Wills Creek, 

Muskingum County, Ohio. 
Woapikamikunk, in the valley of White River, Ind. 

Wyalusing, Munsee and Iroquois, on the site of Wyalusing, Bradford County, Pa. 
Wyoming, with Iroquois, Shawnee, Mahican, and Nanticoke; later entirely 

Delaware and Munsee; principal settlement at the site of Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

History. — The traditional history of the Delaware set forth in the 
famous Walam Olum (see Brinton, 1882-85, vol. 5), gave them an 
origin somewhere northwest of their later habitat. They were found 
by the earliest white voyagers in the historic seats above given. 
The Dutch came into contact with the Unami and Munsee Delaware 
in 1609 and the Swedes with the Unalachtigo in 1637. Both were 
succeeded by the English in 1664, but the most notable event in 
Delaware history took place in 1682 when these Indians held their 
first council with William Penn at what is now German town, Phila- 
delphia. About 1720 the Iroquois assumed dominion over them and 
they were gradually crowded west by the white colonists, reaching the 
Allegheny as early as 1724, and settling at Wyoming and other points 
on the Susquehanna about 1742. In 1751, by invitation of the Huron, 
they began to form villages in eastern Ohio, and soon the greater part of 
them were on the Muskingum and other Ohio streams. Backed by the 
French and by other western tribes, they now freed themselves from 
Iroquois control and opposed the English settlers steadily until the 
treaty of Greenville in 1795. Notable missionary work was done 
among them by the Moravians in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. About 1770 they received permission from the Miami and 
Piankashaw to settle between the Ohio and White Rivers, Ind. In 
1789, by permission of the Spanish government, a part moved to 
Missouri and later to Arkansas, along with a band of Shawnee, and by 
1820 they had found their way to Texas. By 1835 most of the bands 
had been gathered on a reservation in Kansas, but in 1867 the greater 
part of these removed to the present Oklahoma, where some of them 
occupied a corner of the Cherokee Nation. Others are with the Caddo 
and Wichita in southwestern Oklahoma, a few Munsee are with the 
Stockbridges in Wisconsin, and some are scattered in other parts of 
the United States. In Ontario, Canada, are three bands — the Dela- 
wares of Grand River, near Hagersville; the Moravians of the Thames, 
near Bothwell; and the Munceys of the Thames, near Muncey — 
nearly all of whom are of the Munsee division. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 8,000 
Delaware in 1600 not including the Canarsee of Long Island; estimates 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 55 

made during the eighteenth century vary between 2,400 and 3,000; 
nineteenth-century estimates are much lower, and the United States 
Census of 1910 returned 914 Delawares and 71 Munsee, or a total of 
985, to which must be added the bands in Canada, making perhaps 
1,600 all together. 140 Delaware were reported on the Wichita 
Keservation, Okla., in 1937. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Delaware are 
noted as one of the very few tribes which have come to be known by 
an English term, and as one of the chief antagonists of the Whites 
while the latter were forcing their way westward, but in later years as 
furnishing the most reliable scouts in White employ. A different sort 
of fame has been attained by one of their early chiefs, Tamenend, 
whose name, in the form Tammany, was applied to a philanthropic 
society, a place of meeting, and a famous political organization. 
Delaware chiefs signed the famous treaty with Penn under the oak 
at Shackamaxon, and their tribes occupied Manhattan Island and the 
shores of New York Harbor at the arrival of the Dutch. The name 
Delaware has been used for postoffices in Arkansas, Iowa, Kentucky, 
Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, and Oklahoma, besides the State of 
Delaware. Lenape is a post village in Leavenworth County, Kans., 
and Lenapah in Nowata County, Okla. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Delaware. In early times this tribe occupied the eastern parts of 
Pennsylvania along Delaware River; later they were, for a time, 
on the Susquehanna and the headwaters of the Ohio. (See New 
Jersey.) 

Erie. The Erie extended over the extreme northwestern corner of 
the State. (See Ohio.) 

Honniasont. An Iroquois term meaning "Wearing something roimd 
the neck." Also called: 

Black Minqua, the word "black" said to refer to "a black badge on their 
breast," while "Minqua" indicated their relationship to the White 
Minqua, or Susquehanna (q. v.). 

Connections. — The Honniasont belonged to the Iroquoian hn- 
guistic family. 

Location. — On the upper Ohio and its branches in western Penn- 
sylvania and the neighboring parts of West Virginia and Ohio. (See 
also Ohio.) 

History. — The Honniasont appear first as a tribe which assisted the 
Susquehanna in war and traded with the Dutch, but a little later 
they are reported to have been destroyed by the Susquehanna and 
Seneca. The remnant seems to have settled among the Seneca, and 



56 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

a Minqua to%vn, probably occupied by their descendants, is mentioned 
from time to time among the latter and in the neighborhood of their 
former country. 

Population. — This is unknown, but as late as 1662 the Honniasont 
must have been fairly numerous if the testimony of five Susquehanna 
chiefs taken in that year is to be relied upon, which was to the effect 
that they were then expecting 800 Honniasont warriors to join them. 

Iroquois. In very early times these Indians entered Pennsylvania 
only as hunters and warriors, but at a later period they made 
numerous settlements in the State. (See New York.) 

Saluda. A band of "Saluda" Indians from South Carolina moved to 
Conestoga in the eighteenth century. They may have been Shawnee. 
(See South Carolina.) 

Saponi. The majority of the Saponi lived at Shamokin for a few 
years some time after 1740 but then continued on to join the 
Iroquois. (See Virginia.) 

Shawnee. Bands of Shawnee were temporarily located at Conestoga, 
Sewickley, and other points in Pennsylvania. (See Tennessee.) 

Susquehanna. A shortened form of Susquehannock, meaning un- 
known. 

Akhrakouaehronon, given in Jesuit Relations, from a town name. See 

Atra'kwae'ronnons' below. 
Andasteor Conestoga, from Kanast6ge, "at the place of the immersed pole." 
Atra'kwae'ronnons, from the name of a town, and probably signifying "at 

the place of the sun," or "at the south." 
Minqua, from an Algonquian word meaning "stealthy," "treacherous." 
White Minqua, to distinguish them from the Black Minqua. (See Hon- 
niasont above.) 

Connections. — The Susquehanna belonged to the Iroquoian lin- 
guistic stock. 

Location. — On the Susquehanna River in New York, Pennsylvania, 
and Maryland. 

Subdivisions 
Originally Susquehanna may have been the name of a confederacy of tribes 
rather than a single tribe. Hewitt (m- Hodge, 1910) suggests that the Wyoming 
(in the territory about the present Wyoming) may have been such a subtribe. 
The barely mentioned Wysox, on a small creek flowing into the Susquehanna at 
the present Wysox, was perhaps another. Mention is made of the Turtle, Fox, 
and Wolf "families," evidently clans, and of the Ohongeeoquena, Unquehiett, 
Kaiquariegahaga, Usququhaga, and Seconondihago "nations," also perhaps clans. 

Villages 
Smith (1884) mentions several, but Hewitt (in Hodge, 1910) is of the opinion 
that the names really belong to independent tribes. Champlain says that there 
were more than 20 villages, though the only one named is Carantouan, thought 
to have been on the site of the present Waverly, N. Y. 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 57 

History. — When encountered by the English, French, and Dutch 
early in the seventeenth century, the Susquehanna were a numerous 
people, but even then they were at war with the Iroquois by whom 
they were conquered in 1676 and forced to settle near the Oneida in 
New York. Later they were allowed to return to the Susquehanna 
River and reoccupy their ancient country, but they wasted away 
steadily and in 1763 the remnant, consisting of 20 persons, was 
massacred by Whites inflamed with accounts of Indian atrocities on 
the far frontier. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that the Susquehanna 
numbered 5,000 in 1600. In 1648 they are said to have had 550 
warriors. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Susquehanna 
is perpetuated in that of the Susquehanna River and in the names 
of a county and a town. Conestoga is the designation of two places in 
Lancaster County, Pa., and one in Chester County, and was given 
to a widely used type of wagon. 

Tuscarora. These Indians on their way to join the Iroquois bands of 
New York stopped from time to time in the Susquehanna VaUey. 
(See North Carolina.) 

Tutelo. Most of these Indians lived at Shamokin with the Saponi 
and accompanied them to the Iroquois Nation. (See Virginia.) 

Wenrohronon. This tribe occupied some parts of the State along the 
northwestern border. (See New York.) 

DELAWARE 

Delaware. The Unalachtigo division of the Delaware occupied all 
of the northern parts of this State when it was first visited by 
Europeans. (See New Jersey.) 

Nanticoke. Bodies of Indians classed under this general head ex- 
tended into the southern and western sections. Unalachtigo and 
Nanticoke are two forms of the same word though, as differenti- 
ated, they have been applied to distinct tribes. (See Maryland.) 

MARYLAND AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Coney. Probably a synonym of Kanawha, but the meaning is un- 
known; also spelled Canawese, and Ganawese. Also called: 

Piscataway, from a village on Piscataway Creek where the Conoy chief 
resided. 

Connections. — The Conoy belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock and were probably intermediate between the Nanticoke and 
Powhatan Indians. 



58 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Location. — Between the Potomac River and the western shore of 
the Chesapeake. 

Subdivisions 

Acquintanacsuak, on the west bank of Patuxent River in St. Marys County. 
Conoy proper or Piscataway, in the southern part of Prince Georges County. 
Mattapanient, on Patuxent River, probably in St. Marys County. 
Moyawance, on the west bank of the Potomac River above the Conoy proper. 
Nacotchtank, on the eastern branch of the Potomac, in the District of Columbia. 
Pamacocack, about the mouth of Mattawoman Creek and the present Pomonkey, 

Charles County. 
Patuxent, in Calvert County. 

Potapaco, in the southern and central parts of Charles County. 
Secowocomoco, on Wicomico River in St. Marys and Charles Counties. 

Villages 

The principal settlement of each of the above subdivisions was generally known 

by the same name. In addition we have the following: 

Catawissa, at Catawissa, Columbia County, Pa. 

Conejoholo, on the east bank of the Susquehanna on or near the site of Bain- 
bridge, Lancaster County, Pa. 

Conoytown, on Susquehanna River between Conejoholo and Shamokin (Sun- 
bury), Pa. 

Kittamaquindi, at the junction of Tinkers Creek with the Piscataway a few 
miles above the Potomac, Prince Georges County, the principal village of the 
Conoy proper. 

History. — If the name of the Conoy is identical with that of Kana- 
wha River, as appears probable, they must have lived at some period 
along that stream. They were found by Smith and the Maryland 
colonists in the location above given and missions were established 
among them by the Jesuits on the first settlement of Maryland in 
1634. They decreased rapidly in numbers and were presently as- 
signed a tract of land on the Potomac, perhaps near the site of Wash- 
ington. In 1675 they were attacked by the Susquehanna Indians 
who had been driven from their own territories by the Iroquois, 
retired up the Potomac River, and then to the Susquehanna, where 
they were finally assigned lands at Conejoholo near the Nanticoke 
and Conestoga. Some of tbem were living with these two tribes at 
Conestoga in 1742. They gradually made their way northward, 
stopping successively at Harrisburg, Shamokin, Catawissa, and Wyo- 
ming, and in 1765 were in southern New York, at Owego, Chugnut, 
and Chenango, on the eastern branch of the Susquehanna. They 
moved west with the Mahican and Delaware and soon became known 
only as constituting a part of those tribes. They used the Turkey 
as their signature at a council held in 1793. 

Population. — The number of Conoy was estimated by Mooney 
(1928) at 2,000 in 1600; in 1765 they numbered only about 150. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Conoy is 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 59 

perpetuated by Conoy, 2 miles north of Falmouth, Lancaster County, 
Pa., and probably (see above) by the Great and Little Kanawha 
Rivers, Kanawha County, Kanawha Ridge, and several places in 
West Virginia, besides post villages in Hancock County, Iowa, and 
Red River County, Tex. 

Delaware. They probably occupied, or at least hunted over, some 
territory in the extreme northeastern part of the State. (See New 
Jersey.) 

Nanticoke. From Nentego, a variant of Delaware Unechtgo, or 
Unalachtigo, "Tidewater people," the neighboring division of 
Delaware being known by the same name. Also called: 

Doegs, Toags, or Taux, by some early writers, probably shortened from 

Tavvachgudns. 
Ganniataratich-rone, Mohawk name. 
Otaydchgo, Tawachgudns, Mahican and Delaware name, meaning "Bridge 

people." 
Skaniadaradighroonas, "Beyond-the-sea people," Iroquois name. 

Connections. — The Nanticoke belonged to the Algonquian Hnguistic 
family, their closest connections probably being with the Unalachtigo 
Delaware — as the name implies — and also with the Conoy. 

Location. — Although the Nanticoke are frequently more narrowly 
delimited, it will be convenient to group under this head all of the 
Indians of the Eastern Shor6 of Maryland and southern Delaware. 

Subdivisions 

Annamessicks, in the southern part of Somerset County. 

Choptank, on Choptank River. 

Cuscarawaoc, at the head of Nanticoke River in Maryland and Delaware. 

Manokin, on Manokin River in the northern part of Somerset County. 

Nanticoke proper, on the lower course of Nanticoke River. 

Nause, in the southern end of the present Dorchester County. 

Ozinies, on the lower course of Chester River; they may have been part of or 

identical with the Wicomese. 
Tocwogh, on Sassafras River, in Cecil and Kent Counties. 
Wicocomoco, on Wicocomoco River in Somerset and Wicocomoco Counties. 
Wicomese, in Queen Anne's County, 

Villages 

Ababco, a subtribe or village of the Choptank on the south side of Choptank River 

in Dorchester County, near Secretary Creek. 
Askimimkansen, perhaps Nanticoke, on an upper eastern branch of Pocomoke 

River, probably in Worcester County. 
Byengeahtein, probably in Dauphin or Lancaster County, Pa. 
Chenango, a mixed population on Chenango River about Binghamton, N. Y. 
Hutsawap, a village or subtribe of the Choptank, in Dorchester County. 
Locust Necktown, occupied by a band of Nanticoke proper known as Wiwash, on 

Choptank River, in Dorchester County. 



60 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Matchcouchtin, consisting of Nanticoke proper, probably in Pennsylvania. 

Matcheattochousie, Nanticoke proper, probably in Pennsylvania. 

Natahquois, Nanticoke proper, probably on the eastern shore of Maryland or 
on the Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. 

Nause, belonging to the tribe of the same name, on the north bank of Nanticoke 
River near its mouth. 

Pekoinoke, Nanticoke proper, still existing in Maryland in 1755. 

Pohemkomeati, on lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania. 

Teahquois, Nanticoke proper, probably on lower Susquehanna River, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Tequassimo, a subtribe or village on the Choptank, on the southern shore of 
Choptank River. 

Tocwogh, the principal village of the tribe of that name, said to be on the south 
side of Chester River in Queen Anne County, but, unless this is a later location, 
probably on the south side of Sassafras River in Kent County. 

Witichquaom, Nanticoke proper, near Susquehanna River in southern Pennsylvania. 

History. — Traditionally, the Nanticoke are supposed to have come 
from the west at about the same time as the Delaware, but they were 
found in the location above given by the earliest white explorers and 
settlers. They were at war with the Maryland colonists from 1642 
to 1678. In 1698 reservations were set aside for them. Soon after 
1722 the greater part of them began to move north, stopping for a 
time on the Susquehanna at its junction with the Juniata. In 1748 
the greater part of the tribe went farther up, and, after camping 
temporarily at a number of places, settled under Iroquois protection 
at Chenango, Chugnut, and Oswego. In 1753 part of these joined the 
Iroquois in western New York, and they were still living ^vith them in 
1840, but the majority, in company with the remnants of the Maliican 
and Wappinger, emigrated west about 1784 and joined the Delaware 
in Ohio and Indiana, with whom they soon became incorporated, 
disappearing as a distinct tribe. Yet a part did not leave their old 
country. Some were living in Maryland in 1792 under the name of 
Wiwash, and some mixed-bloods still occupy a small territory on 
Indian River, Delaware. The Choptank, or a part of them, also re- 
mained in their old country on the south of Choptank River, Dorchester 
County, where a few of their descendants, their blood much mixed 
with that of Negroes, were to be found in 1837. Some Wicocomoco 
must also have stayed about their ancient seats, since a few mongrels 
are said to retain the name. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated a total Indian population on 
the eastern shore of Maryland in 1600 of 2,700, including 700 Tocwogh 
and Ozinies, 400 Wicocomoco, and 1,600 Nanticoke and their more 
immediate neighbors. In 1722 they are said to have numbered about 
500 and in 1765 those who had emigrated to New York were supposed 
to count about 500 more. In 1792 the Nanticoke proper left in Mary- 
land were said to comprise only 30 persons, but in 1911 Speck (1915) 
estimated their descendants in southern Maryland at 700. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 61 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Nanticoke 
is perpetuated in that of Nanticoke River between Wicomico and 
Dorchester Counties, and by the town of Nanticoke in the former. 
There are also places of the name in Broome County, N. Y., and 
Luzerne County, Pa. 

Powhatan. The Accohanoc Indians of the panhandle of Virginia, 
who extended over into Worcester County, were the only repre- 
sentatives of the Powhatan Indians in Maryland, though the 
Conoy were closely related to them. (See Virginia.) 

Shawnee. Shawnee Indians settled temporarily in western Mary- 
land near the Potomac and in the northeastern part of the State 
on the Susquehanna. (See Tennessee.) 

Susquehanna. They lived along and near the Susquehanna River. 
(See Pennsylvania.) 

VIRGINIA 

Cherokee. This tribe claimed territory in the extreme southwestern 
part of the State. If not actually occupied by them, it at least 
formed part of their hunting territories. (See Tennessee.) 

Manahoac. Meaning "They are very merry," according to Tooker 
(1895), but this seems improbable. Also called: 
Mahocks, apparently a shortened form. 

Connections. — The Manahoac belonged to the Siouan linguistic 
family; their nearest connections were probably the Monacan, 
Moneton, and Tutelo. 

Location. — In northern Virginia between the falls of the rivers and 
the mountains east and west and the Potomac and North Anna 
Rivers north and south. 

Subdivisions 

Subtribes or tribes of the confederacy as far as known were the following: 
Hassinunga, on the headwaters of the Rappahannock River. 
Manahoac proper, according to Jefferson (1801), in StaflFord and Spottsylvania 

Counties. 
Ontponea, in Orange County. 
Shackaconia, on the south bank of the Rappahannock River in Spottsylvania 

County. 
Stegaraki, on the Rapidan River in Orange County. 
Tanxnitania, on the north side of the upper Rappahannock River in Fauquier 

County. 
Pegninateo, in Culpeper County, at the head of the Rappahannock River. 
Whonkentia, in Fauquier County, near the head of the Rappahannock. 

Villages 

Mahaskahod, on the Rappahannock River, probably near Fredericksburg, is 
the only town known by name. 



62 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

History. — Traditional evidence points to an early home of the 
Manahoac people in the Ohio Valley. In 1608 John Smith discovered 
them in the location above given and learned that they were alUed 
with the Monacan but at war with the Powhatan Indians and the 
Iroquois (or perhaps rather the Susquehanna). After this they 
suddenly vanish from history under a certainly recognizable name, 
but there is good reason to beUeve that they were one of those tribes 
which settled near the falls of the James River in 1654 or 1656 and 
defeated a combined force of Whites and coast Indians who had been 
sent against them. They seem to have been forced out of their old 
country by the Susquehanna. Probably they remained for a time 
in the neighborhood of the Monacan proper and were in fact the 
Mahock encountered by Lederer (1912) in 1670 at a point on James 
River which Bushnell seems to have identified with the site of the 
old Massinacack town, the fact that a stream entering the James at 
this point is called the Mohawk rendering his case rather strong. 
Perhaps the old inhabitants had withdrawn to the lower Monacan 
town, Mowhemencho. In 1700 the Stegaraki were located by Gov- 
ernor Spotswood of Virginia at Fort Christanna, and the Mepontsky, 
also placed there, may have been the Ontponea. We hear of the 
former as late as 1723, and there is good reason to beheve that they 
united with the Tutelo and Saponi and followed their fortunes, and 
that under these two names were included all remnants of the 
Manahoac. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,500 
Manahoac in 1600 but this is probably rather too high, since their 
numbers and those of the Tutelo together seem to have been 600-700 
in 1654. However, it is possible that these figures cover only the 
Manahoac, while Mooney's include part of the Saponi and Tutelo. 

Meherrin. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — The Meherrin belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic 
family, their closest connections probably being the Nottaway. 

Location. — Along the river of the same name on the Virginia-North 
Carolina border. 

History. — The tribal name Meherrin first appears in the form 
"Maharineck" in the account of an expedition by Edward Blande 
and others to North Carolina in 1650, and next in an Indian census 
taken in 1669. Later they seem to have adopted a body of Conestoga 
or Susquehanna fleeing from Pennsylvania after their dispersal by 
the Iroquois about 1675. This is the only way to account for the 
fact that they are all said to have been refugee Conestoga. They 
were living on Roanoke River in 1761 with the southern bands of 
Tuscarora and Saponi, and the Machapunga, and probably went 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 63 

north in the last Tuscarora removal in 1802. (For information 
regarding another possible band of Mcherrin see "Nottaway.") 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the Meherrin population at 
700 in 1600. In 1669 they are said to have had 50 bowmen, or approxi 
mately 180 souls. In 1755 they were said to be reduced to 7 or 8 
fighting men, but in 1761 they are reported to have had 20. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Meherrin River, an 
affluent of the Chowan, running through southern Virginia and north- 
eastern North Carolina, and a Virginia town perpetuate the name 
of the Meherrin. 

Monacan. Possibly from an Algonquian word signifying "digging stick," 
or ''spade," but more likely from their own language. Also called: 

Rahowacah, by Archer, 1607, in Smith (1884). 

Connections. — The Monacan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock. 
Their nearest connections were the Manahoac, Tutelo, and Saponi. 

Location. — On the upper waters of James River above the falls at 
Richmond. 

Villages 
(Locations as determined by D. I. Bushnell, Jr.) 

Massinacack, on the right bank of James River about the mouth of Mohawk 

Creek, and a mile or more south of Goochland. 

Mohemencho, later called Monacan Town, on the south bank of James River 

and probably covering some of "the level area bordering the stream in the 

extreme eastern part of the present Powhatan County, between Bernards 

Creek on the east and Jones Creek on the west." 

Rassawek, at the confluence of the James and Rivanna Rivers and probably 

"on the right bank of the Rivanna, within the angle formed by the two streams." 

Two other towns are sometimes added but as they afterward appeared as 

wholly independent tribes, the Saponi and the Tutelo, it is probable that their 

connection with the Monacan was never very intimate. Thej" seem to have 

been classed as Monacan largely on the evidence furnished by Smith's map, in 

which they appear in the country of the "Monacans" but Smith's topography, 

as Bushnell has shown, was very much foreshortened toward the mountains and 

the Saponi and Tutelo towns were farther away than he supposed. Again, while 

Massinacack and Mohemencho are specifically referred to as Monacan towns 

and Smith calls Rassawek "the chiefe habitation" of the Monacan, there is no 

such characterization of either of the others. 

History. — Capt. John Smith learned of the Monacan in the course 
of an exploratory trip which he made up James River in IMay 1607. 
The people themselves were visited by Captain Newport the year 
following, who discovered the two lower towns. The population 
gradually declined and in 1699 some Huguenots took possession of 
the land of Mowhemencho. The greater part of the Monacan had 
been driven away some years before this by Colonel Bornn (Byrd?). 
Those who escaped continued to camp in the region until after 1702, 



64 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

as we learn from a Swiss traveler named F. L. Michel (1916). It is 
probable that the remnant finally united with their relatives the 
Saponi and Tutelo when they were at Fort Christanna and followed 
their fortunes, but we have no further information as to their fate. 

Population. — The number of the Monacan was estimated by 
Mooney (1928) at 1,200 in 1600 including part of the Saponi and 
Tutelo, but they can hardly have comprised over half as many. In 
1669 there were still about 100 true Monacan as they were credited 
with 30 bowmen. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Monacan is 
perpetuated by a small place called Manakin on the north bank of 
James River, in Goochland County, Va. 

Nahyssan. A contraction of Monahassano or Monahassanugh, 

remembered in later times as Yesa°. 

Connections. — The Nahyssan belonged to the Siouan linguistic 
stock, their nearest relatives being the Tutelo, Saponi, and probably 
the Monacan and Manahoac. 

Location. — The oldest kno\vn location of the Nahyssan has been 
identified by D. I. Bushnell, Jr. (1930), within very narrow limits as 
"probably on the left bank of the James, about 1% miles up the 
stream from Wingina, in Nelson County." 

History. — In 1650 Blande and his companions noted a site, 12 
miles south-southwest of the present Petersburg, called "Manks 
Nessoneicks" which was presumably occupied for a time by the 
Nahyssan or a part of them, since "Manks" may be intended for 
"Tanks," the Powhatan adjective signifying "little." In 1654 or 
1656 this tribe and the Manahoac appeared at the falls of James 
River having perhaps been driven from their former homes by the 
Susquehanna. They defeated a force of colonials and Powhatan 
Indians sent against them but did not advance further into the 
settlements. In 1670 Lederer (1912) found two Indian towns on 
Staunton River, one of which he calls Sapon and the other Pintahae. 
Sapon was, of course, the town of the Saponi but it is believed that 
Pintahae was the town of the Nahyssan Indians, though Lederer 
gives this name to both towns. Pintahae was probably the Hana- 
thaskie or Hanahaskie town of which Batts and Fallam (1912) speak a 
year later. About 1675 the Nahyssan settled on an island below the 
Occaneechi at the junction of the Staunton and Dan Rivers. Before 
1701 all of the Siouan tribes who had settled in this neighborhood 
moved into North Carolina, and it is thought that the Nahyssan fol- 
lowed the Saponi and Tutelo to the headwaters of the Yadkin and that 
their subsequent fortunes were identical with those of these two. (See 
Saponi and Tutelo.) 

Population. — (See Saponi and Tutelo.) 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 65 

Nottaway. Meaning "adders," in the language of their Algonquian 
neighbors, a common designation for ahen tribes by peoples of 
that linguistic stock. Also called: 

Cheroenhaka, their own name, probably signifying "fork of a stream." 
Mangoak, Mengwe, another Algonquian term, signifying "stealthy," 
"treacherous." 

Connections. — The Nottaway belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic 
family, their closest connections probably being the Meherrin, 
Tuscarora, and Susquehanna. 

Location. — On the river of the same name in southeastern Virginia. 

History. — The Nottaway were found by the Virginia colonists in 
the location given above. Though they were never prominent in 
colonial history, they kept up their organization long after the other 
tribes of the region were practically extinct. In 1825 they are 
mentioned as living on a reservation in Southampton County and 
ruled over by a "queen." The name of this tribe was also applied to 
a band of Indians which appeared on the northern frontiers of South 
Carolina between 1748 and 1754. They may have included those 
Susquehanna who are sometimes confounded with the Meherrin, and 
are more likely to have included Meherrin than true Nottaway 
although they retained the name of the latter (see Swanton, 1946). 

Population. — The number of Nottaway, exclusive of those last 
mentioned, was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,500 in the year 
1600. In 1709 Lawson reported one town with 30 fighting men, but 
in 1827 Byrd estimated that there were 300 Nottaway in Virginia. 
In 1825, 47 were reported. The band that made its appearance on 
the frontiers of South Carolina was said to number about 300. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name of the Notta- 
way is preserved by Nottoway River, Nottoway County, and two towns, 
one the county seat of the above, the other in Sussex county. There 
is a Nottawa in St. Joseph County, Mich. 

Occaneechi. Meaning unknown. 

The Botshenins, or Patshenins, a band associated with the Saponi and 
Tutelo in Ontario, were perhaps identical with this tribe. 

Connections. — The Occaneechi belonged to the Siouan linguistic 
stock; their closest connections were probably the Tutelo and Saponi. 

Location. — On the middle and largest island in Roanoke River, just 
below the confluence of the Staunton and the Dan, near the site of 
Clarksville, Mecklenburg County, Va. (See also North Carolina.) 

History. — Edward Blande and his companions heard of them in 
1650. When first met by Lcderer in 1670 at the spot above 
mentioned, the Occaneechi were noted throughout the region as 
traders, and their language is said to have been the common speech 



66 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

both of trade and religion over a considerable area (Lederer, 1912). 
Between 1670 and 1676 the Occaneechi had been joined by the Tutelo 
and Saponi, who settled upon two neighboring islands. In the latter 
year the Conestoga sought refuge among them and were hospitably 
received, but, attempting to dispossess their benefactors, they were 
driven away. Later, harassed by the Iroquois and English, the 
Occaneechi fled south and in 1701 Lawson (1860) found them on the 
Eno River, about the present Hillsboro, Orange County, N, C. 
Later still they united with the Tutelo and Saponi and followed their 
fortunes, having, according to Byrd, taken the name of the Saponi. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,200 
Occaneechi in the year 1600, There is no later estimate, but in 1709 
this tribe along with the Shakori, Saponi, Tutelo, and Keyauwee 
were about 750. 

Connection in which they have become noted.- — The name Occaneechi is 
associated particularly with the Occaneechi Trail or Trading Path, 
which extended southwest through North and South Carolina from 
the neighborhood of Petersburg, Va . 

Powhatan. Said by Gerard to signify "falls in a current of water," 
and applied originally to one tribe but extended by the English to 
its chief Wahunsonacock, and through him to the body of tribes 
which came under his sway. Also called: 
Sachdagugh-roonaw, Iroquois name. 

Connections. — The Powhatan belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock, their nearest relatives probably being the Algonquian tribes of 
Carolina and the Conoy. 

Location. — In the tidewater section of Virginia from Potomac 
River to the divide between James River and Albemarle Sound, and 
the territory of the present eastern shore of Virginia. (See also 
Maryland and District of Columbia.) 

Subdivisions 
Subtribes constituting this group are as follows: 

Accohanoc, in Accomac and part of Northampton Counties, Va., and probably 

extending slightly into Maryland. 
Accomac, in the southern part of Northampton County, Va. 
Appomattoc, in Chesterfield County. 
Arrohattoc, in Henrico County. 
Chesapeake, in Princess Anne County. 
Chickahominy, on Chickahominy River. 
Chiskiac, in York County. 
Cuttatawomen, in King George County. 
Kecoughtan, in Elizabeth City County. 
Mattapony on Mattapony River. 
Moraughtacund, in Lancaster and Richmond Counties. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 67 

Mummapacune, on York River. 

Nansemond, in Nansemond County. 

Nantaughtacund, in Essex and Caroline Counties. 

Onawmanient, in Westmoreland County. 

Pamunkey, in King William County. 

Paspahegh, in Charles City and James City Counties. 

Pataunck, on Pamunkey River. 

Piankatank, on Piankatank River. 

Pissasec, in King George and Westmoreland Counties. 

Potomac, in Stafford and King George Counties. 

Powhatan, in Henrico County. 

Rappahannock, in Richmond County. 

Secacawoni, in Northumberland County. 

Tauxenent, in Fairfax County. 

Warrasqueoc, in Isle of Wight County. 

Weanoc, in Charles City County. 

Werowocomoco, in Gloucester County. 

Wicocomoco, in Northumberland County. 

Youghtanund, on Pamunkey River. 

Villages 

Accohanoc, on the river of the same name in Accomac or Northampton Counties. 

Accomac, according to Jefferson (1801), about Cheriton, on Cherrystone Inlet, 
Northampton County. 

Acconoc, between Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers, in New Kent County. 

Accoqueck, on Rappahannock River, above Secobec, in Caroline County. 

Accossuwinck, on Pamunkey River, King William County. 

Acquack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in Caroline County. 

Appamattoc, on the site of Bermuda Hundred, in Prince George County. 

Appocant, on the north bank of Chickahominy River, in New Kent County. 

Arrohattoc, in Henrico County on the James River, 12 miles below the falls at 
Richmond. 

Askakep, near Pamunkey River in New Kent County. 

Assaomeck, near Alexandria. 

Assuweska, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George County, 

Attamtuck, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers in New Kent 
County. 

Auboraesk, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond County. 

Aureuapeugh, on Rappahannock River in Essex County. 

Cantaunkack, on York River in Gloucester County. 

Capahowasic, about Cappahosic in Gloucester County. 

Cattachiptico, on Pamunkey River in King William County. 

Cawwontoll, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 

Chawopo, at the mouth of Chipoak Creek, Surry County. 

Checopissowo, on Rappahannock River above Tobacco Creek, in Caroline County. 

Chesakawon, above the mouth of Corotoman River, in Lancaster County. 

Chesapeake, according to Jefferson on Linnhaven River in Princess Anne County, 

a small stream flowing north into Chesapeake Bay. 
Chiconessex, about Wiseville, in Accomac County. 
Chincoteague, about Chincoteague Inlet, in Accomac County. 
Chiskiac, on the south side of York River, about 10 miles below the junction of 
the Mattapony and Pamunkey. 



68 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Cinquack, near Smiths Point on the Potomac, in Northumberland County. 
Cinquoteck, in the fork of Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers, in King William 

County. 
Cuttatawomen, (1) on the Rappahannock River at Corotoman River in Lancaster 

County; (2) about Lamb Creek on the Rappahannock, in King George County. 
Gangasco, near Eastville, in Northampton County. 
Kapawnich, on the north bank of the Rappahannock, about Corotoman River in 

Lancaster County. 
Kerahocak, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in King George County. 
Kiequotank, on the eastern shore of Accomac County, north of Metomkin. 
Kupkipcock, on Pamunkey River in King William County. 
Machapunga, (1) in Northampton County; (2) on Potomac River. 
Mamanahunt, on Chickahominy River, in Charles City County. 
Mamanassy, at the junction of Pamunkey and Mattapony Rivers in King and 

Queen County. 
Mangoraca, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond County. 
Mantoughquemec, on Nansemond River, in Nansemond County. 
Martoughquaunk, on Mattapony River in Caroline County. 

Massawoteck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County. 
Matchopick, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 
Matchut, on Pamunkey River, in New Kent County. 
Mathomauk, on the west bank of James River, in Isle of Wight County. 
Matomkin, about Metomkin Inlet in Accomac County. 
Mattacock, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County. 
Mattacunt, on the south side of Potomac River in King George County. 
Mattanock, on the west side of Nansemond River, near its mouth, in Nansemond 

County. 
Maysonec, on the north bank of the Chickahominy in New Kent County. 
Menacupunt, on Pamunkey River, in King William County. 
Menaskunt, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 
Meyascosic, on the north side of James River in Charles City County. 
Mohominge, near the falls of James River, in Richmond County. 
Mokete, on Warrasqueoc Creek, in Isle of Wight County. 
Moraughtacund, near the mouth of Moratico River in Richmond County. 
Mouanast, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in King George County. 
Mutchut, on the north bank of the Mattapony River in King and Queen County. 
Muttamussinsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Caroline County. 
Myghtuckpassu, on the south bank of Mattapony River in King William County. 
Namassingakent, on the south bank of Potomac River in Fairfax County. 
Nameroughquena, on the south bank of the Potomac River in Alexandria County, 

opposite Washington, D. C. 
Nansemond, probably about Chuckatuck in Nansemond County. 
Nantapoyac, on the south bank of James River in Surry County. 
Nantaughtacund, on the south side of the Rappahannock River in either Essex 

County or Caroline County. 
Nawacaten, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 
Nawnautough, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond 

County. 
Nechanicok, on the south bank of the Chickahominy in the lower part of Henrico 

County. 
Nepawtacum, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Lancaster County. 
Onancock, near Onancock in Accomac County. 
Onawmanient, probably on Nominy Bay, in Westmoreland County. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 69 

Opiscopank, on the south bank of the Rappahannock River in Middlesex County. 
Oquomock, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 
Orapaks, in New Kent County, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers. 
Ottachugh, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Lancaster County. 
Ozatawomen, on the south bank of the Potomac River in King George County. 
Ozenic, on Chickahominy River in New Kent County. 
Pamawauk, perhaps identical with Pamunkey. 

Pamuncoroy, on the south bank of Pamunkey River in New Kent County. 
Pamunkey, probably near West Point in King William County. 
Papiscone, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George County. 
Pasaugtacock, on the north bank of York River in King and Queen County. 
Paspahegh, (1) on the south bank of Chickahominy River in Charles City County; 

(2) on the north bank of James River in Charles City Countj'. 
Passaunkack, on the south bank of Mattapony River in the northwestern part of 

King William County. 
Pastanza, on or near Potomac River, possibly on Aquia Creek, in Stafford County. 
Pawcocomac, on the north bank of Rappahannock River at the mouth of the Coro- 

toman in Lancaster County. 
Peccarecamek, an Indian settlement reported on the southern Virginia border, 

perhaps mythical. 
Pemacocack, on the west bank of Potomac River in Prince William County about 

30 miles below Alexandria. 
Piankatank, on Piankatank River in Middlesex County. 

Pissacoac, on the north bank of Rappahannock River above Leedstown in West- 
moreland County. 
Poruptanck, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County. 
Potaucac, in New Kent County between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey 

Rivers. 
Potomac, about 55 miles in a straight line from Chesapeake Bay, on a peninsula 

in what is now Stafford County, formed by Potomac River and Potomac 

Creek. 
Powcomonet, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 
Powhatan, on the north bank of James River at the falls on ground now forming 

an eastern suburb of Richmond. 
Poyektauk, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 
Poykemkack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 
Pungoteque, in Accomac County, probably near Metomkin Inlet. 
Quackcohowaon, on the south bank of the Mattapony in King William County. 
Quioucohanock, probably on an eminence now called Wharf Bluff just east of 

Upper Chipoak Creek in Surry County. 
Quiyough, on the south bank of Aquia Creek near its mouth, in Stafford County. 
Rappahannock, at the mouth of a creek on Rappahannock River in Richmond 

County. 
Rickahake, probably in Norfolk County. 

Righkahauk, on the west bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent County. 
Ritanoe, probably Powhatan, in Virginia or North Carolina. 
Roscows, in Elizabeth City County. 
Secacawoni, at the mouth of Coan Creek on the south bank of the Potomac in 

Northumberland County. 
Secobec, on the south bank of Rappahannock River in CaroUne County. 
Shamapa, on Pamunkey or York River. 

Sockobeck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County. 
Tantucquask, on Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 



70 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Tauxenent, about Mount Vernon in Fairfax County. 

Teracosick, on the west bank of Nansemond River in Nansemond County. 
Utenstank, on the north bank of Mattapony River in Caroline County. 
Uttamussac, on the north bank of Pamunkey River in King WiUiam County. 
Uttamussamacoma, on the south bank of Potomac River in Westmoreland 

County. 
Waconiask, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County. 
Warrasqueoc, on the south bank of James River at the mouth of Warrasqueoc 

Creek in Isle of Wight County. 
Weanoc, below the mouth of Appamattox River at the present Weyanoke in 

Prince George County. 
Wecuppom, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 
Werawahon, on the north bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent County. 
Werowacomoco, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County about 

opposite the mouth of Queen Creek. 
Wicocomoco, at the mouth of Wicomico River in Northumberland County. 
Winsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. 

History. — The Powhatan were visited by some very early explorers, 
including probably the Cabots in 1498. Their territory was well 
known to the Spaniards in the latter part of the sixteenth century and 
a Jesuit mission was established among them in 1570 though soon 
extinguished by the Indians. In 1607 the Vii'ginia colony was 
planted on James River and from that time on relations between the 
Whites and Powhatans were of the most intimate character, friendly 
at first, but later disturbed by the exactions of the newcomers. Peace 
was restored for a time by the marriage of Powhatan's daughter 
Pocahontas to John Rolfe, and lasted until Powhatan's death in 1618. 
In 1622 Powhatan's second successor, Opechancanough, led an up- 
rising against the colonists, as a result of which all of the White set- 
tlements except those immediately about Jamestown were destroyed. 
War continued until 1636 when exhaustion of both sides led to peace, 
but in 1644 Opechancanough led another uprising as destructive as 
the first. He was captured and was killed the same year. The tribes 
made peace separately, and they were placed upon reservations, 
where they gradually dwindled away. In 1654 or 1656 the Pamunkey 
assisted the English in resisting an invasion of some inland people, 
but the allied army was severely defeated (see Manahoac). In 1675 
these Indians were accused of having committed certain depredations, 
really caused by the Conestoga, and several unauthorized expeditions 
were led against them by Nathaniel Bacon. In August 1676, a 
great body of them gathered in a fort near Richmond which was car- 
ried by storm, and men, women, and cliildren indiscriminately mas- 
sacred. Peace was made with the survivors on condition that an 
annual tribute be paid by each village. In 1722 in a treaty made at 
Albany between the English and Iroquois, the latter agreed to cease 
their attacks upon the Powhatan Indians, but the Powhatans already 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 71 

had been greatly reduced and they continued to decline. Those on 
the eastern shore of Virginia, who had become very much mixed with 
Negroes, were driven away in 1831 during the excitement caused by 
the slave rising under Nat Turner. In 1785 Jefferson reported the 
Powhatan Indians reduced to two tribes, the Pamunkey and Matta- 
pony, embracing only about 15 men, but he must have overlooked 
great numbers of these Indians, for at the present time there are 
several bands, including the Chickahominy, Nansemond, Pamunkey, 
Mattapony, Upper Mattapony, Rappahannock, Wicocomoco, Poto- 
mac, Powhatan, and Werowocomoco (Speck, 1925). 

Population. — The Powhatan population was estimated by Mooney 
(1928) as 9,000 in 1600; Smith (1884) allows them 2,400 warriors; in 
1669 a census gave 528 warriors or about 2,000 population, the Wico- 
comoco being then the largest tribe. In 1705 the Pamunkey by 
themselves numbered 150 souls. Jefferson in 1785 represented the 
two tribes which he mentions as having but 15 men; Mooney, however, 
believed that there must have been a population of something like 
1,000 because of the number of mixed -bloods still surviving. The 
census of 1910 returned 115 Chickahominy and 85 Pamunkey. The 
United States Office of Indian Affairs Report for 1923 includes still 
other bands, giving in all a population of 822, and Speck (1925) gives 
the names of 10 bands aggregating 2,118 in 1923. The census of 
1930 returned only 203 Indians from Virginia but evidently missed 
nearly all except the Pamunkey. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Powhatan Con- 
federacy is famous as embracing those Indians among whom the 
first permanent English settlement in North America was made; for 
the personal character of its chief, Powhatan, who had conquered 
about 24 tribes, in addition to the 6 under him at his accession, before 
the appearance of the Europeans; on account of the dealings of the 
Whites with both Powhatan and his brother Opechancanough, as 
well as the massacre of the settlers by the latter in 1622 and again in 
1644; and not least from the fame attached to Powhatan's daughter, 
Pocahontas. There are post villages named Powhatan in Jefferson 
County, Ala.; Lawrence County, Ark.; Natchitoches Parish, La.; 
McDowell County, W. Va. ; a county and county seat of the name in 
Virginia; Powhatan Point in Belmont County, Ohio; and Powhattan 
in Brown County, Kans. 

Saponi. Evidently a corruption of Monasiccapano or Monasuka- 
panough, which, as shown by Bushnell, is probably derived in part 
from a native term "moni-seep" signifying "shallow water." Paa- 
nese is a corruption and in no way connected with the word "Pawnee." 
Connections. — The Saponi belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, 

their nearest relations being the Tutelo. 



72 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

Location. — The earliest known location of the Saponi has been 
identified by Bushnell (1930) with high probability with "an extensive 
village site on the banks of the Rivanna, in Albemarle County, 
directly north of the University of Virginia and about one-half mile 
up the river from the bridge of the Southern Railway." This was 
their location when, if ever, they formed a part of the Monacan 
Confederacy. (See also North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and New York.) 

Villages 

The principal Saponi settlement usually bore the same name as the tribe or, 
at least, it has survived to us under that name. In 1670 Lederer reports another 
which he visited called Pintahae, situated not far from the main Saponi town after 
it had been removed to Otter Creek, southwest of the present Lynchburg (Lederer, 
1912), but this was probably the Nahyssan town. 

History. — As first pointed out by Mooney (1895), the Saponi tribe 
is identical with the Monasukapanough which appears on Smith's 
map as though it were a town of the Monacan and may in fact have 
been such. Before 1670, and probably between 1650 and 1660, they 
moved to the southwest and probably settled on Otter Creek, as 
above indicated. In 1670 they were visited by Lederer in their new 
home and by Thomas Batts (1912) a year later. Not long afterward 
they and the Tutelo moved to the junction of the Staunton and Dan 
Rivers, where each occupied an island in Roanoke River in Mecklen- 
burg County. This .movement was to enable them to escape the 
attacks of the Iroquois, and for the same reason they again moved 
south before 1701, when Lawson (1860) found them on Yadkin River 
near the present site of Salisbury, N. C. Soon afterward they left 
this place and gravitated toward the White settlements in Virginia. 
They evidently crossed Roanoke River before the Tuscarora War of 
1711, establishing themselves a short distance east of it and 15 miles 
west of the present Windsor, Bertie County, N. C. A little later 
they, along with the Tutelo and some other tribes, were placed by 
Governor Spotswood near Fort Chris tanna, 10 miles north of Roanoke 
River about the present Gholsonville, Brunswick County. The name 
of Sappony Creek in Dinwiddle County, dating back to 1733 at least, 
indicates that they sometimes extended their excursions north of 
Nottoway River. By the treaty of Albany (1722) the Iroquois 
agreed to stop incursions on the Virginia Indians and, probably about 
1740, the greater part of the Saponi and the Tutelo moved north 
stopping for a time at Shamokin, Pa., about the site of Sunbury. 
One band, however, remained in the south, in Granville County, 
N. C, until at least 1755, when they comprised 14 men and 14 women. 
In 1753 the Cayuga Iroquois formally adopted this tribe and the 
Tutelo. Some of them remained on the upper waters of the Susque- 
hanna in Pennsylvania until 1778, but in 1771 the principal section 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 73 

had their village in the territory of the Cayuga, about 2 miles south 
of Ithaca, N. Y. They are said to have separated from the Tutelo 
in 1779 at Niagara, when the latter fled to Canada, and to have 
become lost, but a portion, at least, were living with the Cayuga on 
Seneca River in Seneca County, N. Y., in 1780. Besides the Person 
County Indians, a band of Saponi Indians remained behind in North 
Carolina which seems to have fused with the Tuscarora, Meherrin, 
and Alachapunga and gone north with them in 1802. 

Population. — The Saponi and the Tutelo are identified by Mooney 
(1928) as remnants of the Manahoac and Monacan with an estimated 
population of 2,700 in 1600. In 1716 the Huguenot Fontaine found 
200 Saponi, Manahoac, and Tutelo at Fort Christanna. In 1765, when 
they were living on the upper Susquehanna, the Saponi are said to have 
had 30 warriors. The main North Carolina band counted 20 warriors 
in 1761, and those in Person County, 14 men and 14 women in 1755. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — A small place called 
Sapona, in Davidson County, N. C, east of the Yadkin River, 
preserves the name of the Saponi. 

Shakori. They seem to have lived in the State at one time. (See 
North Carolina.) 

Shawnee. Indians of this tribe were settled for a time in the Shen- 
andoah Valley. (See Tennessee.) 

Tutelo. Significance unknown but used by the Iroquois, who seem 
to have taken it from some southern tongue. Also called: 

Kattera, another form of Tutelo. 
Shateras, a third form of the name. 

Connections. — The Tutelo belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, 
their nearest connections being the Saponi and probably the Monacan. 

Location. — The oldest known town site of the Tutelo was near 
Salem, Va., though the Big Sandy River at one time bore their name 
and may have been an earlier seat. (See also North Carolina, New 
York, and Pennsylvania.) 

History. — In 1671 Fallam and Batts (1912) visited the town above 
mentioned. Some years later the Tutelo moved to an island in 
Roanoke River just above the Occaneechi, but in 1701 Lawson 
found them still farther southwest, probably about the headwaters of 
the Yadkin (Lawson, 1860). From that time forward they accom- 
panied the Saponi until the latter tribe separated from them at 
Niagara as above noted. In 1771 they were settled on the east side 
of Cayuga Inlet about 3 miles from the south end of the lake. This 
village was destroyed by Sullivan in 1779, but the Tutelo continued 
to live among the Cayuga sufficiently apart to retain their own 
language until 1898, when the last individual who could speak it 



74 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

fluently died. A certain amount of Tutelo blood flows in the veins of 
some of the Iroquois. (For further information, see Swanton (1937).) 

Population. — (See Saponi.) In 1701-9, according to Lawson (1860), 
the Tutelo, Saponi, Keyauwee, Occaneechi, and Shakori numbered 
together about 750. In 1715 Governor Spotswood reported that the 
Indians at Fort Christanna, including the Tutelo, Saponi, Occaneechi, 
and Manahoac, numbered 300. In 1763 the Tutelo, Saponi, Nanti- 
coke, and Conoy had 200 men, probably less than 1,000 souls. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Tutelo are note- 
worthy chiefly as the principal body of Siouan Indians from Virginia 
to retain their integrity and preserve a knowledge of their language 
late enough for a permanent record of it to be made. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Moneton. Meaning "Big Water" people. 

Connections. — The Moneton belonged to the Siouan linguistic 
family; their nearest connections were probably the Manahoac and 
Monacan of Virginia and perhaps the Ofo of Ohio and Mississippi. 

Location. — Probably on the lower course of Kanawha River, 

History. — The Moneton were first mentioned by Thomas Batts in 
1671. (See Alvord and Bidgood, 1912.) Three years later they were 
visited by Gabriel Arthur, an indentured servant of the trader Abraham 
Wood, and this is the last we hear of them as an independent tribe. 
They probably united with the Siouan people in the Piedmont region 
of Virginia. 

Population. — Unknown. Arthur calls the principal Moneton 
settlement "a great town." 

Cherokee (see Tennessee), Conoy (see Maryland), Delaware 
(see New Jersey), Honniasont and Susquehanna (see Pennsylvania), 
and Shawnee (see Tennessee) settled in various parts of West Virginia 
from time to time, but none of them was established there at an early 
date for an appreciable period except perhaps the Conoy, whose name 
appears to be perpetuated in that of the Kanawha River. There is 
no information regarding the Moneton residence there other than the 
preservation of their name. 

NORTH CAROLINA 
Bear River Indians. A body of Indians mentioned by Lawson and 
associated with Algonquian tribes. They may have been a part of 
the Machapunga (q. v.). Rights (1947) calls them the Bear River 
or Bay River Indians. Lawson (1709) gives the name of their town 
as Raudauqua-quank and estimates the number of their fighting 
men at 50. Mooney (1928) places them with the Pamlico in his 
estimate as of the year 1600 and gives the two a population of 1,000. 
(See also California for another tribe of the same name.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 75 

Cape Fear Indians. Named from Cape Fear, their native designation 

being unknown or indeed whether they were an independent tribe 

or a part of some other. 

Connections. — No words of the language of the Cape Fear Indians 
have been preserved, but early references clearly associate them with 
the eastern Siouan tribes, and they may have been a part of the Wac- 
camaw, since Waccamaw River heads close to Cape Fear, They 
would then have been connected with the Siouan linguistic family 
and probably with the southern Atlantic division of which Catawba 
is the typical member. 

Location. — On Cape Fear River, as above stated. (See also South 
Carolina.) 

Villages 

The only village mentioned by name is Necoes, about 20 miles from the mouth 
of Cape Fear River, probably in Brunswick County. In 1715 five villages were 
reported. 

History. — While the Cape Fear Indians were probably met by sev- 
eral of the early voyagers, our first specific notice of them comes from 
the narratives of a New England colony planted on Cape Fear River 
in 1661. These settlers seized some of the Indian children and sent 
them away under pretense of instructing them in the ways of civiliza- 
tion and were themselves in consequence driven off. In 1663 a colony 
from Barbadoes settled here but soon left. In 1665 a third colony 
established itself at the mouth of Oldtown Creek in Brunswick 
County, on the south side of the river, on land bought from the Indians, 
but, though the latter were friendly, like the others this attempt at 
settlement was soon abandoned. They were visited by Capt. William 
Hilton in 1663. In 1695 they asked to be taken under the protection 
of Governor Archdale. The protection was granted and shortly 
afterward they rescued 52 passengers from a wrecked New England 
vessel who formed the nucleus of Christ Church Parish north of 
Cooper River. A few Cape Fear Indians accompanied Barnwell on 
his Tuscarora expedition in 1711-12. They were active in his behalf 
as scouts and also guarded the region around Port Royal. After the 
Yamasee War they were removed to South Carolina and settled inland 
from Charleston, probably in Williamsburg County (Milling. 1940). 
In the latter part of the eighteenth century, a remnant of this tribe 
and the Pedee lived in the Parishes of St. Stephens and St. Johns under 
a chief called King John. By 1808 only a half-breed woman remained 
of these two tribes, though others may have removed to the Catawba. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates a population of 1,000 Cape 
Fear Indians in 1600. The census of 1715, above mentioned, gives 
206. In 1808 White neighbors remembered when as many as 30 
Pedee and Cape Fear Indians lived in their old territories. 



76 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

Catawba. This tribe occupied parts of southwestern North Carolina 
near Catawba River. (See South Carolina.) 

Cheraw. Significance unknown. Also called: 

Ani'-Suwa'li, Cherokee name. 

Saraw, Suali, synonyms even more common than Cheraw. 
Xuala, Xualla, Spanish and Portuguese forms of the word, the x being 
intended for sh. 

Connections. — The Cheraw are classed on circumstantial grounds in 
the Siouan linguistic family though no words of their tongue have been 
preserved. 

Location. — The earliest known location of the Cheraw appears to 
have been near the head of Saluda River in Pickens and Oconee 
Counties, S. C, whence they removed at an early date to the present 
Henderson, Polk, and Rutherford Counties. 

Villages 
The names given are always those of the tribe, though we have a "Lower Saura 
Town" and an "Upper Saura Town" on a map dating from 1760. 

History. — Mooney (1928) has shown that the Cheraw are identical 
with the Xuala province which De Soto entered in 1540, remaining 
about 4 days. They were visited by Pardo at a later date, and almost 
a hundred years afterward Lederer (1912) heard of them in the same 
region. Before 1700 they left their old country and moved to the 
Dan River near the southern line of Virginia, where they seem to 
have had two distinct settlements about 30 miles apart. About the 
year 1710, on account of constant Iroquois attacks, they moved 
southeast and joined the Keyauwee. The colonists of North Carolina, 
being dissatisfied at the proximity of these and other tribes, Governor 
Eden declared war against the Cheraw, and applied to Virginia for 
assistance. This Governor Spots wood refused, as he believed the 
Carolinians were the aggressors, but the contest was prosecuted by 
the latter until after the Yamasee War. During this period complaint 
was made that the Cheraw were responsible for most of the depre- 
dations committed north of Santee River and they were accused of 
trying to draw the coast tribes into an alliance with them. It was 
asserted also that arms were being supplied them from Virginia. The 
Cheraw were then living upon the upper course of the Great Pee Dee, 
near the line between the two colonies and in the later Cheraw dis- 
trict of South Carolina. Being stiU subject to attack by the Iroquois, 
they finally — between 1726 and 1739 — became incorporated with the 
Catawba, with whom at an earlier date they had been at enmity. 
In 1759 a party joined the English in their expedition against Fort 
Duquesne, but the last notice of them is in 1768 when the remnant 
was still living with the Catawba. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 77 

Population. — During the Spanish period the Cheraw appear to 
have been of considerable importance but no estimate of their num- 
bers has come down to us. Mooney (1928) gives 1,200 as a probable 
figure for the year 1600. The census of 1715 gives 140 men and a 
total of 510, probably including the Keyauwee and perhaps some other 
tribes. In 1768 the survivors numbered 50 to 60. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Cheraw are famous 
as one of the few tribes in the Carolinas mentioned by De Soto's 
chi'oniclers which can be identified and located with fair precision. 
They were noted later for their persistent hostility to the English 
and have left their name in vSuwali Gap in the Blue Ridge Mountains, 
N. C; in Saura Town Mountains, Stokes County, N. C; in the town 
of Cheraw, Chesterfield County, S. C. ; and possibly in the Uwaharrie 
River and Uwaharrie Mountains of North Carolina. There is a 
locality named Cheraw in Otero County, Colo. 

Cherokee. The Cherokee lived in the mountainous parts of the 
State in the west. (See Tennessee.) 

Chowanoc. Meaning in Algonquian "(people) at the south." 

Connections. — The Chowanoc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 

family and were evidently most nearly allied to the other North 

Carolina Algonquians. 

Location. — On Chowan River about the junction of Meherrin and 

Blackwater Rivers. 

Villages 

MaratoD, on the east bank of Chowan River in Chowan County. 

Ohanoak, on the west side of Chowan River not far below Nottoway River 

probably in Hertford County. 
Catoking, (probably) near Gatesville, in Gates County. 
Metocaum, on Chowan River in the present Bertie County. 
Ramushonok, apparently between the Meherrin and Nottoway Rivers in Hertford 

County. 

History. — In 1584-85, when first known to Europeans, the Chow- 
anoc were the leading tribe in northeastern North Carolina. In 
1663 they entered into a treaty with the English by which they sub- 
mitted to the English Crown, but they violated this in 1075 and after 
a year of warfare were compelled to confine themselves to a reserva- 
tion on Bennett's Creek which became reduced by 1707 from 12 square 
miles to 6. They sided with the colonists in the Tuscarora War, and 
at about the same time were visited by a Church of England mis- 
sionary, Giles Rainsford. In 1723 a reservation of 53,000 acres was 
set aside for them conjointly with the Tuscarora and in 1733 they 
were given permission to incorporate with that tribe. They con- 
tinued to decline in numbers until in 1755 Governor Dobbs stated 
that only 2 men and 3 women were left. 



78 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Population. — In 1584-85 one of the Chowanoc towns, Ohanoak, 
was said to contain 700 warriors, and Mooney (1928) estimates their 
numbers at about 1,500 in 1600, In 1707 they were reduced to one 
town with about 15 fighting men, but at the end of the Tuscarora 
War their numbers were placed at 240. In 1731 less than 20 families 
were reported and by 1755 only 5 individuals, as above noted. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Chowanoc seem 
to have been the most powerful Algonquian tribe south of the Pow- 
hatan, Their memory is preserved in the names of Chowan River 
and Chowan County, and in the -designation of a small post office in 
the county of the name, all in North Carolina, 

Coree, or Coranine. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — As the final stage of the Coree existence was passed 
with an Algonquian tribe, some have thought that the affiliations of 
this people were also Algonquian, On the other hand Lawson (1860) 
notes that their language and that of a tribe to the north were mutually 
intelligible and there is reason for thinking that this northern tribe 
belonged to the Iroquois Confederacy, At least the Coree were 
closely associated in many ways with the Iroquoian Tuscarora, 

Location. — On the peninsula south of Neuse River in Carteret and 
Craven Counties, 

Villages 

Coranine, probably on the coast in Carteret County, 

Narhantes, among the Tuscarora, 30 miles from Newbern, 

Raruta, probably on the coast of Carteret County, south of Neuse River. 

History. — When the Coree and the Whites first met is unknown, 
but they appear in the records of the Raleigh colony under the name 
Cwarennoc, They were greatly reduced before 1696 in a war with 
another people. They took part with the Tuscarora in their war 
against the colonists, and in 1715 the remnant of them and what was 
left of the Machapunga were assigned a reservation on Mattamuskeet 
Lake in Hyde County, where they occupied one village, probably 
until they became extinct. A few of them appear to have remained 
with the Tuscarora, 

Population. — The population of this tribe and the Neusiok was 
estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,000 in 1600, In 1707 Lawson says 
they had 25 fighting men and were living in 2 villages. No later 
enumeration is known. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Although some distance 
from the Coree country, Core Creek Station in Craven County, N. C, 
may perpetuate the name of the Coree. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 79 

Eno. Significance unknown, but Speck suggests i'nare, "to dislike," 
whence, "mean," "contemptible"; ye°i'nare, "People disliked," 
Haynokes, synonym from Yardley (1654). 

Connections. — The Eno were probably of the Siouan linguistic 
stock, though, on account of certain peculiarities attributed to them, 
Mooney (1895) casts some doubt upon this. Their nearest relatives 
were the Shakori. 

Location. — On Eno River in the present Orange and Durham 
Counties. (See also South Carolina.) 

Villages 
The only village name recorded, distinct from that of the tribe, is Adshusheer, 
a town which they shared with the Shakori. It is located by Mooney (1928) near 
the present Hillsboro. Lawson (1860) speaks in one place as if it were a tribe but 
as there is no other mention of it, it is more likely that it was simply the name of 
the town which the Eno and Shakori occupied. 

History. — The Eno are first mentioned by Governor Yeardley of 
Virginia, who was told that they had valiantly resisted the northward 
advance of the Spaniards. From this it appears possible that they 
had formerly lived upon the Enoree River in South Carolina, which 
lay on the main trail from St. Helena to the Cheraw country at the 
foot of the Appalachian INIountains. Lederer (1912) mentions them 
in 1671 and Lawson (1860) in 1701 when they and the Shakori were 
in the town of Adshusheer. About 1714, together with the Shakori, 
Tutelo, Saponi, Occaneechi, and Keyauwee, they began to move 
toward the Virginia settlements. In 1716 Governor Spotswood of 
Virginia proposed to settle the Eno, Cheraw, and Keyuawee at Eno 
town "on the very frontiers" of North Carolina but the project was 
defeated by the latter province on the ground that all three tribes 
were then at war with South Carolina. From the records it is not 
clear whether this Eno town was the old settlement or a new one 
nearer the Albemarle colonists. Owing to the defeat of this plan, the 
Eno moved into South Carolina. Presumably they finally united 
with the Catawba, among whom, Adair (1930) states, their dialect 
was still spoken in 1743. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the combined Eno, Shakori, 
and Adshusheer at 1,500 in 1600. In 1714 the Eno, Shakori, Tutelo, 
Saponi, Occaneechi, and Keyauwee totaled 750. There is no other 
record of their numbers. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — In marked distinction 
from their neighbors, the Eno had taken to a trading life. Their 
name was given to Eno River in Orange and Durham Counties, N. C, 
and perhaps to a place called Enno in the southwestern part of Wake 
County, and to Enoree River in South Carolina (see above), as also 
to a post village near the last mentioned. 



80 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Hatteras. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — The Hatteras belonged to the Algonquian Hnguistic 
family. 

Location. — Among the sandbanks about Cape Hatteras east of 
Pamlico Sound and frequenting Roanoke Island. 

Village 
Sandbanks, on Hatteras Island. 

History. — Lawson (1860) thought the Hatteras showed traces of 
White blood and therefore they may have been the Croatan Indians 
with whom Raleigh's colonists are supposed to have taken refuge. 
They disappeared soon after as a distinct tribe and united with the 
mainland Algonquians. In 1761, the Rev. Alex. Stewart baptized 7 
Indians and mixed-blood children of the "Attamuskeet, Hatteras, and 
Roanoke" tribes and 2 years later he baptized 21 more. 

Population. — The Hatteras population has been estimated with the 
Machapunga and other tribes at 1,200 in 1600; they had 16 warriors 
in 1701, or a total population of about 80. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The possible connec- 
tion of the Hatteras with the Croatan has been mentioned and their 
name has become perpetuated in the dangerous cape at the angle of 
the outer sand islands of their old country. 

Keyauwee. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — From the historical affiliations of Keyauwee, they are 
presumed to have been of the Siouan linguistic family. 

Location. — About the points of meeting of the present Guilford, 
Davidson, and Randolph Counties. (See also South Carolina.) 

Villages 
No separately named villages are known. 

History. — The Keyauwee do not appear to have been noted by 
white men before 1701 when Lawson (1860) found them in a palisaded 
village about 30 miles northeast of Yadkin River near the present 
Highpoint, Guilford County. At that time they were preparing to 
join the Saponi and Tutelo for better protection against their enemies, 
and, shortly afterward, together with the last mentioned tribes, the 
Occaneechi, and the Shakori, they moved toward the settlements 
about Albemarle Sound. As mentioned already. Governor Spots- 
wood's project to settle this tribe together with the Eno and Cheraw 
at Eno town on the frontier of North Carolina was foiled by the opposi- 
tion of the latter colony. The Keyauwee then moved southward to 
the Pee Dee along with the Cheraw, and perhaps the Eno and Shakori. 
In the Jefferys atlas of 1761 their town appears close to the boundary 
line between the two Carolinas. They do not reappear in any of the 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 81 

historical records but probably united ultimately in part with the 
Catawba, while some of their descendants are represented among the 
Robeson County Indians, often miscalled Croatan. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates 500 Kcyauwee in ICOO. In 
1701 they are said to have numbered approximately as many as the 
Saponi, but the population of that tribe also is unknown. Shortly 
afterward it is stated that the Keyauwee, Tutelo, Saponi, Occaneechi, 
and Shakori totaled 750 souls. This is all the information that we 
have. 

Machapunga. Said to mean "bad dust," or "much dirt," in the 
native Algonquian language. 

Connections. — The Machapunga belonged to the Algonquian lin- 
guistic stock. 

Location. — In the present Hyde County and probably also in 
Washington, Tyrrell, and Dare Counties, and part of Beaufort. 

Villages 

The only village named is Mattamuskeet (probably on Mattamuskeet Lake 
in Hyde County). However, we should probably add Secotan on the north bank 
of Pamlico River in Beaufort County, and perhaps the town of the Bear River 
Indians (q. v.). 

History. — The Machapunga seem to have embraced the larger part 
of the descendants of the Secotan, who lived between Albemarle and 
Pamlico Sounds when the Raleigh colony was established on Roanoke 
Island (1585-86) though the Pamlico may also have been included 
under the same head. They were reduced to a single village by 1701, 
took part with other Indian tribes of the region in the Tuscarora War, 
and at its close were settled on Mattamuskeet Lake with the Coree. 
In 1761 a small number were still living in North Carolina, evidently 
at the same place, and the Rev. Alex. Stewart reported that he had 
baptized seven Indian and mixed-blood children belonging to the 
"Attamuskeet, Hatteras, and Roanoke." On a second visit 2 years 
later he baptized 21 more. 

Population. — The Machapunga are estimated by Mooney (1928) to 
have numbered 1,200, including some smaller tribes, in 1600. In 1701 
Lawson gives 30 warriors, probably less than 100 souls (Lawson, 
1860). In 1775 there were said to be 8 to 10 on the mainland and as 
many more on the off-shore banks. In 1761 the number of warriors 
was only 7 or 8. The Bear River Indians (q. v.) may have combined 
with these. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — In the form Machi- 
pongo, the name is applied to a post village in Northampton County, 
Va. 



82 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Meherrin. This tribe extended across from Virginia into North- 
ampton and Hertford Counties. (See Virginia.) 

Moratok. A place name, but the meaning otherwise unknown. 

Connections. — There is little doubt that the Moratok belonged to 
the Algonquian linguistic stock and were closely related to the other 
Algonquian tribes of the sound region of North Carolina. 

Location. — On Roanoke River and apparently on the north side, and 
estimated to be 160 miles up the river, though the distance is evidently 
reckoned from the Raleigh settlement on Roanoke Island. 

Villages 
The village bearing the name of the tribe is the only one known. 

History. — The sole mention of the Moratok is in the narratives of 
the Raleigh expeditions. They were first recognized as an independent 
tribe by Mr. Maurice Mook (1943 a). 

Population. — Unknown but reported as large. 
Natchez. Part of the Natchez Indians sought refuge with the Chero- 
kee after their tribe had been broken up by the French, and most of 
them appear to have lived along Hiwassee River. They accom- 
panied those Cherokee who moved to Oklahoma and settled on the 
western margin of the Cherokee Reservation, where a few of them 
retained their language long enough to have it recorded. (See 
Mississippi.) 

Neusiok. Probably a place name. 

Connections. — The form of this name suggests that the Neusiok were 
of the Algonquian stock, but they may have been Iroquoian like their 
neighbors the Tuscarora and Coree (?). 

Location. — On lower Neuse River particularly on the south side, in 
Craven and Cartaret Counties. 

Village 
Chattooka, on the site of Newbern, and Rouconk, exact location unknown. 

History. — In 1584 Amadas and Barlowe heard of the Neusiok as a 
war with the tribes farther north. The later settlers speak of them 
as Neuse Indians. They dwindled away rapidly after White contact 
and perhaps united finally with the Tuscarora. 

Population. — With the Coree the Neusiok are estimated by Mooney 
(1928) at 1,000 in the year 1600. In 1709 they numbered but 15 
warriors although occupying two towns. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Neusiok is 
connected with that of the River Neuse in North Carolina, and a 
post village. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA S3 

Occaneechi. When the Occaneechi lived on Roanoke River, Va., 
they probably ranged over into Warren, Halifax, and Northampton 
Counties, N. C. In 1701 they were in Orange County, N. C. (See 
Virginia.) 

Pamlico. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — The Pamlico belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock. 

Location. — On Pamlico River. 

History. — The Pamlico are mentioned by the Raleigh colonists in 
1585-86 under the name Pomouik. In 1696 they were almost de- 
stroyed by smallpox. In 1701 Lawson recorded a vocabulary from 
them which shows their affiliations to have been as given above 
(Lawson, 1860). In 1710 they lived in a single small village. They 
took part in the Tuscarora war, and at its close that part of the 
Tuscarora under treaty with the English agreed to destroy them. A 
remnant of the Pamlico was probably incorporated by the Tuscarora 
as slaves. 

Population. — The Pamlico are estimated by Mooney (1928), 
together with "Bear River" Indians, as 1,000 in 1600. In 1710 they 
numbered about 75. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Pamlico have 
given their name to or shared it with the largest sound in North 
Carolina and a North Carolina county. They are also noteworthy 
as having been almost if not quite the most southerly Algonquian tribe 
on the Atlantic seaboard, and the most southerly one from which a 
vocabulary has been collected. 

Saponi. This tribe lived on Yadkin River and in other parts of the 
State for a certain period. (See Virginia.) 

Shakori. A native name but its significance unknown, though perhaps 
the same as Sugari, "stingy or spoiled people," or "of the river- 
whose-water-cannot-be drunk." Also called: 
Cacores, a misprint. 

Connections. — The Shakori belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, 
their closest connections being evidently with the southern division 
of the Siouan tribes of the East. Barnwell (1908) identified them 
with the Sissipahaw (q. v.). 

Location. — The Shakori moved so frequently and there is so much 
uncertainty regarding their early history, that this is hard to give, 
but, as they usually kept company with the Eno, tenancy of the 
courses of Shocco and Big Shocco Creeks in the present Vance, 
Warren, and Franklin Counties is perhaps the location most closely 
connected with them in historic times. (See South Carolina and 
Virginia.) 



84 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

History. — It is possible that the Shakori gave their name to the 
province of Chicora visited by Aj^llon and his companions in 1521. 
If so, we must suppose that they moved north later in the sixteenth 
century or early in the seventeenth, perhaps as a result of the Pardo 
expeditions. In 1650 Edward Blande and his associates found the 
"Nottoway and Schockoores old fields" between Meherrin and Notto- 
way Rivers, but the Indians were not there. In 1654 Governor Yeard- 
ley of Virginia was told by a Tuscarora Indian of an inland people 
called the "Cacores," probably an attempt to indicate this tribe. 
In 1672 Lederer found them living in a village 14 miles from that of the 
Eno (Lederer, 1912), and in 1701 Lawson says these two tribes (the 
Shakori and Eno) were in one village called Adshusheer on Eno River 
(Lawson, 18G0). The later fortunes of the Shakori were bound up 
with those of the Eno (q. v.). 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the Shakori, Eno, and 
"Adshusheer" at 1,500 in 1600. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The two creeks, Shocco 
and Big Shocco, and a post office 9 miles south of Warrenton, Warren 
County, perpetuate the name of the Shakori. If Chicora refers to the 
same tribe, it appears prominently in Spanish narratives of American 
exploration, particularly because of the information regarding Indian 
customs obtained by Peter Martyr from an Indian, Francisco of 
Chicora. 

Sara, see Cheraw. 

Sissipahaw. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — The Sissipahaw were probably of the Siouan linguistic 
family though no words of their language are known. 

Location.— l^Xie principal Sissipahaw settlement appears to have 
been about the present Saxapahaw on Haw River in the lower part of 
Alamance County. (See also South Carolina.) 

History. — The name of this tribe is possibly preserved in the Sauxpa 
mentioned by the Spanish officer Vandera in 1569 as a place visited 
by Juan Pardo. Lawson (1860) spoke of them in connection with his 
travels through Carolina in 1701, but he did not visit them. Barn- 
well (1908) identified them with the Shakori with whom they were 
doubtless nearly allied and of whom they may have been a branch. 
They united with other tribes of the region against the English in the 
Yamasee war of 1715, and later with other Siouan remnants probably 
joined the Catawba. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the Sissipahaw at 800 in 
1600. "Haw Old Fields" constituted the largest body of fertile 
land in the region. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 85 

Connections in which they have become noted. — The name Sissipahaw 
has been brought down to our times by Haw River and the towns of 
Haw River and Saxapahaw on the same, in Alamance County, N. C. 

Sugeree. This tribe occupied parts of Mecklenburg County. (See 
South Carohna.) 

Tuscarora. From their own name Sk3,-ru'-re°, signifying according to 
Hewitt {in Hodge, 1910), "hemp gatherers," and applied on account 
of the great use they made of Apocymim cannahinum. Also called : 

A-ko-t'5.s'-kii-ro'-r6"', Mohawk name. 
Ani'-SkaiS'll, Cherokee name. 
A-t'as-kii-lo'-l6°', Oneida name. 
Tewohomomy (or Keew-ahomomjO, Saponi name. 

Connections. — The Tuscarora belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic 
family. 

Location. — On the Roanoke, Tar, Pamlico, and Neuse Rivers. 
(See also Pennsylvania and New York.) 

Subdivisions 

The Tuscarora should be considered a confederacy with three tribes or a tribe 
with three subtribes as follows: Ka'tS'nu'a'ka', "People of the submerged pine 
tree"; AkawSntca'ka', meaning doubtful; and Skaru'r6°, "hemp gatherers," 
i. e., the Tuscarora proper. 

Villages 

The following were in North Carolina, a more precise location not being possible 

except in the cases specified: 

Annaooka. 

Chunaneets. 

Cohunche. 

Conauhcare. 

Contahnah, near the mouth of Neuse River. 

Cotechney, on the opposite side of Neuse River from Fort Barnwell, about the 
mouth of Contentnea Creek. 

Coram. 

Corutra. 

Harooka. 

Harutawaqui. 

Kenta. 

Kentanuska. 

Naurheghne. 

Neoheroka, in Greene County. 

Nonawharitse. 

Nursoorooka. 

Oonossoora. 

Tasqui, a day's journey from Cotechney on the way to Nottaway village. 

Tonarooka, on a branch of Neuse River between "Fort Narhantes" and Cotech- 
ney. 

Torhunte, on a northern affluent of Neuse River. 

Tosneoc. 



86 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Ucouhnerunt, on Pamlico River, probably in the vicinity of Greenville, in Pitt 

County. 
Unanauhan. 

Later settlements in New York were these: 
Canasaraga, on Canaseraga Creeli on the site of the present Sullivan. 
Ingaren. 
Junastriyo. 
Jutaneaga. 
Kanhats. 

Kaunehsuntahkeh. 

Nyuchirhaan, near Lewiston, Niagara County. 
Ohagi, on the west side of Genesee River a short distance below Cuylersville, 

Livingston Count5\ 
Oquaga, on the east branch of the Susquehanna on both sides, in the town of 

Colesville, Broome County. 
Oyonwayea, also called Johnson's Landing, in Niagara County, about 4 miles 

east of the outlet of Niagara River at the mouth of Four Mile Creek. 
Shawiangto, on the west side of the Susquehanna not far from Windsor, Broome 

County. 
Tiochrungwe, on the "main road" from Oneida to Onondaga. 
Tuscarora, the name of three villages: one a short distance east of "Anatsagane," 

probably the present Stockbridge, in Madison County; the second about 3 miles 

below Oquaga, in Broome County, approximately on the site of Windsor; and 

the third 12 miles by land and 20 by water below Oquaga, in the vicinity of 

Great Bend, in Susquehanna County. 

The location of Ganatisgowa is uncertain. 

History. — The place or manner of separation of the Tuscarora from 
the Iroquois tribes of New York is not known, and they were found 
in the tract indicated above when the country was first entered by 
white colonists. John Lawson, Surveyor General of North Carolina, 
lived in close contact with these Indians for many years and his 
History of Carolina gives us our earliest satisfactory picture of them. 
(See Lawson, 1860.) It was his capture and execution b}^ the tribe 
in September 1711, however, which brought on the first Tuscarora 
War, though behind it lay a series of encroachments by the Whites 
on Tuscarora territory, and the kidnaping and enslavement of num- 
bers of Indians. Immediately after Lawson's death, part of the 
Tuscarora, headed by chief Hencock, and the Coree, Pamlico, Ma- 
chapunga, and Bear River Indians conspired to cut off the white 
settlers and, in consequence, on September 22, 1711, they rose and 
massacred about 130 of the colonists on Trent and Pamlico Rivers. 
Colonel Barnwell, with 33 white men and about 500 Indians, marched 
against the hostiles, by direction of the colony of South Carolina, 
drove them from one of their towns with great loss, and invested 
Hencock's own town, Cotechney. But having suffered severely in 
two assaults upon the place and fearing lest the white captives in the 
hands of the Indians would be killed, he made peace and returned 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 87 

home. Dissatisfied with the treatment accorded him by the North 
Carolina authorities, however, he violated the treaty during his retreat 
by seizing some Indians and sending them away as slaves. This brought 
on the second Tuscarora War, 1712-13. South Carolina was again 
appealed to for assistance, and Colonel James Moore set out for the 
north with about 900 Indians and 33 white men, a number which 
was considerably swelled before he reached the seat of trouble. 
March 20 to 23 he stormed the palisaded town of Neoheroka, inflicting 
a loss upon the enemy of about 950. The Tuscarora became so 
terrified at this that part of them abandoned Fort Cohunche, situated 
at Hencock's town and started north to join their relatives, the 
Iroquois. This was only the beginning of the movement, bands of 
Tuscarora being noted at intervals as moving north or as having 
arrived among the Five Nations. They were adopted by the Oneida 
but, contrary to the general impression, were not granted coordinate 
rights in the League before September 1722. A part of the Tuscarora 
under a chief named Tom Blunt (or Blount), had, however, remained 
neutral. They received recognition by the government of North 
Carolina, and continued in their former homes under their own chiefs. 
In 1766, 155 removed to New York, and the 105 remaining were 
brought north in 1802 while a deputation of northern Tuscarora were 
in Carolina to obtain payment for the lands they had formerly occu- 
pied. When the Tuscarora first moved north they were settled at 
various places along the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania and in New 
York, some in the Oneida country itself. In 1875, by the treaty of 
Fort Herkimer, the Oneida sold to the State of New York, the lands 
on which their adopted children, the Tuscarora, had settled, and for a 
time the Tuscarora were dispersed in various settlements in New York 
State, and even in Pennsylvania. At the outbreak of the American 
Revolution, the majority of Tuscarora and Oneida espoused the cause 
of the colonists and in consequence they were attacked by Indians 
in the British interest, including even some of their Iroquois brethren, 
their houses were burned, their crops and other property destroyed, 
and they themselves scattered. A large band of them settled, how- 
ever, at a place called Oyonwayea or Johnson's Landing, on Lake 
Ontario. Later a party from this settlement discovered a place in 
the northeastern part of the present Tuscarora Reservation which 
pleased them so much that they decided to winter there and they 
were presently joined by the rest of the inhabitants of Oyonwayea. 
At the treaty held at Genesee, September 15, 1797, between Robert 
Morris and the Seneca tribe, Morris reserved to the tribe, by grant, 
2 square miles, covering their new settlements, and the Seneca there- 
upon granted them an additional square mile. As a result of their 
appeal to the legislature of North Carolina above mentioned, they 



88 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

were able to lease lands in the south, and they devoted the proceeds 
to the purchase of 4,329 acres adjoining their New York reserve. 
The Tuscarora who had sided with Great Britain were granted lands 
in severalty on Grand River, Ontario. 

Population. — There were 5,000 Tuscarora in 1600 accord mg to an 
estimate by Mooney (1928). In 1708, Lawson gives 15 towns and 
1,200 warriors (Lawson, 1860). Barnwell in 1712 estimates 1,200 to 
1,400 fightmg men (Barnwell, 1908); Chauvignerie in 1736, 250 war- 
riors, not including those in North Carolina, and on the Susquehanna 
and Juniata Rivers (Chauvignerie, in Schoolcraft, 1851-57, vol. 3, 
p. 555). In 1752 the southern Tuscarora were said to number 300 
men; in 1754 there were said to be 100 men and 200 women and 
children and these figures are repeated in 1761. In 1766 there were 
said to be 220 to 230 all told in the south; next year we read that 155 
southern Tuscarora had removed and that 105 remained. Other 
estimates place the total Tuscarora population at 1,000 in 1765, 2,000 
in 1778, 1,000 in 1783, and 400 in 1796. In 1885 there were 828 
(evenly divided between New York and Canada). In 1909 there 
were 364 in New York and a year later 416 in Canada, a total of 780. 
In 1910, 400 were reported in the United States and in 1923, 376 in 
New York alone. The number in Canada is not separately given. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — This tribe is noted 
historically for its prominence among the peoples of eastern North 
Carolina, for the two wars which it waged with the colonists, and for 
the rather spectacular migration of the greater part to the north and 
its union with the Five Iroquois Nations. The name Tuscarora 
occiu-s applied to settlements in Frederick County, Md.; Craven 
County, North Carolina; Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania; Livingston 
County, N. Y.; Elko County, Nev.; and Ontario; and to a creek and 
mountain in Pennsylvania. 

Tutelo. This tribe lived for a while on the upper Yadkin and later in 
Bertie County. (See Virginia.) 

Waccamaw. They probably ranged across into North Carolina from 
the head of Waccamaw River. (See South Carolina.) 

Wateree. According to Lederer (1912) they were Uving in 1670 on 
the upper Yadkin. (See South Carolina.) 

Waxhaw. They extended over into Union County from South Car- 
olina. (See South Carolina.) 

Weapemeoc. Meaning unknown, but evidently a place name. Also 

called: 

Yeopim, a shortened and more usual form. 
Connections. — The Weapemeoc were almost certainly of the Algon- 

quian linguistic family and related to the Powhatan Indians to the 

north and the Chowan, Machapunga, and Pamlico to the south. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 89 

Location. — Most of the present Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank, 
and Perquimans Counties, and part of Chowan County north of 
Albemai-le Sound. 

Subdivisions 

In the same section in later times are given the following tribes which must be 
regarded as subdivisions of the Weapemeoc: 
Pasquotank, on Pasquotank River. 
Perquiman, on Perquimans River, 
Poteskeet, location uncertain. 
Yeopim, or Weapemeoc proper, on Yeopim River. 

Villages 

Chepanoc, on Albemarle Sound in Perquimans County. 
Mascoming, on the north shore of Albemarle Sound, in Chowan County. 
Metachkwem, location unknown, 

Pasquenock, perhaps identical with Pasquotank, on the north shore of Albe- 
marle Sound, perhaps in Camden County. 
Weapemeoc, probably in Pasquotank County. 

History. — The Weapemeoc first appear in history in the narratives 
of the Raleigh colony of 1585-86, Later they are spoken of under 
the various subdivisional names. They parted with some of their 
land in 1662. In 1701, according to Lawson (1860), only 6 of the 
Yeopim survived though there were 40 warriors of the other sub- 
divisions, including 10 Pasquotank and 30 Potekeet, 

Population. — In the time of the Raleigh colony the Weapemeoc 
are said to have had between 700 and 800 warriors. They were 
estimated by Mooney (1928) at 800 in 1600, From their number 
as given by Lawson in 1701 Rights (1947) estimates 200 at that date. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — In the form Yeopim 
the name has been preserved in that of a railroad station in Per- 
quimans County, N, C. 

Woccon. Significance unknown. 

Connections. — The Woccon belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, 
their closest relations being the Catawba, 

Location. — Between Neuse River and one of its affluents, perhaps 
about the present Goldsboro, Wayne County. 

Villages 

Tooptatmeer, supposed to have been in Greene County. 
Yupwauremau, supposed to have been in Greene County. 

History. — The first mention of the Woccon appears to be by Lawson 
writing about 1701, who recorded 150 words of their language. These 
show that it was nearer Catawba than any other known variety of 



90 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

speech. Lack of any earlier mention of such a large tribe lends 
strength to the theory of Dr. Douglas L, Rights that they were 
originally Waccamaw (q. v., under South Carohna). They took 
part against the Whites in the Tuscarora Wars and were probably 
extinguished as a tribe at that time, the remnant fleeing north with 
the Tuscarora, uniting with the Catawba, or combining with other 
Siouan remnants in the people later known as Croatan. 

Population. — The number of Woccon was estimated by Mooney 
(1928) at 600 in 1600. Lawson (1860) gives 120 warriors in 1709. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The sole claim of the 
Woccon to distinction is from the fact that it is the only one of the 
southern group of eastern Siouan tribes other than the Catawba 
from which a vocabulary has been preserved. 

Yadkin. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — The Yadkin probably belonged to the Siouan lin- 
guistic family. 

Location. — On Yadkin River. 

History. — The Yadkin first appear in history in a letter by the 
Indian trader, Abraham Wood, narrating the adventures of two men, 
James Needham and Gabriel Arthur, whom he had sent on an explor- 
ing expedition to the west. They passed this tribe and town, which 
they call "Yattken," in the summer of 1674. Lawson (1860) gives 
the name as Reatkin but applies it to the river, and there is no later 
mention of the people. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Their name Yadkin is 
perpetuated by the Yadkin River, Yadkin County, and the towns 
and villages of Yadkin College, Yadkin Falls, Yadkin Valley, and 
Yadkinville, all in the State of North Carolina. 

Yeopim, see Weapemeoc. 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Catawba. Significance unknown though the name was probably 
native to the tribe. Also called: 

Ani'ta'gua, Cherokee name. 

Iswa or Issa, signifying "river," and specifically the Catawba River; orig- 
inally probably an independent band which united early with the 
Catawba proper. 

Oyadagahroenes, Tadirighrones, Iroquois names. 

Usherys, from iswahere, "river down here"; see Issa. 

Connections. — The Catawba belonged to the Siouan linguistic 
family, but Catawba was the most aberrant of all known Siouan 
languages, though closer to Woccon than any other of which a vocab- 
ulary has been recorded. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 91 

Location. — In York and Lancaster Counties mainly but extending 
into the neighboring parts of the State and also into North Carolina 
and Tennessee. 

Subdivisions 

Two distinct tribes are given by Lawson (1860) and placed on early maps, the 
Catawba and Iswa, the latter deriving their name from the native word meaning 
"river," which was specifically applied to Catawba River. 

Villages 

In early days this tribe had many villages but few names have come down to us. 
In 1728 there were six villages, all on Catawba River, the most northerly of which 
was known as Nauvasa. In 1781 they had two called in English Newton and 
Turkey Head, on opposite sides of Catawba River. 

History, — The Catawba appear first in history under the name 
Ysa, Issa (Iswa) in Vandera's narratives of Pardo's expedition into 
the interior, made in 1566-67. Lederer (1912) visited them in 1670 
and calls them Ushery. In 1711-13 they assisted the Whites in their 
wars with the Tuscarora, and though they participated in the Yamasee 
uprising in 1715 peace was quickly made and the Catawba remained 
faithful friends of the colonists ever after. Meanwhile they declined 
steadily in numbers from diseases introduced by the Whites, the use 
of liquor, and constant warfare with the Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, 
and other tribes. In 1738 they were decimated by smallpox and in 
1759 the same disease destroyed nearly half of them. Through the 
mediation of the Whites, peace was made at Albany in 1759 between 
them and the Iroquois, but other tribes continued their attacks, and 
in 1763 a party of Shawnee killed the noted Catawba King Haigler. 
The year before they had left their town in North CaroHna and 
moved into South Carolina, where a tract of land 15 miles square had 
been reserved for them. From that time on they sank into relative 
insignificance. They sided with the colonists during the revolution 
and on the approach of the British troops withdrew temporarily into 
Virginia, returning after the battle of Guilford Court House. In 1826 
nearly the whole of their reservation was leased to Whites, and in 
1840 they sold all of it to the State of South Carolina, which agreed to 
obtain new territory for them in North CaroHna. The latter State 
refused to part with any land for that purpose, however, and most of 
the Catawba who had gone north of the State line were forced to 
return. Ultimately a reservation of 800 acres was set aside for them 
in South Carolina and the main body has lived there ever since. A 
few continued in North CaroHna and others went to the Cherokee, 
but most of these soon came back and the last of those who remained 
died in 1889. A few Catawba intermarried with the Cherokee in 
later times, however, and still live there, and a few others went to the 



92 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Choctaw Nation, in what is now Oklahoma, and settled near Scully- 
ville. These also are reported to be extinct. Some families estab- 
lished themselves in other parts of Oklahoma, in Arkansas, and near 
Sanford, Colo., where they have gradually been absorbed by the 
Indian and White population. About 1884 several Catawba were 
converted by Mormon missionaries and went to Salt Lake City, and 
in time most of those in South Carohna became members of the 
Mormon Church, although a few are Baptists. Besides the two 
divisions of Catawba proper, the present tribe is supposed to include 
remnants of about 20 smaller tribes, principally Siouan. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Catawba in 
1600, including the Iswa, at 5,000. About 1682 the tribe was sup- 
posed to contain 1,500 warriors or about'4,600 souls; in 1728, 400 war- 
riors or about 1,400 souls; and in 1743, after incorporating several 
small tribes, as having less than that number of warriors. In 1752 
we have an estimate of about 300 warriors, or about 1,000 people; 
in 1755, 240 warriors; in 1757, about 300 warriors and 700 souls; 
and in 1759, 250 warriors. Although there is an estimate accrediting 
them with 300 warriors in 1761, King Haigler declared that they had 
been reduced by that year, after the smallpox epidemic of 1760, to 
60 fighting men. In 1763 fewer than 50 men were reported, and in 
1766 "not more than 60." In 1775 there was estimated a total 
population of 400; in 1780, 490; in 1784, 250; in 1822, 450; in 1826, 
110. In 1881 Gatschet found 85 on the reservation and 35 on ad- 
joining farms, a total of 120. The census of 1910 returned 124, and 
in 1912 there were about 100, of whom 60 were attached to the reser- 
vation. The census of 1930 gave 166, all but 7 in South Carolina. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Catawba, whether 
originally or by union with the Iswa, early became recognized as 
the most powerful of all the Siouan peoples of Carolina. They are 
also the tribe which preserved its identity longest and from which 
the greatest amount of linguistic information has been obtained. 
The name itself was given to a variety of grape, and has become applied, 
either adopted from the tribe directly or taken from that of the grape, 
to places in Catawba County, N. C; Roanoke County, Va.; Marion 
County, W. Va.; Bracken County, Ky.; Clark County, Ohio; Caldwell 
County, Mo.; Steuben County, N. Y.; Blaine County, Okla.; York 
County, S. C; and Price County, Wis. It is also borne by an island in 
Ohio, and by the Catawba River of the Carolinas, a branch of the 
Wateree. 

Cherokee. The extreme northwestern portion of the State was 

occupied by Cherokee Indians. (See Tennessee.) 
Chiaha. A part of this tribe lived in South Carolina at times. (See 

Georgia.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 93 

Chickasaw. The Chickasaw territory proper was in northern 
Mississippi, at a considerable distance from the State under dis- 
cussion, but about 1753 a body of Chickasaw Indians settled on 
the South Carolina side of Savannah River, to be near the English 
trading posts and to keep in contact with the English, who were 
their allies. Before 1757 most of them moved over to the imme- 
diate neighborhood of Augusta and remained there until the period 
of the American Revolution. In that war they sided against the 
colonists and their lands were confiscated in 1783. (See Mississippi.) 

Congaree. Meaning unknown. 

Connection. — No words of this language have been preserved but 
the form of the name and general associations of the tribe leave little 
doubt that it was a Siouan dialect, related most closely to Catawba. 

Location. — On Congaree River, centering in the neighborhood of 
the present State Capital, Columbia. 

Village 

The only village mentioned bore the same name as the tribe and was sometimes 
placed on the Congaree opposite Columbia, sometimes on the north side of the 
river. 

History. — The Congaree are mentioned in documents of the seven- 
teenth century as one of the small tribes of the Piedmont region. In 
1701 Lawson (1860) found them settled on the northeast bank of 
Santee River below the mouth of the Wateree. They took part 
against the WMtes in the Yamasee War of 1715, and in 1716 over 
half of them were captured and sent as slaves to the West Indies. 
The remnant appear to have retreated to the Catawba, for Adair 
(1930) mentions their dialect as one of those spoken in the Catawba 
Nation. 

Population. — The Congaree are estimated by Mooney (1928) at 
800 in 1600. A census taken in 1715 gives 22 men and a total popu- 
lation of about 40. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Congaree River and 
a railroad station in Richland County, S. C, preserve the name; 
Columbia, the State capital, was originally known as the Congarees. 
Creeks. In the time of De Soto, Cofitachequi, which seems to 
have been either Kasihta or Coweta, and a few other Creek towns 
including perhaps Hilibi and part of the Chiaha Indians were in 
the territory of the present State of South Carolina near Savan- 
nah River. The Coosa of Coosawhatchie, Edisto, and Ashley 
Rivers may have been Creek in origin, and in later times Creeks 
constantly resorted to the provincial settlements in this area. 
(See Alabama.) 



94 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Cusabo. Meaning perhaps "Coosawhatchie River (people)." 

Connections. — There is httle doubt that the Cusabo belonged to the 
Muskhogean linguistic family. Their closest connections appear to 
have been with the Indians of the Georgia coast, the Guale. 

Location. — In the southernmost part of South Carolina between 
Charleston Harbor and Savannah River and including most of the 
valleys of the Ashley, Edisto*, Ashepoo, Combahee, Salkehatchie, and 
Coosawhatchie Rivers. 

Subdivisions 

These people should be divided first into the Cusabo proper, who occupied all 
of the coast, and the Coosa, who were inland upon the rivers above mentioned. 
The Cusabo proper seem to have consisted of a northern group of tribes or sub- 
tribes, including the Etiwaw (on Wando River), Wando (on Cooper River), 
Kiawa (on the lower course of Ashley River), and perhaps the Stono (about 
Stono Entrance); and a southern group including the Edisto (on Edisto Island), 
Ashepoo (on lower Ashepoo River), Combahee (on lower Combahee River), 
Wimbee (between the latter and the lower Coosawhatchie River), Escamacu 
(between St. Helena Sound and Broad River), and perhaps a few others. Some- 
times early writers erroneously include the Siouan Sewee and Santee as Cusabo. 

Villages 

Ahoya or Hoya, on or near Broad River. 

Ahoyabi, near the preceding. 

Aluste, near Beaufort, possibly a form of Edisto. 

Awendaw, near Awendaw Creek; it may have been Sewee (q. v.). 

Bohicket, near Rockville. 

Cambe, near Beaufort. 

Chatuache, 6-10 leagues north of Beaufort. 

Mayon, probably on Broad River. 

Talapo, probably near Beaufort. 

Touppa, probably on Broad River. 

Yanahume, probably on the south side of Broad River. 

History. — While their country was most likely skirted by earlier 
navigators, the first certain appearance of the Cusabo in history is 
in connection with a slave-hunting expedition sent out by Vasques 
de Ayllon. This reached the mainland in 1521, probably a little 
north of the Cusabo territory and introduced the blessings of White 
civihzation to the unsuspecting natives by carrying away about 70 
of them. One of these Indians was finally taken to Spain and 
furnished the historian Peter Martyr with considerable information 
regarding his country and the names of a number of tribes, some 
of whom were certainly Cusabo. In 1525 Ayllon sent a second expedi- 
tion to the region and in 1526 led a colony thither. Dissatisfied 
with his first landing place, probably near the landfall of the expedition 
of 1521, he moved the colony "40 or 45 leagues," perhaps to the 
neighborhood of Savannah River. But it did not prosper, AyUon 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 95 

died, trouble broke out among the survivors, and finally they returned 
to Haiti in the middle of the following winter. In 1540 De Soto 
passed near this country, but apparently he did not enter it, and the 
next European contact was brought about by the settlement of 
Ribault's first colony at Port Royal in 1562. The small number 
of people left by Ribault managed to maintain themselves for some 
time with the assistance of friendly natives, but, receiving no relief 
from France, they became discouraged, and built a small vessel in 
which a few of them eventually reached home. In 1564 a Spanish 
vessel visited this coast for the purpose of rooting out the French 
settlement. Later the same year a second Huguenot colony was 
established on St. Johns River, Florida, and communication was 
maintained with the Cusabo Indians. In 1565 this colony was 
destroyed by the Spaniards who visited Port Royal in quest of certain 
French refugees, and the year following Fort San Felipe was built 
at the same place. From this time until 1587 a post was maintained 
here, although with some intermissions due to Indian risings. In 
1568-70 a vain attempt was made to missionize the Indians. In 1576 
a formidable Indian uprising compelled the abandonment of the fort, 
but it was soon reoccupied and an Indian town was destroyed in 
1579 by way of reprisal. Next year, however, there was a second 
uprising, making still another abandonment necessary. The fort 
was reoccupied in 1582 but abandoned permanently 5 years later; 
and after that time there was no regular post in the country but 
communication was kept up between the Cusabo and St. Augustine 
and occasional visits seem to have been made by the Franciscan 
Friars. Between 1633 and 1655 we have notice of a new mission in 
Cusabo territory, called Chatuache, but when the English settled 
South Carolina in 1670 there appears to have been no regular mission 
there and certainly no Spanish post. Charleston was founded on 
Cusabo soil, and from the date of its establishment onward relations 
were close between the English and Cusabo. In 1671 there was a 
short war between the colonists and the Coosa Indians and in 1674 
there was further trouble with this people and with the Stono. In 
1675 the Coosa Indians surrendered to the English a large tract of 
land which constituted Ashley Barony, and in 1682 what appears 
to have been a still more sweeping land cession was signed by several 
of the Cusabo chiefs. In 1693 there was another short war, this time 
between the Whites and the Stono. A body of Cusabo accom- 
panied Colonel Barnwell in his expedition against the Tuscarora 
in 1711-12, and this fact may have quickened the consciences of the 
colonists somewhat, because in 1712 the Island of Palawana, "near 
the Island of St. Helena," was granted to them. It appears that 
most of their plantations were already upon it but it had inadvertently 



96 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

been granted to a white proprietor. The Cusabo here mentioned 
were those of the southern group; there is reason to think that the 
Kiawa and Coosa were not included. Early in 1720 "King Gilbert 
and ye Coosaboys" took part in Col. John Barnwell's punitive expedi- 
tion against St. Augustine (Barnwell, 1908). In 1743 the Kiawa 
were given a grant of land south of the Combahee River, probably 
to be near the other coast Indians. Part of the Coosa may have 
retired to the Catawba, since Adair (1930) mentions "Coosah" as 
one of the dialects spoken in the "Catawba Nation," but others 
probably went to the Creeks. At least one band of Cusabo may have 
gone to Florida, because, in "A List of New Indian Missions in the 
Vicinity of St. Augustine," dated December 1, 1726, there is mention 
of a mission of San Antonio "of the Cosapuya nation and other 
Indians" containing 43 recently converted Christians and 12 pagans. 
Two years later we are informed that "the towns of the Casapullas 
Indians were depopulated," though whether this has reference to the 
ones in Florida or to those in their old country is not clear. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the number of southern 
Cusabo, exclusive of the Edisto, at 1,200 in 1600, the Edisto at 1,000, 
the Etiwaw at 600, and the Coosa at 600. He classifies the Stono 
with the Westo, thereby falling into a common error. The colonial 
census of 1715 gives the number of southern Cusabo as 295, including 
95 men, in 5 villages, while the Etiwaw (probably including the other 
northern Cusabo) had 1 vUlage, 80 men, and a total population 
of 240. There were thus 535 Cusabo over all. The Coosa are 
nowhere mentioned by name and were probably included with one 
or the other of these. The 55 Indians at the Florida mission above 
mentioned, consisting of individuals of "the Cosapuya nation and 
other Indians," included 24 men, 13 women, and 18 children. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The first part of the 
name Coosa is identical in origin with the first part of the name of 
Coosa whatchie River, S. C, and a post village. The people them- 
selves are noted in history as the first in eastern North America north 
of Florida among whom European settlements were begun. They had 
an earlier and longer contact with Europeans than any other Indians 
on the Atlantic seaboard except those of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

Eno. This tribe moved into the northern part of the State after 1716 
and perhaps united ultimately with the Catawba. At some pre- 
historic period they may have lived on Enoree River. (See North 
Carolina.) 

Keyauwee. They settled on the Pee Dee after 1716 and probably 
united with the Catawba. (See North Carolina.) 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 97 

Natchez. A band of Indians of this tribe lived for several years at 
a place called Four Hole Springs in South Carolina but left in 1744 
fearing the vengeance of the Catawba because of seven of that tribe 
whom they had killed. (See Mississippi.) 

Pedee. Meaning unloiown, but Speck (1935) suggests from Ca- 
tawba pi'ri, "something good," or pi'here, "smart," "expert," 
"capable." 
Connections. — No words of the language have survived but there is 

every reason to suppose that it was a dialect of the Siouan linguistic 

family. 

Location. — On Great Pee Dee River, particularly its middle course. 

Village 

No village names are known apart from the tribal name, which was sometimes 
applied to specific settlements. 

History. — The Pedee are first mentioned by the colonists of South 
Carolina. In 1716 a place in or near their country called Saukey 
(perhaps Socatee) was suggested as the site for a trading post but the 
proposition to establish one there was given up owing to the w^eakness 
of the Pedee tribe, who were thought to be unable to protect it. In 
1744, the Pedee, along with Natchez Indians, killed some Catawba 
and were in consequence driven from their lands into the White 
settlements. Soon afterward most of them joined the Catawba, but 
some remained near the Whites, where they are mentioned as late as 
1755. In 1808 the Pedee and Cape Fear tribes were represented by 
one half-breed woman. 

Population. — Mooney, 1928, estimates the number of Pedee as 600 
in 1600. The census of 1715 does not give them separate mention, 
and they were probably included among the 610 Waccamaw or the 
106 Winyaw. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Great and Little 
Pee Dee Rivers and a station in Marion County, S. C, also a post 
village in Anson County, N. C, perpetuate the name of the Pedee. 

Saluda. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — These are uncertain but circumstantial evidence 
indicates strongly that the Saluda were a band of Shawnee, and 
therefore of the Algonquian stock. 

Location. — On Saluda River. 

History. — Almost all that we know regarding the Saluda is contained 
in a note on George Hunter's map of the Cherokee country drawn in 
1730 indicating "Saluda town where a nation settled 35 years ago, 
removed 18 years to Conestogo, in Pensilvania." As bands of 
Shawnee were moving into just that region from time to time during 
the period indicated, there is reason to think that this was one of them, 



98 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

all the more that a "Savana" creek appears on the same map flowing 
into Congaree River just below the Saluda settlement. 

Population. — Unlaiown. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Saluda is 
preserved by Saluda River and settlements in Saluda County, S. C. ; 
Polk County, N. C. ; and Middlesex County, Va. 

Santee. Named according to Speck (1935), from iswa°'ti, "the 
river," or "the river is there." Also called: 
Seretee, by Lawson (I860). 

Connections. — No words of the Santee language have come down to 
us, but there is little doubt that they belonged to the Siouan linguistic 
family. 

Location. — On the middle course of Santee River. 

Villages 
The only name preserved is Hickerau, on a branch of Santee River. 

History. — The Santee were first encountered by the Spaniards 
during the seventeenth century, and in the narrative of his second 
expedition Captain Egija places them on Santee River. In 1700 they 
were visited by John Lawson, who found their plantations extending 
for many miles along the river, and learned that they were at war with 
the coast people (Lawson, 1860). They furnished Barnwell (1908) 
with a contingent for his Tuscarora campaign in 1711-12, but are said 
to have taken part against the Whites in the Yamasee War of 1715. In 
1716 they were attacked by the Etiwaw and Cusabo, acting in the 
interest of the colonists, and the greater part of them were carried 
away captive and sent to the West Indies. The remainder were 
probably incorporated with the Catawba. 

Population. — The number of Santee was estimated by Mooney 
(1928) at 1,000 in 1600. In 1715 an Indian census gave them 43 
warriors and a total population of 80 to 85 in 2 villages. 

Connection in which they have become noted.— The, name Santee has 
been given permanency chiefly by its application to the Santee River, 
S. C, but it has also been applied to a village in Orangeburg 
County, S. C. 

Sewee. Significance: perhaps, as Gatschct suggested, from sawe', 

"island." 

Connections. — No words of their language have survived, but the 
Sewee are regarded as Siouan on strong circumstantial grounds, in 
spite of the fact that they are sometimes classed with the Cusabo. 

Location. — On the lower coiu-se of Santee River and the coast 
westward to the divide of Ashley River about the present Monks 
Corner, Berkeley County. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 99 

Villages 

Lawson, writing about 1700, mentions a deserted village in Sewee Bay called 
Avendaughbough which may have belonged to them (Lawson, 1860). The name 
seems to be still preserved in the form Awensdaw. 

History. — Possibly Xoxi (pronounced Shoshi or Shohi), one of the 
provinces mentioned by Francisco of Chicora, an Indian carried from 
this region by the Spaniards in 1521, is a synonym of Sewee. The 
name is mentioned by Captain E^ija in 1609. They may have been 
the Indians first met by the English expedition which founded the 
colony of South Carolina in 1670, when they were in Sewee Bay. 
They assisted the English against the Spaniards, and supplied them 
with corn. Lawson (1860) states that they were formerly a large 
tribe, but in his time, 1700, were wasted by smallpox and indulgence 
in alcoholic liquors. Moreover, a large proportion of the able-bodied 
men had been lost at sea in an attempt to open closer trade relations 
with England. Just before the Yamasee War, they were still living in 
their old country in a single village, but it is probable that the war 
put an end to them as a distinct tribe. The remnant may have united 
with the Catawba. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) gives an estimate of 800 Sewee for the 
3^ear 1600. In 1715 there were but 57. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — At an earlier period 
this name was applied to the body of water now called Bulls Bay. 
There is a post hamlet with this designation in Meigs County, Term., 
but the name is probably of independent origin. 

Shakori. This tribe is thought to have moved south with the Eno 
after 1716 and to have united ultimately with the Catawba. At 
some prehistoric period the}'^ perhaps lived on or near Enoree River, 
and there is reason to think that they or a branch gave their name 
to the Province of Chicora. (See North Carolina.) 

Shawnee. In 1680, or shortly before, a band of Shawnee, probably 
from the Cumberland, settled on Savannah River, and the year 
following they performed a great service to the new colony of 
South Carolina by driving off the Westo Indians, whom I consider 
to have been Yuchi. These Shawnee appear to have been of the 
band afterward known as Hathawekela. They remained long 
enough in the neighborhood of Augusta to give their name to 
Savannah River, but by 1707 some of them had begun to move into 
Penns3dvania, and this movement continued at intervals until 1731, 
when all seem to have been out of the State. The Saluda (q. v.) 
were perhaps one of these bands. In 1715, as a result of the 
Yamasee War, a body moved from the Savannah to the Chatta- 
hoochee, and thence to the Tallapoosa. (See Tennessee.) 



100 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Sissipahaw. Possibly they were the Sauxpa mentioned by the Span- 
ish officer Vandera in 1569, and if so they may then have been in 
South Carohna, a proposition considerably strengthened if Chicora 
is to be identified \vith the Shakori, since Barnwell (1908) equates 
these tribes. (See North Carolina.) 

Sugeree. Speck (1935) suggests Catawba ye°si'grihere, "people 
stingy," or "spoiled," or "of the river whose-water-cannot-be- 
drunlc." (Cf. Shakori.) Also caUed: 

Suturees, a synonym of 1715. 

Connections. — No words of their language have been preserved, but 
there is every reason to suppose that they belonged to the Siouan 
linguistic family and were closely related to the Catawba, and perhaps 
still more closely to the Shakori. 

Location. — On and near Sugar Creek in York County, S. C, and 
Mecklenburg County, N. C. 

Villages 

There were said to be many but their names have not been preserved. 

History. — The Sugeree are hardly mentioned by anyone before 
Lawson in 1701. They probably suffered in consequence of the 
Yamasee War and finally united with the Catawba. 

Population. — No separate enumeration or estimate of the Sugeree 
appears ever to have been made, and Mooney (1928) seems to have 
included them in the population of 5,000 allowed the Catawba. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Sugeree has 
been preserved in Sugar Creek, an affluent of Catawba River in Nortli 
and South Carolina. 

Waccamaw. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — Nothing of their tongue has been preserved but evi- 
dence points to a connection of the Waccamaw with the Siouan 
linguistic family, and presumably with the Catawba dialectic group. 
The Woccon may have been a late subdivision, as Dr. Rights has 
suggested. (See North Carolina.) 

Location. — On Waccamaw River and the lower course of the Pee 
Dee. (See North Carolina.) 

Villages 

The Waccamaw were reported to have had six villages in 1715, but none of 
the names is preserved. 

History. — The name of the Waccamaw may perhaps be recorded 
in the form Guacaya, given by Francisco of Chicora as that of a 
"province" in this region early in the sixteenth century. In 1715 the 
Cheraw attempted to incite them to attack the English, and they 
joined the hostile party but made peace the same year. In 1716 a 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 101 

trading post was established in their country at a place called Uauenee 
(Uaunee, Euaunee), or the Great Bluff, the name perhaps a synonym 
of Winyaw, although we know of no Winyaw there. There was a 
short war between them and the colonists in 1720 in which they lost 
60 men, women, and children killed or captured. In 1755 the Chero- 
kee and Natchez are reported to have killed some Pedee and Wacca- 
maw in the White settlements. Ultimately they may have united 
with the Catawba, though more probably with the so-called Croatan 
Indians of North Carolina. There is, however, a body of mixed bloods 
in their old country to whom the name is applied. 

Population. — The Waccamaw are estimated by Mooney (1928) at 
900 in 1600 along with the Winyaw and some smaller tribes. The 
census of 1715 gives 210 men and 610 souls, and in 1720 they are said 
to have had 100 warriors. (See Cape Fear Indians under North 
Carolina.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Waccamaw River in 
North and South Carolina and Waccamaw Lake in North Carolina, 
which empties into the river, perpetuate their name. 

Wateree. Gatschet suggests a connection with Catawba, wateran, " to 
float on the water." Also called: 

Chickanee, name for a division of Wateree and meaning "little." 
Guatari, Spanish spelling of their name. 

Connections. — The Wateree are placed in the Siouan linguistic stock 
on circumstantial evidence. 

Location. — The location associated most closely with the Wateree 
historically was on Wateree River, below the present Camden. (See 
North Carolina.) 

History. — The Wateree are first mentioned in the report of an ex- 
pedition from Santa Elena (Beaufort) by Juan Pardo in 1566-67. 
They lived well inland toward the Cherokee frontier. Pardo made a 
small fort and left a corporal there and 17 soldiers, but the Indians 
soon wiped it out. In 1670 Lederer (1912) places them very much 
farther north, perhaps on the upper Yadkin, but soon afterward they 
are found on Wateree River where Lawson met them. In 1711-12 
they furnished a contingent to Barnwell in his expedition against the 
Tuscarora. In a map dated 1715 their village is placed on the west 
bank of Wateree River, possibly in Fairfield County, but on the Moll 
map of 1730 it is laid down on the east bank. The Yamasee War re- 
duced their power considerably, and toward the middle of the eight- 
eenth century they went to live with the Catawba, with whom the 
survivors must ultimately have fused. They appear as a separate 
tribe, however, as late as 1744, when they sold the neck of land between 
Congaree and Wateree Rivers to a white trader. 



102 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Population. — The number of Wateree is estimated by Mooney 
(1928) at 1,000 in 1600. There is no later enumeration. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Wateree were one 
of the most powerful tribes of central South Carolina as far back as 
the time of the Spanish settlements at St. Helena. Their name is 
preserved in Wateree River, S. C, and in a post village in Richland 
County in the same State. 

Waxhaw. Meaning unknown. Also called: 

Flatheads, a name given to this tribe and others of the Catawba connection 
owing to their custom of deforming the head. 

Connection. — Nothing of their language has been preserved, but 
circumstantial evidence points to a close relationship between the 
Waxhaw and the Catawba and hence to membership in the Siouan 
linguistic stock. Their closest contacts appear to have been with 
the Sugeree. 

Location. — In Lancaster County, S. C, and Union and Mecklen- 
burg Counties, N. C. 

Villages 
Lawson mentions two villages in 1701 but the names are not given. 

History. — The Waxhaw were possibly the Gueza of Vandera, who 
lived in western South Carolina in 1566-67. Lederer (1912) writing 
about 1670, speaks of the Waxhaw under the name Wisacky and says 
that they were subject to and might be considered a part of the 
Catawba. They were probably identical with the Weesock, whose 
children were said by Gabriel Arthur (1918) to be brought up in 
Tamahita (Yuchi) families "as ye lanesaryes are mongst ye Turkes." 
Lawson (1860) visited them in 1701. At the end of the Yamasee 
War, they refused to make peace with the English and were set upon 
by the Catawba and the greater part of them killed. The rest fled to 
the Cheraw, but a band numbering 25 accompanied the Yamasee to 
Florida in 1715 and are noted as still there in 1720. 

Population. — The Waxhaw are included by Mooney (1928) in the 
5,000 estimated population of the Catawba. No separate estimate 
of their numbers is given any^vhere. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Waxhaw were dis- 
tinguished in early times on account of their custom of deforming the 
heads of their children, Their name is preserved in Waxhaw Creek 
and in the name of a post town, both in Union County, N. C; by a 
hamlet in Lancaster County, S. C.,; and a place in Bolivar County, 
Miss. 

Winyaw. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — The Winyaw are placed in the Siouan Unguistic 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 103 

family on circumstantial evidence. Their closest connections were 
with the Pedee and Waccamaw. 

Location. — On Winyaw Bay, Black River, and the lower course of 
the Pee Dee. 

History. — Unless this tribe is represented by the Yenyohol of Fran- 
cisco of Chicora (1521), the Winyaw were first mentioned by the colo- 
nists of South Carolina after 1670. In 1683 it was charged that 
colonists had raided them for slaves on an insufficiently supported 
charge of murder by some of their people This unfriendly act did 
not prevent some of them from joining Barnwell's army in the first 
Tuscarora War. Along with other Indians they, indeed, withdrew 
later from the expedition, but they claimed that it was for lack of 
equipment. In 1715 the Cheraw tried to induce them and the Wac- 
camaw to side against the colonists in the Yamasee War. A year 
later a trading post was established in the territory of the Waccamaw 
not far from their own lands. (See Waccamaw.) About the same 
time some of them settled among the Santee, but they appear to have 
returned to their own country a few years later. Some assisted the 
Whites in their war with the Waccamaw in 1720. They soon disap- 
pear from history and probably united with the Waccamaw. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) includes the Winyaw in his estimate 
of 900 for the "Waccamaw, Winyaw, Hook, &c." as of the year 1600. 
The census of 1715 gives them one village of 36 men and a total 
population of 106. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Winyaw Bay, S. C., 
preserves the name. It was from this tribe or one in the immediate 
neighborhood that Francisco of Chicora was carried away by the 
first AyUon expedition and from which one of the earliest ethno- 
logical descriptions of a North American tribe was recorded The 
name by which the Spaniards knew the province, however, Chicora, 
was probably derived from the Shakori, Sugeree, or a branch of one 
of them. 

Yamasee. The Yamasee Indians lived originally near the southern 
margin of the State and perhaps at times within its borders, but 
they are rather to be connected with the aboriginal history of 
Georgia. In 1687, having become offended with the Spaniards, 
they settled on the north side of Savannah River on a tract after- 
ward known as the Indian land and remained there in alliance with 
the colonists until 1715, when they rebelled and fled to St. Augustine. 
(See Georgia.) 

Yuchi. The Yuchi probably did not enter South Carolina until after 
the year 1661. The Westo, whom I consider to have been a part 
of them, were driven away by the Shawnee in 1681, but there was 



104 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

a band of Yuchi higher up the Savannah River which did not move 
until 1716, and later another body settled between Silver Bluff and 
Ebenezer Creek. Hawkins says that they had villages at Ponpon 
and Saltkechers, but that is all the evidence we have of settlements 
so far east, and these probably belonged to the Yamassee. In 1729 
the Yuchi began to move west to join the Creeks and by 1751 
completed the evacuation. (See Georgia.) 

GEORGIA 

Apalachee. After the English and Creeks destroyed the Apalachee 
towns in Florida in 1704, they established a part of the tribe in a 
village not far below the present Augusta. In 1715, when the 
Yamasee War broke out, these Apalachee joined the hostile Indians 
and went to the Chattahoochee to live near that faction of the 
Lower Creeks which was favorable to Spain. Soon afterward, 
however, the English faction gained the ascendency among the 
Creeks, and the Apalachee returned to Florida. (See Florida.) 

Apalachicoia. From Hitchiti "Apalachicoh" or Muskogee "Apala- 
chicolo," signifying apparently "People of the other side," with 
reference probably to the Apalachicoia River or some nearby stream. 
Also called: 

Talwa lako or Italwa lako, "big town," name given by the Muskogee Indians* 
Palachicola or Parachukla, contractions of Apalachicoia. 

Connections. — This was one of those tribes of the Muskhogean 
linguistic stock which spoke the Atsik-hata or Hitchiti language, and 
which included in addition the Hitchiti, Okmulgee, Oconee, Sawokli, 
Tamali, Mikasuki, Chiaha, and possibly the Osochi (but see Osochi). 

Location. — The earliest laiown home of the Apalachicoia was near 
the river which bears their name in the center of the Lower Creek 
country. Later they lived for a considerable period at the point 
where it comes into existence through the junction of the Chatta- 
hoochee and Flint Rivers. (See also Alabama and Florida.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The following names of towns or tribes were given by a Tawasa Indian, Lam- 
hatty, to Robert Beverley (1722) and may well have belonged to the Apalachicoia: 
Aul^dley, Ephfppick, Sonepdh, and perhaps Socso6ky (or Socs6sky). The census 
of 1832 returned two distinct bodies of Indians under the synonyms Apalachicoia 
and Talwa iako. 

History. — According to Muskogee legend, the ancestors of the 
Muskogee encountered the Apalachicoia in the region above indicated 
when they entered the country, and they were at first disposed to fight 
with them but soon made peace. According to one legend the Creek 
Confederacy came into existence as a result of this treaty. Spanish 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 105 

documents of the seventeenth century are the earliest in which the 
name appears. It is there used both as the name of a town (as early 
as 1675) and, in an extended sense, for all of the Lower Creeks. This 
fact, Muskogee tradition, and the name Talwa lako all show the early 
importance of the people. They were on more friendly terms with 
the Spaniards than the Muskogee generally and hence were fallen 
upon by the Indian allies of the English and carried off, either in 
1706 or 1707. They were settled on Savannah River opposite Mount 
Pleasant, at a place which long bore their name, but in 1716, just 
after the Yamasee War, they retired into their old country and estab- 
hshed themselves at the junction of Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. 
Later they moved higher up the Chattahoochee and lived in Russell 
County, Ala., remaining in the general neighborhood until they 
removed to new homes in the present Oklahoma in 1836-40. There 
they established themselves in the northern part of the Creek Reser- 
vation but presently gave up their ceremo'nial ground and were grad- 
ually absorbed in the mass of Indians about them. 

Population. — In 1715 just before the outbreak of the Yamasee War, 
there were said to be 2 settlements of this tribe with 64 warriors and 
a total population of 214. A Spanish census of 1738 also gave 2 
settlements with 60 warriors in ojie and 45 in the other; a French census 
of 1750, more than 30 warriors; a British enumeration of 1760, 60; 
one of 1761, 20; an American estimate of 1792, 100 (including the 
Chiaha); and the United States Census of 1832, a total population of 
239 in 2 settlements. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Apalachicola River, 
Apalachicola Bay, and the name of the county seat of Franklin 
County, Fla., are derived from this tribe. The Spaniards applied 
their name to the Lower Creeks generally, and they were also noted 
as one of the tribes responsible for the formation of the Confederation. 

Chatot. Some of these Indians lived at times in the southwest cor- 
ner of this State. (See Florida.) 

Cherokee. From early times the Cherokee occupied the northern 
and northeastern parts of Georgia, though from certain place names 
it seems probable that they had been {preceded in that territory 
by Creeks. (See Tennessee.) 

Chiaha. Meaning unknown though it may contain a reference to 
mountains or highlands. (Cf. Choctaw and Alabama tcaha, 
Hitchiti tcaihi, "high.") Also called: 

Tolameco or Solameco, which probably signifies "big town," a name 
reported by the Spaniards. 



106 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

Connections. — The Chiaha belonged to the Muskhogean Hnguistic 
stock and in later times spoke the Muskogee tongue, but there is every 
reason to class them in the Hitchiti group. (See Apalachicola.) 

Location. — In later historic times the Chiaha were on the middle 
course of Chattahoochee River, but at the earliest period at which 
we have any knowledge of them they seem to have been divided into 
two bands, one on Burns Island, in the present State of Tennessee, 
the other in eastern Georgia near the coast. (See also South Carolina 
and Florida.) 

Subdivisions 

The Mikasuki of northern Florida are said to have separated from these people. 

Villages 

Hawkins (1848) gives the following: 
Aumucculle, on a creek of the same name which enters Flint River "45 miles below 

Timothy Barnard's." 
Chiahutci, Little Chiaha, a mile and a half west of the Hitchiti town, near Auhegee 

Creek. 
Hotalgihuyana, occupied jointly with the Osochi, on the right bank of Flint 

River 6 miles below Kinchafoonee. 

History. — Some confusion regarding this tribe has been occasioned 
by the fact that in the sixteenth century there appear to have been 
two divisions. The name first appears in the De Soto narratives 
applied to a "province" on an island in Tennessee River which J. Y. 
Brame has identified in a very satisfactory manner with Burns Island 
close to the Tennessee- Alabama line. They were said to be "subject 
to a chief of Coga," from which it may perhaps be inferred that the 
Creek Confederacy was already in existence. Early in 1567 Boyano, 
Juan Pardo's lieutenant, reached this town with a small body of 
soldiers and constructed a fort, Pardo joining him in September. 
When Pardo returned to Santa Elena shortly afterward he left a 
small garrison here which was later destroyed by the Indians. Possibly 
Chehawhaw Creek, an eastern affluent of the Coosa indicates a later 
location of this band. The only remaining reference which might 
apply to them occurs in the names of two bodies of Creeks called 
"Chehaw" and "Chearhaw" which appear in the census rolls of 
1832-33, but they may have gotten their designations from former 
residences on or near the creek so called. In 1727 there was a tradition 
among the Cherokee that the Yamasee Indians were formerly Cherokee 
driven out by the Tomahitans, i. e., the Yuchi, and in this there may 
be some reminiscence of fhe fate of the Chiaha. 

In the Pardo narratives the name "Lameco or Solameco" is given 
as a synonyxQ for the northern Chiaha, and this may have been 
intended for Tolameco, which would be a Creek term meaning "Chief 
Town." This was also the name of a large abandoned settlement 



iLv. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 107 

near Cofitachequi on the middle course of Savannah River visited by 
De Soto in 1540. Since we know that Chiaha were also in this region, 
it is a fair supposition that this town had been occupied by people of 
this connection. There is a Chehaw River on the South Carolina 
coast between the Edisto and Combahee, and as "Chiaha" is used 
once as an equivalent for Kiawa, possibly the Cusabo tribe of that 
name may have been related. Moreover, we are informed (S. C. 
Docs.) that the Chiaha had their homes formerly among the Yamasee. 
In 1715 they ^vithd^ew to the Chattahoochee with other upper Creek 
towns, probably from a temporary abode on Ocmulgee River. After 
the Creeks moved to Oklahoma the Chiaha settled in the northeastern 
corner of the Creek Reservation and maintained a square ground 
there until after the Civil War, but they have now practically lost 
their identity. Some of them went to Florida and the Mikasuki are 
said by some Indians to have branched off from them. In the country 
of the western Seminole there was a square ground as late as 1929 
which bore their name. 

Population. — There are no figures for the northern band of Chiaha 
unless they could have been represented in the two towns of the 
1832-33 census given above, which had total populations of 126 and 
306 respectively. For the southern division a Spanish census of 1738 
gives 120 warriors but this included also the Osochi and Okmulgee. 
In 1750 only 20 were reported, but in 1760, 160, though an estimate 
the following year reduces this to 120. In 1792 Marbury gives 100 
Chiaha and Apalachicola, and the census of 1832-33 returned 381 
of the former. In 1799 Hawkins states that there were 20 Indian 
families in Hotalgi-huyana, a town occupied jointly by this tribe and 
the Osochi, but in 1821 Young raises this to 210. He gives 670 for 
the Chiaha proper. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Chiaha tribe is 
of some note on account of the prominence given to one branch of it 
in the De Soto narratives. As above mentioned, its name, spelled 
Chehawhaw, is applied to a stream in the northern part of Talladega 
County, Ala. ; it is given in the form Chehaw to a post hamlet of Macon 
County, Ala.; to a stream in Colleton County, S. C; and also to 
a small place in Seminole County, Okla. 

Chickasaw. A band of Chickasaw lived near Augusta from about 
1723 to the opening of the American Revolution, and later they were 
for some time among the Lower Creeks. (See Mississippi and 
South Carolina.) 

Creeks. A part, and perhaps a large part, of the Indians who after- 
ward constituted the Creek Confederacy were living in the sixteenth 



108 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

century in what the Spaniards called the province of Guale on the 
present Georgia coast. Some of them moved inland in consequence 
of difficulties with the Whites, and in the latter half of the seven- 
teenth century most of those afterward known as Lower Creeks 
were upon Chattahoochee and Ocmulgee Rivers, the latter river 
being then called Ocheese Creek, from the Hitchiti name given to 
the Indians living on it. After the Yamasee War (1715) all assem- 
bled upon Chattahoochee River and continued there, part on the 
Georgia side of the river, part on the Alabama side, until they 
removed to the present Oklahoma early in the nineteenth century. 
(See Creek Confederacy and Muskogee under Alabama.) 

Guale. Meaning unknown, though it resembles Muskogee wahali, 
"the south," but it was originally applied to St. Catherines Island, or 
possibly to a chief living there. Also called: 

Ouade, a French form of Guale. 

Ybaha, Yguaja, Ibaja, Iguaja, Yupaha, Timucua name. 

Connections. — The names of villages and the title "mico" applied 
to chiefs leave little doubt that these Indians belonged to the Musk- 
hogean linguistic family. Part of them were probably true Creeks 
or Muskogee. (See Alabama.) Their nearest connections otherwise 
appear to have been with the Cusabo Indians. (See South Carolina.) 

Location. — On the Georgia coast between St. Andrews Sound and 
Savannah River, though the section between St. Catherines Sound 
and Savannah seems to have been little occupied. (See also Florida.) 

Subdivisions 

Three rough divisions appear to be indicated by Governor Ibarra of Florida, 
but this is very uncertain. (See below under Villages.) 

Villages 

So far as they can be made out, the villages in each of the three groups men- 
tioned above were as follows: 
Northern group: 

Asopo, apparently a form of Ossabaw but stated to have been on St. Cath- 
erines Island. 
Chatufo. 

Couexis, given in the French narratives as near St. Catherines. 
Culapala. 

Guale, not, it appears, on the island of that name but "on an arm of a river 
which is a branch of another on the north bank of the aforesaid port in Santa 
Elena in 32° N. lat.," probably on Ossabaw Island. 
Otapalas. 
Otaxe (Otashe). 

Posache, "in the island of Guale." 

Tolomato, said to have been on the mainland 2 leagues from St. Catherines 
Island and near the bar of Sapello. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 109 

Uchilape, "near Tolomato." 

Uculegue. 

Unallapa. 

Yfusiniquc, evidently on the mainland. 

Yoa, said to have been 2 leagues up a river emptying into an arm of the sea 

back of Sapello and St. Catherines Sound. 
Central group: 

Aleguifa, near Tulufina. 

Chucalagaite, near Tulufina. 

Espogache, near Espogue. 

Espogue, not more than 6 leagues from Talaxe. 

Fasquiche, near Espogue. 

Sapala, evidently on or near Sapello Island. 

Sotequa. 

Tapala. 

Tulufina, probably on the mainland. 

Tupiqui, probably the original of the name Tybee, but this town was verj' much 

farther south. 
Utine. 
Southern group: 
Aluque. 

Asao, probably on St. Simons Island. 
Cascangue, which seems to have been reckoned as Timucua at times and hence 

may have been near the Timucua border. 
Falquiche. 

Fuloplata, possibly a man's name. 
Hinafasque. 
Hocaesle. 
Talaxe, probably on St. Simons Island or on the Altamaha River, both of 

which were known by the name Talaxe. 
Tufulo. 
Tuque. 
Yfulo. 

To the above must be added the following town names which cannot be allo- 
cated in any of the preceding divisions: 
Alpatopo. 
Aytochuco. 
Ayul. 

Olatachahane, perhaps a chief's name. 

Olatapotoque, given as a town, but perhaps a chief's name. 
Olataylitaba, perhaps two names run together, Olata and Litabi. 
Olocalpa. 
Sulopacaques. 
Tamufa. 
Yumunapa. 

History. — The last settlement of the Ayllon colony in 1526 was on 
or near the Guale country, as the name Gualdape suggests. When 
the French Huguenot colony was at Port Royal, S. C, in 1562, they 
heard of a chief called Ouade and visited him several times for 
provisions. After the Spaniards had driven the French from Florida, 
they continued north to Guale and the Cusabo territory to expel 



110 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

several Frenchmen who had taken refuge there. In 1569 missionary 
work was undertaken by the Jesuits simultaneously among the 
Cusabo and Guale Indians and one of the missionaries, Domingo 
Augustin, wrote a grammar of the Guale language. But the 
spiritual labors of the missionaries proved unavailing, and they soon 
abandoned the country. In 1573 missionary work was resumed by 
the Franciscans and was increasingly successful when in 1597 there 
was a general insurrection in which all of the missionaries but one were 
killed. The governor of Florida shortly afterward burned very many 
of the Guale towns with their granaries, thereby reducing most of the 
Indians to submission, and by 1601 the rebellion was over. Mission- 
ary work was resumed soon afterward an^ continued uninterruptedly, 
in spite of sporadic insurrections in 1608 and 1645 and attacks of 
northern Indians in 1661, 1680, and even earlier. However, as a 
result of these attacks those of the Guale Indians who did not escape 
inland moved, or were moved, in 1686, to the islands of San Pedro, 
Santa Maria, and San Juan north of St. Augustine. Later another 
island called Santa Cruz was substituted for San Pedro. The Quaker, 
Dickenson, who was shipwrecked on the east coast of Florida in 1699, 
visited these missions on his way north. At the time of the removal 
some Guale Indians appear to have gone to South Carolina, and in 
1702 a general insurrection of the remainder took place, and they 
joined their kinsmen on the outskirts of that colony under the leader- 
ship of the Yamasee. A few may have remained in Florida. In 
any event, all except those who had fled to the Creeks were united 
after the outbreak of the Yamasee in 1715 and continued to live in 
the neighborhood of St. Augustine until their virtual extinction. In 
1726 there were two missions near St, Augustine occupied by Indians 
of the "Iguaja nation," i. e., Guale, but that is the last we hear of 
them under any name but that of the Yamasee iq, v.). 

Population. — Mooney (1928), who was not aware of the distinction 
to be drawn between the Guale Indians and the Yamasee, gives an 
estimate of 2,000 Guale in the year 1650. For the two tribes this is 
probably too low. The Guale alone, before they had been depleted 
by White contact and Indian invasions from the north, might well have 
numbered 4,000, but some of these were later added to the Creeks. In 
1602 the missionaries claimed that there were more than 1,200 Chris- 
tians in the Guale province, and in 1670 the English estimated that the 
Spanish missions contained about 700 men. The first accurate census 
of the Yamasee and Guale Indians together, made in 1715, perhaps 
omitting some few of the latter stiU in Florida, gives 413 men and a 
total population of 1,215. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Aside from the abortive 
missionary undertakings of the friars who accompanied Coronado, 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA HI 

and a short missionary experience among the Calusa, the provinces of 
Guale and Orista (Cusabo) were the first north of Mexico in which 
regular missionary work was undertaken, and the grammar of the 
Guale language by Domingo Augustin was the first of any language 
in that region to be compiled. 

Hitchiti. Perhaps from Atcik-hata, a term formerly apphed to all 
of the Indians who spoke the Hitchiti language, and is said to refer 
to the heap of white ashes piled up close to the ceremonial ground. 
Also called: 

At-pasha-shliha, Koasati name, meaning "mean people." 

Connections. — The Hitchiti belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic 
family and were considered the mother town of the Atcik-hata group. 
(See Apalachicola.) 

Location. — The Hitchiti are oftenest associated with a location in 
the present Chattahoochee County, Ga., but at an earlier period 
were on the lower course of the Ocmulgee River. (See also Florida 
and Oklahoma.) 

Villages 
Hihaje, location unknown. 

Hitchitoochee, on Flint River below its junction with Kinchafoonee Creek. 
Tuttallosee, on a creek of the same name, 20 miles west from Hitchitoochee. 

History. — The Hitchiti are identifiable with the Ocute of De Soto's 
chroniclers, who were on or near the Ocmulgee River. Early English 
maps show their town on the site of the present Macon, Ga., but after 
1715 they moved to the Chattahoochee, settling first in Henry County, 
Ala., but later at the site above mentioned in Chattahoochee County, 
Ga. From this place they moved to Oklahoma, where they gradually 
merged with the rest of the Indians of the Creek Confederacy. 

Population. — The population of the Hitchiti is usually given in 
conjunction with that of the other confederate tribes. The following 
separate estimates of the effective male Hitchiti population are 
recorded: 1738, 60; 1750, 15; 1760, 50; 1761, 40; 1772, 90; in 1832 the 
entire population was 381. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — In early days, as 
above mentioned, the Hitchiti were prominent as the leaders in that 
group of tribes or towns among the Lower Creeks speaking a language 
distinct from Muskogee. Hichita, Mcintosh County, Okla., pre- 
serves the name. 

Kasihta. One of the most important divisions of the Muskogee, 
possibly identical with the Cofitachequi of the De Soto narratives. 
(See Muskogee under Alabama.) 



112 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Oconee. Significance unknown. 

Connections. — The Oconee belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic 
stock, and the Atcik-hata group. (See Apalachicola.) 

Location.— SvLsi below the Rock Landing on Oconee River, Ga. 
(But see also Florida.) 

History. — Early documents reveal at least two bodies of Indians 
bearing the name Oconee and probably related. One was on or near 
the coast of Georgia and seems later to have moved into the Apalachee 
country and to have become fused with the Apalachee tribe before 
the end of the seventeenth century. The other was at the point 
above indicated, on Oconee River. About 1685 they were on Chatta- 
hoochee River, whence they moved to the Rock Landing. A more 
northerly location for at least part of the tribe may be indicated in 
the name of a Cherokee town, though that may have been derived 
from a Cherokee word as Mooney supposed. About 1716 they moved 
to the east bank of the Chattahoochee in Stewart County, Ga., and 
a few years later part went to the Alachua Plains, in the present 
Alachua County, Fla., where they became the nucleus of the Seminole 
Nation and furnished the chief to that people until the end of the 
Seminole war. Most of them were then taken to Oklahoma, but 
they had already lost their identity. 

Population. — The following estimates of effective Oconee men in 
the Creek Nation are preserved: 1738, 50; 1750, 30; 1760, 50; 1761, 50. 
In 1675 there were about 200 Indians at the Apalachee Mission of 
San Francisco de Oconi. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Oconee is 
perpetuated in the Oconee River, the town of Oconee, Oconee MiUs, 
and Oconee Siding, all in Georgia, but not necessarily in the name of 
Oconee County, S. C, which is of Cherokee origin, although there 
may be some more remote relationship. There is a place of the 
name in Shelby County, 111. 

Okmulgee. Signifying in the Hitchiti language, "where water boils 
up" and referring probably to the big springs in Butts County, 
Ga., called Indian Springs. Also called: 

Waiki lako, "Big Spring," Muskogee name. 

Connections. — The Okmulgee belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic 
stock and the Atsik-hata group. (See Apalachicola under Georgia.) 

Location. — In the great bend of the Chattahoochee River, Russell 
County, Ala.; earlier, about the present Macon, Ga. (See also 
Alabama and Oklahoma.) 

History. — The Okmulgee probably separated from the Hitchiti or 
one of their cognate towns when these towns were on Ocmulgee River 
and settled at the point above indicated, where they became closely 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 113 

associated with the Chiaha and Osochi. They went west with the 
other Creeks and reestabHshed themselves in the most northeastern 
part of the allotted territory, where they gradually lost their identity. 
Although small in niunbers, they gave the prominent Ferryman 
family to the Creek Nation and its well-known head chief, Pleasant 
Porter. 

Population. — A French census of about 1750 states that there were 
rather more than 20 effective men among the Okmulgee, and the 
British census of 1760 gives 30. Young, quoted by Morse, estimates 
a total population of 220 in 1822, There are few other enumerations 
separate from the general census of the Creeks. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name of the city 
of Okmulgee and that of Ocmulgee River were derived independently 
from the springs above mentioned. The name Okmulgee given to the 
later capital of the Creek Nation in what is now Oklahoma was, 
however, taken from the tribe under consideration. It has now 
become a flourishing oil city. 

Osochi. A division of the Lower Creeks which lived for a time in 
southwestern Georgia. (See Alabama.) 

Sawokli. A division of the Creeks belonging to the group of towns 
that spoke the Hitchiti language. (See Alabama.) 

Shawnee. The Sha^\'nee band which settled near Augusta concerns 
South Carolina and Georgia almost equally. Their history has 
already been given in treating the tribes of the former State. 
(See also Tennessee.) 

Tamathli. The name is possibly related to that of a Creek clan with 

the Hitchiti plural ending, in which case it would refer to ''flying 

creatures," such as birds. 

Connections. — Tamatlili belonged to the Atsik-hata group in the 
Creek Confederation. 

Location. — The historic seats of the Tamathli were in southwestern 
Georgia and neighboring parts of Florida. 

History. — It is beheved that we have our first mention of the 
Tamathh in the Toa or Toalli of the De Soto narratives. When 
De Soto passed through Georgia in 1540, it is beheved that this tribe 
was hving at Pine Island in Daugherty County. They may have 
been connected with the Altamaha Yamasee living between Ocmulgee 
and Oconee Rivers whose name sometimes appears in the form Tama. 
They afterward drifted into Florida and were established in a mission 
called La Purificacidn de la Tama on January 27, 1675, by Bishop 
Calder6n of Cuba, in the Apalachee country 1 league from San Luis. 
In a mission hst dated 1680 appears the name of another mission, 
Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria de la Tama. The TamathU suffered 



114 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

the same fate as the Apalachee in general when the latter were at- 
tacked by Moore in 1704. At least part of these Indians afterward 
moved to the neighborhood of St. Augustine, where another mission 
was established for them, but this was attacked by the Creeks on 
November 1, 1725, while mass was being celebrated. Many Indians 
were killed and the remainder moved to other missions. In 1738 we 
hear of a "Tamaxle nuevo," as the northernmost Lower Creek settle- 
ment and a southern division called "Old Tamathle," and are informed 
that "in the town of Tamasle in Apalachee [i. e., Old Tamathle] 
there were some Catholic and pagan families." We hear again of 
these Tamathli Indians from Benjamin Hawkins (1848), writing in 
1799, who sets them down as one of the tribes entering into the forma- 
tion of the Florida Seminole. A town of the same name also 
appears in the Cherokee country "on Valley River, a few miles above 
Murphy, about the present Tomatola, in Cherokee County, N. C." 
The name cannot be interpreted in Cherokee and there may once 
have been a northern division of the Tamathli. 

Population. — The Spanish census dated 1738 enters Old Tamathli, 
with 12 men, and New Tamathli with 26, but the latter probably was 
in the main a Sawokli settlement. The French estimate of 1750 
entered only the former town with 10 men. In Young's enumeration 
of Seminole towns {in Morse, 1822) this is given a total population of 
220. 

Timucua. One contact between the Timucua Indians and Georgia 
is mentioned later in connection with the Osochi. When the 
Spaniards first came in contact with them, the Timucua occupied 
not merely northern and central Florida but Cumberland Island 
and a part of the adjacent mainland. The Timucua evidently 
withdrew from this territory as a result of pressure exerted by 
northern Indians in the latter part of the seventeenth century or 
the very beginning of the eighteenth. (See Utina under Florida.) 

Yamasee. Meaning unknown, though it has been interpreted by 

Muskogee yamasi, "gentle." The form given in some early 

writings, Yamiscaron, may have been derived from a Siouan dialect 

or from Timucua, as there is no r in any of the Muskhogean tongues. 

Connections. — The Yamasee town and chief names indicate plainly 

that they spoke a Muskhogean dialect and tradition affirms that it 

was connected most closely with Hitchiti, a contention which may be 

considered probable. 

Location. — The earliest references that we have place the Yamasee 
on Ocmulgee River not far above its junction with the Oconee. They 
seem to have ranged or extended northeastward of these rivers to or 
even slightly beyond the Savannah, but always inland. (See also 
Florida, Alabama, South Carolina.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 115 

Subdivisions and Villages 

Immediately before the outbreak of the Yamasee War there were the following: 
Upper Towns: 

Huspaw, near Huspaw Creek between Combahee River and the Whale Branch. 

Pocotaligo, near Pocotaligo River. 

Sadkeche, probably near Salkehatcliie, a hamlet at the Atlantic Coast Line 

crossing of the Combahee River. 
Tomatly, in the neighborhood of Tomatly, Beaufort County, S. C. 
Yoa, near Huspaw. 
Lower Towns: 

Altamaha, location unknown. 

Chasee, location unknown. 

Oketee, probaly near one of the places so called on New River, in Jasper and 

Beaufort Counties, S. C. 
Pocasabo. 
Tulafina (?), perhaps near Tulafinny Creek, an estuary of the Coosawhatchie 

River in Jasper County. 
Other possible Yamasee settlements were Dawfuskee, Ilcombe, and Peterba. 

History. — The first reference to the Yamasee appears to be a mention 
of their name in the form Yamiscaron as that of a province with which 
Francisco of Chicora was acquainted in 1521. The "Province of 
Altamaha" mentioned by De Soto's chronicler Ranjel in 1540 probably 
included at least a part of the Yamasee people. For a hundred years 
afterward the tribe remained practically unnoticed except for a brief 
visit by a Spanish soldier and two missionaries in 1597, but in 1633 
they are reported to have asked for missionaries, and in 1639 peace is 
said to have been made between the allied Chatot, Lower Creeks, and 
Yamasee and the Apalachee. In 1675 Bishop Calder6n of Cuba 
founded two missions in the Apalachee country which were occupied 
by Yamasee or their near relatives. The same year there were three 
Yamasee missions on the Atlantic coast but one of these may have 
been occupied b}^ Tamathli. Later they moved nearer St Augustine 
but in the winter of 1684-85 some act of the Spanish governor offended 
them and they removed to South Carolina, where the English gave 
them lands on the west side of Savannah River near its mouth. Some 
of these Indians were probably from the old Guale province, but the 
Yamasee now took the lead. Eighty-seven warriors of this nation took 
part in Barnwell's expedition against the Tuscarora (see North 
Carolina). In 1715 they rose in rebellion against the English and 
killed two or three hundred settlers but were defeated by Governor 
Craven and took refuge in Florida, where, until the cession of Florida 
to Great Britain, the Yamasee continued as allies of the Spaniards. 
Meanwhile their numbers fell off steadily. Some remained in the 
neighborhood of the St. Johns River until the outbreak of the Seminole 
War. 



116 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

The Oklawaha band of Seminole is said to have been descended 
from them. Another band accompanied the Apalachee to Pensacola 
and Mobile, and we find them located near those two places on various 
charts. They may be identical with those who, shortly afterward, 
appear among the Upper Creeks on certain maps, though this is the 
only testimony we have of their presence there. At any rate, these 
latter are probably the Yamasee found among the Lower Creeks in 
the nineteenth century and last heard of among the Seminole of 
west Florida. Of some historical importance is a small band of these 
Indians who seem to have lived with the Apalachicola for a time, after 
the Yamasee War, and in 1730 settled on the site of what is now 
Savannah under the name of Yamacraw. There the Georgia colonists 
found them three years later, and the relations between the two peoples 
were most amicable. The name Yamacraw was probably derived 
from that of a Florida mission, Nombre de Dios de Amacarisse, where 
some of the Yamasee once lived. Ultimately these Yamacraw are 
believed to have retired among the Creeks and later may have gone 
to Florida. 

Population. — It is impossible to separate distinctly the true Yamasee 
from the Quale Indians. Mooney (1928) gives an estimate of 2,000 
in 1650, probably too low. A mission list compiled by Gov. Salazar 
of Florida in 1675 gives 1,190 Yamasee and Tama. In 1708 the two 
tribes, united under the name Yamasee, were thought to have 500 
men capable of bearing arms. In 1715 a rather careful census gives 
413 men and a total population of 1,215. Lists dating from 1726 
and 1728 give 313 and 144 respectively in the missions about St. 
Augustine. A fairly satisfactory Spanish census, taken in 1736, 
indicates that there were then in the neighborhood of St. Augustine 
more than 360 Yamasee and Indians of Guale. This does not include 
the Yamasee near Pensacola and Mobile, those in the Creek Nation, 
or the Yamacraw. In 1761 a body of Yamasee containing 20 men 
was living near St. Augustine, but by that time the tribe had probably 
scattered widely. In 1821 the "Emusas" on Chattahoochee River 
numbered 20 souls. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Yamasee are famous 
particularly on account of the Yamasee War, which marked an epoch 
in Indian and White history in the Southeast. At the end of the 
seventeenth century a certain stroke was used in paddling canoes 
along the coast of Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida, which was 
called the "Yamasee stroke." A small town in Beaufort County, 
S. C, is called "Yemasee," a variant of this name. 

Yuchi. Significance unknown, but perhaps, as suggested by Speck 
(1909), from a native word meaning "those far away," or "at a 
distance," though it is also possible that it is a variant of Ochesee 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 117 

or Ocheese, which was apphed by the Hitchiti and their alHes to 
Indians speaking languages different from their own. Also called: 

Ani'-Yu'tsl, Cherokee name. 

Chiska, probably a Muskogee translation of the name of one of their bands. 

Hughchee, an early synonym. 

Round town people, a name given by the early English colonists. 

Rickohockans, signifying "cavelanders" (Hewitt, in Hodge, 1907), perhaps 

an early name for a part of them. 
Tahogal^wi, abbreviated to Hogologe, name given them by the Delaware 

and other Algonquian people. 
Tamahita, so called by some Indians, perhaps some of the eastern Siouans. 
Tsoyaha, "People of the sun," their own name, or at least the name of 

one band. 
Westo, perhaps a name applied to them by the Cusabo Indians of South 

Carolina though the identification is not beyond question. 

Connections. — The Yuchi constituted a linguistic stock, the Uchean, 
distinct from all others, though structurally their speech bears a 
certain resemblance to the languages of the Muskhogean and Siouan 
families. 

Location. — The earliest known location of the Yuchi was in 
eastern Tennessee, perhaps near Manchester, but some of them 
extended still farther east, while others were as far west as Muscle 
Shoals. On archeological grounds Prof. T. M. N. Lewis believes that 
one main center of the Yuchi was on Hiwassee River. We find 
settlements laid down on the maps as far north as Green River, 
Kentucky. In later times a part settled in West Florida, near the 
present Eucheeanna, and another part on Savannah and Ogeechee 
Rivers. (See also Alabama, Florida, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and South 
Carolina.) 

Subdivisions 

There appear to have been three principal bands in historic times: one on 
Tennessee River, one in West Florida, and one on Savannah River, but only a 
suggestion of native band names has survived. Recently Wagner has heard of 
at least three subdivisional names, including the Tsoyaha, or "Sun People" and 
the Root People. 

Villages 

Most of their settlements are given the name of the tribe, Yuchi, or one of its 
synonyms. In early times they occupied a town in eastern Tennessee called by 
the Cherokee Tsistu'yl, "Rabbit place," on the north bank of Hiwassee River 
at the entrance of Chestua Creek in Polk County, Tenn., and at one time also that 
of Hiwassee, or Euphasee, at the Savannah Ford of Hiwassee River. The 
Savannah River band had villages at Mount Pleasant, probably in Screven 
County, Ga., near the mouth of Brier Creek, 2 miles below Silver Bluff on Savan- 
nah River in Barnwell County; and one on Ogeechee River bearing the name of 
that stream, though that was itself perhaps one form of the name Yuchi. 
Hawkins (1848) mentions former villages at Ponpon and Saltketchers in South 
Carolina, but these probably belonged to the Yamasee. The following Yuchi 
settlements were established after the tribe united with the Lower Creeks: 



118 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Arkansaw River, in Oklahoma. 

Big Pond Town, Polecat Creek, and Sand Creek, in and near Creek County, Okla. 

Blackjack Town. 

Deep Fork Creek, Okla. 

Duck Creek Town. 

Intatchkalgi, on Opilthlako Creek 28 miles above its junction with Flint River, 

probably in Schley County, Ga. 
Padshilaika, at the junction of Patchilaika Creek with Flint River, Macon 

County, Ga. 
Red Fork, location uncertain. 
Snake Creek, location uncertain. 
Spring Garden Town, above Lake George, Fla. 
Tokogalgi, on Kinchafoonee Creek, an affluent of Flint River, Ga. 

History. — The chroniclers of the De Soto expedition mention the 
Yuchi under the name Chisca, at one or more points in what is now 
Tennessee. In 1567 Boyano, an officer under Juan Pardo, had two 
desperate encounters with these Indians somewhere in the highlands 
of Tennessee or North Carolina, and, according to his own story, 
destroyed great numbers of them. In 1670 Lederer (1912) heard of 
people called Rickohockans living in the mountains who may have 
been Yuchi, and two white men sent from Virginia by Abraham 
Wood visited a Yuchi town on a head stream of the Tennessee in 
1674. About this time also, English explorers and settlers in South 
Carolina were told of a warlike tribe called Westo (probably a division 
of Yuchi) who had struck terror into all of the coast Indians, and 
hostilities later broke out betv/een them and the colonists. At this 
juncture, however, a band of Shawnee made war upon the Yv^esto 
and drove them from the Savannah. For a time they seem to have 
given themselves up to a roving life, and some of them went so far 
inland that they encountered La Salle and settled near Fort St. 
Louis, near the present Utica, 111. Later some were located among the 
Creeks on Ocmulgee River, and they removed with them to the 
Chattahoochee in 1715. Another band of Yuchi came to live on 
Savannah River about 20 miles above Augusta, probably after the 
expulsion of the Westo. They were often called Hogologe. In 1716 
they also moved to the Chattahoochee but for a time occupied a town 
distinct from that of the other Yuchi. It was probably this band 
which settled near the Shawnee on Tallapoosa River and finally 
united with them. Still later occurred a third influx of Yuchi who 
occupied the Savannah between Silver Bluff and Ebenezer Creek. 
In 1729 a Kasihta chief named Captain Ellick married three Yuchi 
women and persuaded some of the Yuchi Indians to move over 
among the Lower Creeks, but Governor Oglethorpe of Georgia 
guaranteed them their rights to their old land until after 1740, and 
the final removal did not, in fact, take place until 1751. 

A still earlier invasion of southern territories by Yuchi is noted by 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 119 

one of the governors of Florida in a letter dated 1639. These in- 
vaders proved a constant source of annoyance to the Spaniards. 
Finally they established themselves in West Florida not far from the 
Choctawhatchee River, where they were attacked by an allied Spanish 
and Apalachee expedition in 1677 and suffered severely. They con- 
tinued to live in the same region, however, until some time before 1761 
when they moved to the Upper Creeks and settled near the Tukabah- 
chee. Eucheeanna in Walton County, Fla. seems to preserve their 
name. 

A certain number of Yuchi remained in the neighborhood of Ten- 
nessee River, and at one time they were about Muscle Shoals. They 
also occupied a town in the Cherokee country, called by the latter 
tribe Tsistu'yi, and Hiwassee at Savannah Ford. In 1714, the 
former was cut off by the Cherokee in revenge for the murder of a 
member of their tribe, instigated by two English traders. Later 
tradition afiirms that the surviving Yucfii fled to Florida, but many 
of them certainly remained in the Cherokee country for a long time 
afterward, and probably eventually migrated west with their hosts. 

A small band of Yuchi joined the Seminole just before the outbreak 
of the Seminole War. They appear first in West Florida, near the 
Mikasuki but later had a town at Spring Garden in Volusia County. 
Their presence is indicated down to the end of the war in the Peninsula, 
when they appear to have gone west, probably reuniting with the 
remainder of the tribe. 

The Yuchi who stayed with the Creeks accompanied them west 
and settled in one body in the northwestern part of the old Creek 
Nation, in Creek County, Okla. 

Population. — For the year 1650 Mooney (1928) makes an estimate 
of 1,500 for the Yuchi in Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee, but this 
does not include the "Westo," for whom, with the Stono, he allows 
1,600. The colonial census of 1715 gives 2 Yuchi towns with 130 
men and 400 souls, but this probably takes into consideration only 1 
band out of 3 or 4. In 1730 the band still on Tennessee River was 
supposed to contain about 150 men. In 1760, 50 men are reported 
in the Lower Creek town and 15 in one among the Upper Creeks. 
In 1777 Bartram (1792) estimated the number of Yuchi warriors in 
the lower to^vn at 500 and their total population as between 1,000 
and 1,500. In 1792 Marbury (1792) reports 300 men, or a population 
of over 1,000, and Hawkins in 1799 says the Lower Creek Yuchi 
claimed 250 men. According to the census of 1832-33 there were 
1,139 in 2 towns known to have been occupied by Indians of this 
connection. In 1909 Speck stated that the whole number of Yuchi 
could "hardly exceed five hundred," but the official report for 1910 
gives only 78. That, however, must have been an underestimate as 



120 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

the census of 1930 reported 216. Owing to the number of Yuchi 
bands, their frequent changes in location, and the various terms 
applied to them, an exact estimate of their numbers at any period 
is very difficult. In the first half of the sixteenth century they may 
well have numbered more than 5,000. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Yuchi have at- 
tained an altogether false reputation as the supposed aborigines of 
the Gulf region. They were also noted for the uniqueness of their 
language among the Southeastern tongues. The name is preserved 
in Euchee, a post hamlet of Meigs County, Tenn.; Eucheeanna, a 
post village of Walton County, Fla.; Euchee (or Uchee) Creek, 
Russell County, Ala. ; Uchee, a post station of EusseU County, Ala. ; 
Uchee Creek, Columbia County, Ga.; and an island in Savannah 
River near the mouth of the latter. 

Yufera. (See Florida.) 

FLORIDA 

Acuera. Meaning unknown (acu signifies "and" and also "moon"). 

Connections. — This tribe belonged to the Timucuan or Timuquanan 
linguistic division of the Muskhogean linguistic family. 

Location. — Apparently about the headwaters of the Ocklawaha 
River. 

Towns. — (See Utina.) 

History. — The Acuera were first noted by De Soto in a letter written 
at Tampa Bay to the civil cabildo of Santiago de Cuba. According 
to information transmitted to him by his officer Baltazar de Gallegos, 
Acuera was "a large town . . . where with much convenience we 
might winter," but the Spaniards did not in fact pass through it, 
though, while they were at Ocale, they sent to Acuera for corn. The 
name appears later in Laudonniere's narrative of the second French 
expedition to Florida, 1564-65 (1586), as a tribe allied with the Utina. 
It is noted sparingly in later Spanish documents but we learn that 
in 1604 there was an encounter between these Indians and Spanish 
troops and that there were two Acuera missions in 1655, San Luis 
and Santa Lucia, both of which had disappeared by 1680. The 
inland position of the Acuera is partly responsible for the few notices 
of them. The remnant was probably gathered into the "Pueblo de 
Timucua," which stood near St. Augustine in 1736, and was finally 
removed to the Mosquito Lagoon and Halifax River in Volusia 
County, where Tomoka River keeps the name alive. 

Population. — This is nowhere given by itself. (See Utina.) 

Aguacaleyquen, see Utina. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 121 

Ais. Meaning unknown; there is no basis for Romans' (1775) deri- 
vation from the Choctaw word "isi" (deer). Also called: 
Jece, form of the name given by Dickenson (1699). 

Connections. — Circumstantial evidence, particularly resemblance in 
town names, leads to the conclusion that the Ais language was similar 
to that of the Calusa and the other south Florida tribes. (See 
Calusa.) It is believed that it was connected with the Muslvhogean 
stock. 

Location. — Along Indian River on the east coast of the peninsula. 

Villages 

The only village mentioned by explorers and geographers bears some form of 
the tribal name. 

History. — Fontaneda (1854) speaks of a Biscayan named Pedro 
who had been held prisoner in Ais, evidently during the sixteenth 
century, and spoke the Ais language fluently. Shortly after the 
Spaniards made their first establishments in the peninsula, a war 
broke out with the Ais, but peace was concluded in 1570. In 1597 
Governor Alendez de Cango, who traveled along the entire east 
coast from the head of the Florida Keys to St. Augustine, reported 
that the Ais chief had more Indians under him than any other. A 
Httle later the Ais killed a Spaniard and two Indiars sent to them by 
Cango for which summary revenge was exacted, and stiU later a 
difficulty was created by the escape of two Negro slaves and their 
marriage with Ais men. Relations between the Floridian govern- 
ment and these Indians were afterward friendly but efforts to mis- 
sioni'/e them uniformly failed. An ultimate picture of their condition 
in 1699 is given by the Quaker Dickenson (1803), who was ship- 
wrecked on the coast farther south and obliged, with his companions, 
to travel through their territory. They disappear from history after 
1703, but the remnant may have been among those who, according 
to Romans (1775), passed over to Cuba in 1763, although he speaks 
of them all as Calusa. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Indians on 
the southeastern coast of Florida in 1650, including this tribe, the 
Tekesta, Guacata, and Jeaga, to have been 1,000. As noted above, 
the Ais were the most important of these and undoubtedly the 
largest. We have no other estimates of population applying to the 
seventeenth century. In 1726, 88 "Costa" Indians were reported in 
a mission farther north and these may have been drawn from the 
southeast coast. In 1728, 52 "Costa" Indians were reported. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Ais were noted 
as the most important tribe of southeastern Florida, and they were 



122 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

probably responsible for the fact that the watercourse on which they 
dwelt came to be called Indian River. 

Alabama. Early in the eighteenth century the Pawokti, and perhaps 
some other Alabama bands, lived near Apalachicola River, whence 
they were driven in 1708. After the Creek-American War a part 
of the Alabama again entered Florida, but they do not seem to 
have maintained an independent existence for a very long period. 
(See Alabama.) 

Amacano. A tribe or band perhaps connected with the Yamasee, 
placed in a mission on the Apalachee coast in 1674 with two others, 
Chine, and Caparaz (q. v.). The three together had 300 souls. 

Amacapiras, see Macapiras. 

Apalachee. Meaning perhaps "people on the other side" (as in 

Hitchiti), or it may be cognate with Choctaw apelachi, "a helper." 

Connections. — These Indians belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic 

family, their closest connections having been apparently the Hitchiti 

and Alabama. 

Location. — The Apalachee towns, with few exceptions, were com- 
pactly situated in the neighborhood of the present Florida capital, 
Tallahassee. (See also Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.) 

Villages 

Aute, 8 or 9 days' journey from the main towns and apparently southwest of them. 

Ayubale, 77 leagues from St. Augustine. 

Bacica, probably near the present Wacissa River. 

Bacuqua, seemingly somewhat removed from the main group of towns. 

Calahuchi, north of the main group of towns and not certainly Apalachee. 

Cupayca, location uncertain; its name seems to be in Timucua. 

Ibitachuco, 75 leagues from St. Augustine. 

Iniahica, close to the main group of towns, possibly the Timucua name for one of 

the others given, since hica is the Timucua word for "town." 
Ochete, on the coast 8 leagues south of Iniahica. 
Ocuia, 84 leagues from St. Augustine. 
Ospalaga, 86 leagues from St. Augustine. 
Patali, 87 leagues from St. Augustine. 

Talimali, 88 leagues from St. Augustine and very likely identical with Iniahica. 
Talpatqui, possibly identical with the preceding. 
Tomoh, 87 leagues from St. Augustine. 
Uzela, on or near Ocilla River. 
Yapalaga, near the main group of towns. 
Ychutafun, on Apalachicola River. 
Yecambi, 90 leagues from St. Augustine. 

A few other names are contained in various writings or placed upon 
sundry charts, but some of these belonged to distinct tribes and were 
located only temporarily among the Apalachee; others are not men- 



Swantonj INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 123 

tioned elsewhere but appear to belong in the same category; and still 
others are simpl}'^ names of missions and may apply to certain of the 
towns mentioned above. Thus Chacatos evidently refers to the 
Chatot tribe, Tama to the TamaH, and Oconi probably to a branch of 
the Oconee mentioned elsewhere. The Chines were a body of Chatot 
and derived their name from a chief. Among names which appear 
only in Spanish we find Santa Fe. Capola and Ilcombe, given on the 
Popple Map, were probably occupied by Guale and Yamasee refugees. 
A late Apalachee settlement was called San Marcos. 

History. — The Apalachee seem to appear first in histoiy in the 
chronicles of the Narvaez expedition (Bandelier, 1905). The ex- 
plorers spent nearly a month in an Apalachee town in the year 1528 
but were subjected to constant attacks on the part of the warlike 
natives, who pursued them during their withdrawal to a coast town 
named Ante. In October 1539, De Soto arrived in the Apalachee 
province and remained there the next winter in spite of the unceas- 
ing hostility of the natives, who well maintained the reputation for 
prowess they had acquired 11 years before. Although the province 
is mentioned from time to time by the first French and Spanish col- 
onists of Florida, it did not receive much attention until the tribes 
between it and St. Augustine had been pretty well missionized. In 
a letter written in 1607 we learn that the Apalachee had asked for 
missionaries and, although one paid a visit to them the next year, 
the need is reiterated at frequent intervals. It was not until 1633, 
however, that the work was actually begun. In that year two monks 
entered the country and the conversion proceeded very rapidly so 
that by 1647 there were seven churches and convents and eight of 
the principal chiefs had been baptized. In that year, however, a 
great rebellion took place. Three missionaries were killed and all of 
the churches with their sacred objects were destroyed. An expedi- 
tion sent against the insurgents was repulsed, but shortly afterward 
the movement collapsed, apparently through a counterrevolution in 
the tribe itself. After this most of the Apalachee sought baptism 
and there was no further trouble between them and the Spaniards 
except for a brief sympathetic movement at the time of the Timucua 
uprising of 1656. The outstanding complaint on the part of the 
Indians was that some of them were regularly commandeered to work 
on the fortifications of St. Augustine. In 1702 a large Apalachee war 
party was severely defeated by Creek Indians assisted by some Eng- 
lish traders, and in 1704 an expedition from South Carolina under 
Colonel Moore practically destroyed the nation. Moore claims to 
have carried away the people of three towns and the greater part of 
the population of four more and to have left but two towns and part 



124 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

of another. Most of these latter appear to have fled to Mobile, 
where, in 1705, they were granted land on which to settle. The 
Apalachee who had been carried off by Moore were established near 
New Windsor, S. C, but when the Yamasee War broke out they 
joined the hostile Indians and retired for a time to the Lower Creeks. 
Shortly afterward the English faction among the Lower Creeks be- 
came ascendant and the Apalachee returned to Florida, some remain- 
ing near their old country and others settling close to Pensacola to 
be near their relatives about Mobile. By 1718 another Apalachee 
settlement had been organized by the Spaniards near San Marcos de 
Apalache and close to their old country. In 1728 we hear of two 
small Apalachee towns in this neighborhood. Most of them grav- 
itated finally to the neighborhood of Pensacola. In 1764, the year 
after all French and Spanish possessions east of the Mississippi passed 
into the hands of Great Britain, the Apalachee, along with several 
other tribes, migrated into Louisiana, now held by Spain, and settled 
on Red River, where they and the Taensa conjointly occupied a strip 
of land between Bayou d'Arro and Bayou Jean de Jean. Most of 
this land was sold in 1803 and the Apalachee, reduced to a small 
band, appear to have moved about in the same general region until 
they disappeared. They are now practically forgotten, though a few 
mixed-blood Apalachee are still said to be in existence. A few 
accompanied the Creeks to Oklahoma. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates 7,000 Apalachee Indians in 
1650, a figure which seems to me to be ample. Governor Salazar's 
mission-by-mission estimate in 1675 yielded a total of 6,130, and a 
Spanish memorial dated 1676 gives them a population of 5,000. At 
the time of Moore's raid there appear to have been about 2,000. The 
South Carolina Census of 1715 gives 4 Apalachee villages, 275 men, 
and 638 souls. As the Mobile Apalachee were shortly afterward 
reduced to 100 men, the number of the entire tribe in 1715 must have 
been about 1,000. By 1758 they appear to have fallen to not much 
over 100, and in 1814 Sibley reported but 14 men in the Louisiana 
band, signifying a total of perhaps 50 (Sibley, 1832). Morse's esti- 
mate (1822) of 150 in 1817 is evidently considerably too high. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Apalachee were 
mentioned repeatedly as a powerful and warhke people, and this 
character was attested by their stout resistance to Narvaez and 
De Soto. The sweeping destruction which overtook them at the 
hands of the Creeks and Carolinians marks an epoch in Southeastern 
history. Their name is preserved in Apalachee Bay and River, Fla. ; 
Apalachee River, Ga., Apalachee River, Ala,; and most prominently 
of all, in the Appalachian Mountains, and other terms derived from 
them. Tallahassee, the capital of Florida, the name of which signifies 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 125 

"Old Town," is on the site of San Luis de Talimali, the principal 
Spanish mission center. There is a post village named Apalachee in 
Morgan County, Ga. 

Apalachicola. At times some of the Apalachicola Indians lived south 
of the present Florida boundary line and they gave their name to the 
great river which runs tlirough the panhandle of that State. (See 
Georgia.) 

Calusa. Said by a Spaniard, Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who 
was a captive among them for many years, to mean "fierce people," 
but it is perhaps more probable that, since it often appears in the 
form Carlos, it was, as others assert, adopted by the Calusa chief 
from the name of the Emperor Charles V, about whose greatness 
he had learned from Spanish prisoners. 

Connections. — From the place names and the few expressions 
recorded by Fontaneda, I suspect that the Calusa were connected 
linguistically with the Muskhogean stock and particularly with that 
branch of it to which the Apalachee and Choctaw belonged, but no 
definite conclusion on this point is as yet possible. 

Location. — On the west coast of the Peninsula of Florida southward 
of Tampa Bay and including the Florida Keys. The Indians in the 
interior, about Lake Okeechobee, while forming a distinct group, 
seem also to have been Calusa. 

Subdivision* 
Unknown, except aa indicated above. 

Villages 

In the following list the letters S and I indicate respectively towns belonging 

to the seacoast division and those of the interior division about Lake Okeechobee. 

Beyond this allocation the positions of most of the towns may be indicated merely 

in a general manner, by reference to neighboring towns. 

Abir (I), between Neguitun and Cutespa. 

Alcola (or Chosa), location uncertain. 

Apojola Negra, the first word is Timucua; the second seems to be Spanish; loca- 
tion unknown. 

Calaobe (S). 

Caragara, between Namuguya and Henhenguepa. 

Casitoa (S), between Muspa and Cotebo. 

Cayovea (S). 

Cayucar, between Tonco and Neguitun. 

Chipi, between Tomgobe and Taguagemae. 

Chosa (see Alcola). 

Comachica (S). 

Cononoguay, between Cutespa and Estegue. 

Cotebo, between Casitoa and Coyobia. 

Coyobia, between Cotebo and Tequemapo. 

Cuchiyaga, said to be southwest from Bahia Honda and 40 leagues northeast of 
Guarungube, probably on Big Pine Key. 



126 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Custavui, south of Jutun. 

Cutespa (I), between Abir and Cononoguay, 

Elafay, location uncertain. 

Enempa (I). 

Estame (S) , between Metamapo and Sacaspada. 

Estantapaca, between Yagua and Queyhicha. 

Estegue, between Cononoguay and Tomsobe. 

Excuru, between Janar and Metamapo. 

Guarungube, "on the point of the Martyrs," and thus probably near Key West. 

Guevu (S). 

Henhenguepa, between Caragara and Ocapataga. 

Janar, between Ocapataga and Escuru. 

Judyi, between Satucuava and Soco. 

Juestocobaga, between Queyhicha and Sinapa. 

Jutun (S), between Tequemapo and Custavui. 

Metamapo (S), between Escuru and Estame. 

Muspa (S), between Teyo and Casitoa. 

Namuguya, between Taguagemae and Caragara. 

Neguitun, between Cayiicar and Abir. 

No or Non (S). 

Ocapataga, between Henhenguepa and Janar. 

Queyhicha, between Estantapaca and Juestocobaga. 

Quisiyove (S). 

Sacaspada (S), between Estame and Satucuava. 

Satucuava, between Sacaspada and Judyi, 

Sinaesta (S). 

Sinapa (S) , between Juestocobaga and Tonco. 

Soco, between Judyi and Vuebe. 

Taguagemae, between Chipi and Namuguya. 

Tampa (S), the northernmost town, followed on the south by Yegua, and 

probably on Charlotte Harbor. 
Tatesta (S), between the Tequesta tribe and Cuchiyaga, about 80 leagues north 

of the latter, perhaps at the innermost end of the Keys. 
Tavaguemue (I). 

Tequemapo (S), between Coyobia and Jutun. 
Teyo, between Vuebe and Muspa. 
Tiquijagua (?). 
Tomo (S). 

Tomsobe (I), between Estegue and Chipi. 
Tonco, between Sinapa and Cayucar. 
Tuchi (S). 

Vuebe, between Soco and Teyo, possibly the same as Guevu. 
Yagua (S), between Tampa and Estantapaca. 

History. — Most early navigators who touched upon the west coast 
of Florida must have encountered the Calusa but the first definite 
appearance of the tribe historically is in connection with shipwrecks 
of Spanish fleets, particularly the periodical treasure fleet from 
Mexico, upon the Calusa coast. These catastrophes threw numerous 
Spanish captives into the hands of the natives and along with them 
a quantity of gold and silver for which the Calusa shortly became 
noted. Ponce de Leon visited them in 1513, Miruelo in 1516, Cordova 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 127 

in 1517; and Ponce, during a later expedition in 1521, received from 
them a mortal wound from which he died after reaching Cuba, 
Most of our early information regarding the Calusa is obtained from 
Fontaneda (1854), who was held captive in the tribe from about 1551 
to 1569. At the time when St. Augustine was settled attempts were 
made to establish a post among these Indians and to missionize them, 
but the post had soon to be withdrawn and the missionary attempt 
proved abortive. The Calusa do not seem to have been converted to 
Christianity during the entire period of Spanish control. While 
their treatment of castaways was restrained, in ever\^ other respect 
they appear to have continued their former manner of existence, 
except that they resorted more and more to Havana for purposes of 
trade. Outside of a steady diminution in numbers there is little to 
report of them until the close of the Seminole War. The Seminole, 
when hard pressed by the American forces, moved south into the 
Everglade region and there came into contact with what was left of 
the Calusa. Romans (1775) states that the last of the Calusa emi- 
grated to Cuba in 1763, but probably the Indians who composed this 
body were from the east coast and were not true Calusa. The 
Calusa themselves appear about this time under the name Muspa, 
which, it will be seen, was the designation of one of their towns. On 
the movement of the Seminole into their country they became involved 
in hostilities with the American troops, and a band of Muspa attacked 
the camp of Colonel Harney in 1839 killing 18 out of 30 men. July 
23 of the same year Harney fell upon the Spanish Indians, killed their 
chief, and hung six of his followers. The same band later killed a bot- 
anist named Perrine living on Indian Key and committed other depre- 
dations. The Calusa may have been represented by the "Choctaw 
band" of Indians, which appears among the Seminole shortly after 
this time. The Seminole now in Oklahoma assert that a body of 
Choctaw came west with them when they were moved from Florida, 
but the only thing certain as to the Calusa is that we hear no more 
about them. Undoubtedly some did not go west and either became 
incorporated with the Florida Seminole or crossed to Cuba. 

Population. — Mooney's (1928) estimate of 3,000 Calusa Indians in 
1650 is probably as near the truth as any estimate that could be 
suggested. No census and very few estimates of the population, 
even of the most partial character, are recorded. An expedition 
sent into the Calusa country in 1680 passed through 5 villages said 
to have had a total population of 960, but this figure can be accepted 
only with the understanding that these villages were principal centers. 
In the band that attacked Harney in 1839 there were said to be 250 
Indians. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — When first discovered 



128 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. i45 

the Calusa were famous for the power of their chiefs, the amount of 
gold which they had obtained from Spanish treasure ships, and for 
their addiction to human sacrifice. Their name persists in that of 
Caloosahatchee River and probably also in that of Charlotte Harbor. 
Another claim to distinction is the adoption by their chief of the name 
of the great Emperor Charles — if that was indeed the case. The 
only similar instance would seem to be in the naming of the Delaware 
Indians, but that was imposed upon the Lenni Lenape, not adopted 
by them. 

Caparaz. A small tribe or band placed in 1674 in connection with a 
doctrina called San Luis on the Apalachee coast along with two 
other bands called Amacano and Chine. Possibly they may have 
been survivors of the Capachequi encountered by De Soto in 1540, 
The three bands were estimated to contain 300 people. 

Chatot. Meaning unknown, but the forms of this word greatly 

resemble the synonyms of the name Choctaw. 

Connections. — The language spoken by this tribe belonged, un- 
doubtedly, to the southern division of the Muskhogean stock. 

Location. — West of Apalachicola River, perhaps near the middle 
course of the Chipola. (See also Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana). 

Villages 

From the names of two Spanish missions among them it would appear that 
there were at least two towns in early times, one called Chacato, after the name 
of the tribe, and the other Tolentino. 

History. — The Chatot are first mentioned in a Spanish document 
of 1639 in which the governor of Florida congratulates himself on 
having consummated peace between the Chatot, Apalachicola, and 
Yamasee on one side and the Apalachee on the other. This, he says, 
"is an extraordinary thing, because the aforesaid Chacatos never 
maintained peace with anybody." In 1674 the two missions noted 
above were established among these people, but the following year 
the natives rebelled. The disturbance was soon ended by the Spanish 
oflBcer Florencia, and the Chatot presently settled near the Apalachee 
town of San Luis, mission work among them being resumed. In 
1695, or shortly before, Lower Creek Indians attacked this mission, 
plundered the church, and carried away 42 Christianized natives. In 
1706 or 1707, following on the destruction of the Apalachee towns, the 
Chatot and several other small tribes living near it were attacked 
and scattered or carried off captive, and the Chatot fled to Mobile, 
where they were well received by Bienville and located on the site of 
the present city of Mobile, When Bienville afterward moved the 
seat of his government to this place he assigned to them land on Dog 
River by way of compensation. After Mobile was ceded to the 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 129 

English in 1763 the Chatot, along with a number of other small tribes 
near that city, moved to Louisiana. They appear to have settled 
first on Bayou Boeuf and later on Sabine River. Nothing is heard of 
them afterward though in 1924 some old Choctaw remembered their 
former presence on the Sabine. The remnant may have found their 
way to Oklahoma. 

Popvlation. — I would estimate a population of 1,200-1,500 for the 
Chatot when they were first missionized (1674). When they were 
settled on the site of Mobile, Bienville (1932, vol. 3, p. 536) says that 
they could muster 250 men, which would indicate a population of near 
900, but in 1725-26 there were but 40 men and perhaps a total popu- 
lation of 140. In 1805 they are said to have had 30 men or about 100 
people. In 1817 a total of 240 is returned by Morse (1822), but this 
figure is probably twice too large. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Chatot are noted 
because at one time they occupied the site of Mobile, Ala., and because 
Bayou Chattique, Choctaw Point, and Choctaw Swamp close by that 
city probably preserve their name. The Choctawhatchee, w^hich is near 
their former home, was probably named for them. 

Chiaha. A few Creeks of this tribe emigrated from their former towns 
to Florida before the Creek- American War and after that encounter 
may have been joined by others. In an early list of Seminole set- 
tlements they are credited with one town on "Beech Creek," and 
this may have been identical with Fulemmy's Town or Finder 
Town located on Suwanee River in 1817, which was said to be 
occupied by Chiaha Indians. The Alikasuki are reported to have 
branched off from this tribe. (See Georgia.) 

Chilucan. A tribe mentioned in an enumeration of the Indians in 
Florida missions made in 1726. Possibly the name is derived from 
Muskogee chiloki, "people of a different speech," and since one of 
the two missions where they are reported was San Buenaventura 
and elsewhere that mission is said to have been occupied by Mocama 
Indians, that is, seacoast Timucua, a Timucuan connection is 
indicated. In the list mentioned, 70 Chilucan were said to be at 
San Buenaventura and 62 at the mission of Nombre de Dios. 

Chine. A small tribe or band associated with two others called 
Amacano and Caparaz (q. v.) in a doctrina established on the coast 
of the Apalachee country called San Luis. Other evidence suggests 
that Chine may be the name of a Chatot chief. Later they may 
have moved into the Apalachee country, for in a mission list dated 
1680 there appears a mission called San Pedro de los Chines. This 
tribe and the Amacano and Caparaz were said to number 300 
individuals in 1674. 



130 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Creeks, see Alabama, Chiaha, Hitchiti, Mikasukee, Muskogee, 
Oconee, Sawokli, Tawasa, and Yuchi.) 

Fresh Water ("Agua Dulce") Indians. A name applied to the people 

of seven to nine neighboring towns, and for which there is no native 

equivalent. 

Connections. — The same as Acuera (q. v.). 

Location. — In the coast district of eastern Florida between St. 
Augustine and Cape Canaveral. 

Villages 

The following towns are given in this province extending from north to south, 
but not all of the native names have been preserved: 
Anacape, said to have been 20 leagues south of St. Augustine. 
Antonico; another possible name is Tunsa. 
Equale, location uncertain. 
Filache, location uncertain. 

Maiaca, a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral and on St. Johns River. 
Moloa, south of the mouth of St. Johns River (omitted from later lists). 
San Julian, location uncertain. 
San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine, destroyed in 1600 by a 

flood. 
Tocoy, given by one writer as 5 leagues from St. Augustine; by another as 24 

leagues. 

The names Macaya and Maycoya, which appear in the neighborhood of the 
last of these are probably synonyms or corruptions of Maiaca, but there seems to 
have been a sister town of Maiaca at an early date which Fontaneda (1854) calls 
Mayajuaca or IMayjuaca. In addition to the preceding, a number of town names 
have been preserved which perhaps belong to places in this province. Some of 
them may be synonyms of the town names already given, especially of towns 
like Antonico and St. Julian, the native names of which are otherwise unknown. 
These include: 

Qacoroy, l}'^ leagues from Xocoroco. 
Caparaca, southwest of Nocoroco. 
Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine. 
Cicale, 3 leagues south of Nocoroco. 
Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco. 
Disnica, probably south of St. Augustine, though not necessarily in the Fresh 

Water Province. 
Elanogue, near Antonico. 
Maiaca, south of Nocoroco. 
Mogote, in the region of Nocoroco. 

Nocoroco, one day's journey south of Matanzas Inlet and on a river called No- 
coroco River, perhaps Halifax River. 
Perqumaland, south of the last mentioned; possibly two towns, Perqui and 

Maland. 
Pia, south of Nocoroco. 
Sabobche, south of Nocoroco. 

Tomeo, apparently near or in the Fresh Water province. 
Tucura, apparently in the same province as the last mentioned. 
Yaocay, near Antonico. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 131 

History. — The history of this province differed little from that of 
the other Timucua provinces, tribes, or confederacies. Ponce de 
Leon made his landfall upon this coast in 1513. The French had 
few dealings with the people but undoubtedly met them. Fontaneda 
(1854) heard of the provinces of Maiaca and Mayajuaca, and later 
there were two Spanish missions in this territory, San Antonio de 
Anacape and San Salvador de Maiaca. These appear in the mission 
list of 1655 and in that of 1680 but from data given with the latter 
it is evident that Yamasee were then settled at Anacape. All of 
these Indians were converted rapidly early in the seventeenth century 
and the population declined with increasing celerity. The last body 
of Timucua were settled in this district and have left their name in 
that of Tomoka Creek, (See Utina.) 

Population. — There are no data on which to give a separate and 
full statement of the Timucua population in this district. In 1602, 
however, 200 Indians belonging to it had been Christianized and 100 
more were under instruction. (See Acuera.) 

Guacata. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — On the evidence furnished by place names in this 
section, the tribe is classified with the south Florida peoples. 

Location. — On or near Saint Lucie River in Saint Lucie and Palm 
Beach Counties. 

History. — The Guacata are first mentioned by Fontaneda (1854), 
who in one place speaks of them as on Lake Mayaimi (Okeechobee), 
but this probably means only that they ranged across to the lake 
from the eastern seacoast. Shortly after his conquest of Florida 
Al^enendez left 200 men in the Ais country, but the Indians of that 
tribe soon rose against them and they moved to the neighborhood of 
the Guacata, where they were so well treated that they called the place 
Santa Lucia. Next year, however, these Indians rose against them 
and although they were at first defeated the Spaniards were so hard 
pressed that they abandoned the place in 1568. They were still an 
independent body in the time of Dickenson, in 1699, but not long 
afterward they evidently united with other east coast bands, and they 
were probably part of those who emigrated to Cuba in 1763. 

Population. — No separate estimate has ever been made. (See Ais.) 

Guale. In relatively late times many of these Indians were driven 
from their country into Florida. (See Georgia.) 

Hitchiti. The ancient home of the Hitchiti was north of Florida but 
after the destruction of the earlier tribes of the peninsula, in which 
they themselves participated, Hitchiti-speaking peoples moved in in 
great numbers to take their places, so that up to the Creek-xVmerican 
War, the Hitchiti language was spoken by the greater number of 



132 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Seminole. The later immigration, as we have indicated above, 
reduced the Hitchiti element to a minority position, so that what 
we now call the Seminole language is practically identical with 
Muskogee. True Hitchiti as distinguished from Hitchiti-speaking 
peoples who bore other names, do not appear to have been very 
active in this early movement though Hawkins (1848) mentions 
them as one of those tribes from which the Seminole were made up. 
The Hitchiti settlement of Attapulgas or Atap'halgi and perhaps 
other of the so-called Fowl Towns seem to represent a later immigra- 
tion into the peninsula. (See Georgia.) 

Icafui. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — They were undoubtedly of the Timucuan group 
though they seem to have been confused at times with a tribe called 
Cascangue which may have been related to the Muskogee or Hitchiti. 
On the other hand, Cascangue may have been another name of this 
tribe, possibly one employed by Creeks or Hitchiti. 

Location. — On the mainland and probably in southeastern Georgia 
near the border between the Timucua and the strictly Muskhogean 
populations. 

Villages 

Seven or eight towns are said to have belonged to this tribe but the names of 
none of them are known with certainty. 

History. — Icafui seems to be mentioned first by the Franciscan 
missionaries who occasionally passed through it on their way to or 
from interior peoples. It was a "visita" of the missionaiy at San 
Pedro (Cumberland Island). Otherwise its history differed in no 
respect from that of the other Timucuan tribes. (See Utina.) 

Population. — Separate figures regarding this tribe are wanting. 
(See Utina.) 

Jeaga. Meaning unkno'wm. 

Connections. — The Jeaga are classed on the basis of place names 
and location with the tribes of south Florida, which were perhaps of 
the Muskhogean division proper. 

Location. — On the present Jupiter Inlet, on the east coast of Florida. 

Villages 

Between this tribe and the Tequesta the names of several settlements are given 
which may have belonged to one or both of them, viz: Cabista, Custegiyo, Janar, 
Tavuacio. 

History. — The Jeaga tribe is mentioned by Fontaneda (1854) and 
by many later Spanish writers but it was of minor importance. Near 
Jupiter Inlet the Quaker Dickenson (1803), one of our best informants 
regarding the ancient people of the east coast of Florida, was cast 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 133 

ashore in 1699. In the eighteenth century, this tribe was probably 
merged with the Ais, Tequesta, and other tribes of this coast, and 
removed with them to Cuba. (See Ais.) 

Population. — No separate enumeration is known. (See Ais.) 

Koasati. Appearance of a "Coosada Old Town" on the middle 
course of Choctawhatchee River on a map of 1823 shows that a 
band of Koasati Indians joined the Seminole in Florida, but this is 
all we know of them. (See Alabama.) 

Macapiras, or Amacapiras. Meaning unknown. A small tribe 
which was brought to the St. Augustine missions in 1726 along with 
some Pohoy, and so apparently from the southwest coast. There 
were only 24, part of whom died and the rest returned to their old 
homes before 1728. 

Mikasuki. Meaning unkno"WTi. 

Connections. — These Indians belonged to the Hitchiti-speaking 
branch of the Muskhogean linguistic family. They are said by some 
to have branched from the true Hitchiti, but those who claim that 
they were originally Chiaha (q. v.) are probably correct. 

Location. — Their earliest known home was about Miccosukee Lake 
in Jefferson County. (See also Oklahoma.) 

Villages 

Alachua Talofa or John Hick's Town, in the Alachua Plains, Alachua County. 
New Mikasuki, near Greenville in Madison County. 
Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee Lake. 

History. — The name Mikasuki appears about 1778 and therefore 
we know that their independent status had been established by that 
date whether they had separated from the Hitchiti or the Chiaha. 
They lived first at Old Mikasuki and then appear to have divided, 
part going to New Mikasuki and part to the Alachua Plains. Some 
writers denounce them as the worst of all Seminole bands, but it is 
quite likely that, as a tribe differing in speech from themselves, the 
Muskogee element blamed them for sins they themselves had com- 
mitted. Old Mikasuki was burned by Andrew Jackson in 1817. 
Most Mikasuki seem to have remained in Florida where they still 
constitute a distinct body, the Big Cypress band of Seminole. Those 
who went to Oklahoma retained a distinct Square Ground as late as 
1912. 

Population. — Morse (1822) quotes a certain Captain Young to the 
effect that there were 1,400 Mikasuki in his time, about 1817. This 
figure is probably somewhat too high though the Mikasuki element 
is known to have been a large one. They form one entire band among 
the Florida Seminole. 



134 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Mikasuki attained 
prominence in the Seminole War. In the form Miccosukee their 
name has been applied to a lake in Jefferson and Leon Counties, Fla., 
and a post village in the latter county. In the form Mekusuky it 
has been given to a village in Seminole County, Okla. 

Mocoso, or Mucogo. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — They belonged with little doubt to the Timucuan 
division of the Muskhogean linguistic stock. 

Location. — About the head of Hillsboro Bay. 

Villages 
None are mentioned under any other than the tribal name. 

History.— The chief of this tribe gave asylum to a Spaniard named 
Juan Ortiz who had come to Florida in connection with the expedi- 
tion of Narvaez. When De Soto landed near the Mocogo town its 
chief sent Ortiz with an escort of warriors to meet him. Ortiz after- 
ward became De Soto's principal interpreter until his death west of 
the Mississippi, and the M0C090 chief remained on good terms with 
the Spaniards as long as they stayed in the neighborhood. There 
are only one or two later references to the tribe. (See Utina.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The contacts of the 
M0C090 with De Soto and his followers constitute their only claim to 
distinction. 

Muklasa. A small Creek town whose inhabitants were probably 
related by speech to the Alabama and Koasati. They are said 
to have gone to Florida after the Creek War. (See Alabama.) 

Muskogee. The first true Creeks or Muskogee to enter Florida seem 
to have been a body of Eufaula Indians who made a settlement 
called Chuko tcati. Red House, on the west side of the peninsula 
some distance north of Tampa Bay.^ This was in 1761. Other 
Muskogee drifted into Florida from time to time, but the great 
immigration took place after the Creek- American War. The new- 
comers were from many towns, but more particularly those on the 
Tallapoosa River. They gave the final tone and the characteristic 
language to the Florida emigrants who had before been dominantly 
of Hitchiti connection, and therefore the so-called Seminole lan- 
guage is Muskogee, with possibly a few minor changes in the 
vocabulary. (See Alabama.) 

Ocale, or Etocale. Meaning unknown, but perhaps connected with 
Timucua tocala, "it is more than," a comparative verb. 

' A possible exception to this statement was the temporary entrance of a small body of Coweta Indians 
under Secoffee, or the Cowkeeper. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 135 

Connections. — (See Acuera.) 

Location. — In Marion County or Levy County north of the bend 
of the Withlacoochee River. 

Villages 
Uqueten (first village approaching from the south), and perhaps Itaraholata. 

History. — This tribe is first mentioned by the chroniclers of the 
De Soto expedition. He passed through it in 1539 after crossing 
Withlacoochee River. Fontaneda also heard of it, and it seems to 
appear on De Bry's map of 1591. This is the last inforaiation that 
has been preserved. 
Population. — Unknown. (See Acuera and Utina.) 
Connection in which they have become noted. — Within comparatively 
modern times this name was adopted in the form Ocala as that of 
the county seat of Marion County, Fla. There is a place so called in 
Pulaski County, Ky. 

Ogita, see Pohoy. 

Oconee. After leaving the Chattahoochee about 1750 the Oconee 
moved into Florida and estabUshed themselves on the Alachua 
Plains in a town which Bartram calls Cuscowilla. They constituted 
the first large band of northern Indians to settle in Florida and their 
chiefs came to be recognized as head chiefs of the Seminole. One 
of these, Mikonopi, was prominent during the Seminole War, but 
the identity of the tribe itself is lost after that struggle. Another 
part of them seem to have settled for a time among the Apalachee 
(q. v.). (See Georgia.) 

Onatheaqua. In the narratives of Laudonniere and Le Moyne this 
appears as one of the two main Timucua tribes in the northwestern 
part of Florida, the other being the Hostaqua (or Yustaga). Else- 
where I have suggested that it may have covered the Indians 
afterward gathered into the missions of Santa Cruz de Tarihica, 
San Juan de Guacara, Santa Catalina, and Ajoica, where there were 
230 Indians in 1675, but that is uncertain. (See Utina.) 

Osochi. A Creek division thought to have originated in Florida. 
(See Alabama.) 

Pawokti. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — They were probably afiiliated either with the Tawasa 
or the Alabama. In any case there is no reason to doubt that they 
spoke a Muskhogean dialect, using Muskhogean in the extended sense. 

Location. — The earliest known location of the Pawokti seems to have 
been west of Choctawhatchee River, not far from the shores of the 
Gulf of Mexico. (See also Alabama.) 



136 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

History. — Lamhatty {in Bushnell, 1908) assigns the Pawokti the 
above location before they were driven away by northern Indians, 
evidently Creeks, in 1706-7. Although the name does not appear in 
any French documents known to me, they probably settled near 
Mobile along with the Tawasa. At any rate we find them on Alabama 
River in 1799 a few miles below the present Montgomery and it is 
assumed they had been there from 1717, when Fort Toulouse was 
established. Their subsequent history is merged in that of the 
Alabama (q. v.). 

Population. — (See Alabama.) 

Pensacola. Meaning "hair people," probably from their own tongue, 

which in that case was very close to Choctaw. 

Connections. — The name itself, and other bits of circumstantial 
evidence, indicate that the Pensacola belonged to the Muskhogean 
stock and, as above noted, probably spoke a dialect close to Choctaw. 

Location. — In the neighborhood of Pensacola Bay. (See also 
Mississippi.) 

History. — In 1528 the survivors of the Narvaez expedition had an 
encounter with Indians near Pensacola Bay who probably belonged to 
this tribe. It is also probable that their territory constituted the 
province of Achuse or Ochus which Maldonado, the commander of 
De Soto's fleet, visited in 1539 and whence he brought a remarkably 
fine "blanket of sable fur." In 1559 a Spanish colony under Tristan 
de Luna landed in a port called "the Bay of Ichuse," (or "Ychuse") 
undoubtedly in the same province, but the enterprise was soon given 
up and the colonists returned to Mexico. The Pensacola tribe seems 
to be mentioned first by name in Spanish letters dated 1677. In 1686 
we learn they were at war with the Mobile Indians. Twelve years 
afterward, when the Spanish post of Pensacola was established, it is 
claimed that the tribe had been exterminated by other peoples, but 
this is an error. It had merely moved farther inland and probably 
toward the west. They are noted from time to time, and in 1725-6 
Bienville (1932, vol. 3, p. 535) particularly describes the location of 
their village near that of the Biloxi of Pearl River. The last mention 
of them seems to be in an estimate of Indian population dated Decem- 
ber 1, 1764, in which their name appears along with those of six other 
small tribes. They may have been incorporated finally into the 
Choctaw or have accompanied one of the smaller Mobile tribes into 
Louisiana near the date last mentioned. 

Population.— In 1725 (or 1726) Bienville (1932, vol. 3, p. 535) says 
that in the Pensacola village and that of the Biloxi together, there 
were not more than 40 men. The enumeration mentioned above, 
made in 1764, gives the total population of this tribe and the Biloxi, 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 137 

Chatot, Capinans, Washa, Chawasha, and Pascagoula collectively as 
251 men. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Through the adoption 
of their name first for that of Pensacola Bay and secondly for the port 
which grew up upon it, the Pensacola have attained a fame entirely 
disproportionate to the aboriginal importance of the tribe. There are 
places of the name in Yancey County, N. C, and Mayes County, 
Okla. 
Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — They were evidently closely connected with the 
Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic stock. (See Utina). 

Location. — On the south shore of Tampa Bay. 

Tovms. — (See History.) 

History. — This tribe, or a part of the same, appears first in history 
under the names Ogita or Ucita as a "province" in the territory of 
which Hernando de Soto landed in 1539. He established his head- 
quarters in the town of the head chief on June 1, and when he marched 
inland on July 15 he left a captain named Calder6n with a hundred 
men to hold this place pending further developments. These were 
withdrawn at the end of November to join the main army in the 
Apalachee country. In 1612 these Indians appear for the first time 
under the name Pohoy or Pooy in the account of an expedition to the 
southwest coast of Florida under an ensign named Cartaya. In 1675 
Bishop Calder6n speaks of the "Pojoy River," and in 1680 there is a 
passing reference to it. Some time before 1726 about 20 Indians of 
this tribe were placed in a mission called Santa Fe, 9 leagues south of 
St. Augustine, but they had already suffered from an epidemic and 
by 1728 the remainder returned to their former homes. (See Utina.) 

Population. — In 1680 the Pohoy were said to number 300. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The only claim of the 
Pohoy to distinction is derived from their contacts with the expedition 
of De Soto. 
Potano. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — (See Utina.) 

Location. — In the territory of the present Alachua County. 

Towns 

The following places named in the De Soto narratives probably belonged to 
this tribe: Itaraholata or Ytara, Potano, Utinamocharra or Utinama, Cholupaha, 
and a town they called Mala-Paz. A letter dated 1602 mentions five towns, and 
on and after 1606, when missionaries reached the tribe, stations were established 
called San Francisco, San Miguel, Santa Anna, San Buenaventura, and San 
Martin (?) . There is mention also of a mission station called Apalo. 



138 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

History. — The name Potano first appears as that of a province 
through which De Soto passed m 1539. In 1564-65 the French colon- 
ists of Florida found this tribe at war with the Utina and assisted the 
latter to win a victory over them. After the Spaniards had supplanted 
the French, they also supported the Utina in wars between them and 
the Potano. In 1584 a Spanish captain sent to invade the Potano 
country was defeated and slain. A second expedition, however, 
killed many Indians and drove them from their town. In 1601 they 
asked to be allowed to retm*n to it and in 1606 missionary work was 
undertaken among them resulting in their conversion along with most 
of the other Timucua peoples. Their mission was known as San 
Francisco de Potano and it appears in the mission lists of 1655 and 
1680. In 1656 they took part in a general Timucuan uprising which 
lasted 8 months. In 1672 a pestilence carried off many and as the 
chief of Potano does not appear as signatory to a letter written to 
Charles II by several Timucua chiefs in 1688, it is possible their 
separate identity had come to an end by that date. Early in the 
eighteenth century the Timucua along with the rest of the Spanish 
Indians of Florida were decimated rapidly and the remnant of the 
Potano must have shared their fate. (See Utina.) 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Potano 
Indians at 3,000 in 1650 and this is probably fairly accurate, as the 
Franciscan missionaries state that they were catechizing 1,100 persons 
in the 5 towns belonging to the tribe in 1602. In 1675 there were 
about 160 in the 2 Potano missions. (See Acuera and Utina.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Potano tribe was 
anciently celebrated as, with one or two possible exceptions, the most 
powerful of all the Timucua peoples. 

Saturiwa. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — (See Utina.) 

Location. — About the mouth of St. Johns River. Some early 
writers seem to include Cumberland Island in their jurisdiction. 

Villages 

Laudonnifere (1586) says that the chief of this tribe ruled over 30 subchiefs, but 
it is uncertain whether these subchiefs represented villages belonging to the tribe, 
allied tribes, or both. The Spaniards give the following: San Juan del Puerto, the 
main mission for this province under which were Vera Cruz, Arratobo, Potaya, 
San Matheo, San Pablo, Hicachirico ("Little Town"), Chinisca, and Carabay. 
San Diego de Salamototo, near the site of Picolata, on which no villages seem to 
have depended; and Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, 3 leagues from St. Augustine, 
may be classed here somewhat uncertainly. 

History. — The Saturiwa were visited by Jean Ribault in 1562 and 
probably by earlier explorers, but they appear first under their proper 
name in the chronicles of the Huguenot settlement of Florida of 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OP NORTH AMERICA 139 

1564-5. Fort Caroline was built in the territory of the Saturiwa and 
intimate relations continued between the French and Indians until 
the former were dispossessed by Spain. The chief, known as Saturiwa 
at this time, assisted De Gourgues in 1567 to avenge the destruction 
of his countrymen. It is perhaps for this reason that we find the 
Spaniards espousing the cause of Utina against Saturiwa 10 years 
later. The tribe soon submitted to Spain, however, and was one of 
the first missionized, its principal mission being San Juan del Puerto. 
There labored Francisco de Pareja to whose grammar and religious 
works we are chiefly indebted for our knowledge of the Timucua 
language (Pareja, 1612, 1613, 1886). Like the other Florida Indians, 
they sufi^ered severely from pestUence in 1617 and 1672. The name 
of their chief appears among those involved in the Timucua rebellion 
of 1656, and the names of their missions appear in the list of Bishop 
Calderdn and in that of 1680. We hear nothing more of them, and 
they evidently suffered the same fate as the other tribes of the group . 

Population. — No separate figures for the Saturiwa have been pre- 
served, except that a missionary states in 1602 that there were about 
500 Christians among them and in 1675 San Juan del Puerto contained 
"about thirty persons" and Salamototo "about forty." (See Utina.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The prominence of the 
Saturiwa was due to the intimate dealings between them and the 
French colonists. Later the same people, though not under the same 
name, became a main support of the Spanish missionary movement 
among the Florida Indians. 

Sawokli. A division of Creek Indians belonging to the Hitchiti- 
speaking group. Anciently it seems to have lived entirely in 
Florida, but later it moved up into the neighborhood of the Lower 
Creeks. (See Alabama.) 

Seminole. Meaning "one who has camped out from the regular 
towns," and hence sometimes given as "runaway," but there is too 
much onus in this rendering. Prof. H. E. Bolton believes it was 
adopted from Spanish cimarron meaning "wild." 

IkanaMskalgi, "people of the point," a Creek name. 
Ikanidksalgi, "peninsula people," own name. 
Isti Seminole, "Seminole people." 
Lower Creeks, so called by Bartram (1792). 
Ungiay6-rono, "peninsula people," Huron name. 

Connections. — As implied above, the Seminole removed from the 
Creek towns and constituted just before the last Seminole War a fair 
representation of the population of those towns: perhaps two-thirds 
Creek proper or Muskogee, and the remaining third Indians of the 
Hitchiti-speaking towns, Alabama, Yamasee, and besides a band of 



140 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 14^ 

Yuchi, latterly a few of the original Indian inhabitants of southern 
Florida. 

Location. — The Seminole towns were first planted about Apalachi- 
cola River, in and near the old Apalachee country and in the Alachua 
country in the central part of the State, although a few were scattered 
about Tampa Bay and even well down the east coast as far south as 
Miami. They did not enter the Everglade section of the State until 
toward the end of the last Seminole War. As a result of that war, the 
greater part were removed to the territory now constituting Seminole 
County, Okla. A few remained in their old territory and their descend- 
ants are there today. 

Villages 

Ahapopka, near the head of Ocklawaha River. 

Ahosulga, 5 miles south of New Mikasuki, perhaps in Jefferson County. 

Alachua, near Ledwiths Lake. 

Alafiers, probably a synonym for some other town name, perhaps McQueen's 

Village, near Alafia River. 
Alapaha, probably on the west side of the Suwannee just above its junction with 

the Allapaha. 
Alligator, said to be a settlement in Suwannee County. 
Alouko, on the east side of St. Marks River 20 miles north of St. Marks. 
Apukasasoche, 20 miles west of the head of St. Johns River. 
Attapulgas: first location, west of Apalachicola River in Jackson or Calhoun 

Counties; second location inland in Gadsden County. 
Beech Creek, exact location unknown. 
Big Cypress Swamp, in the "Devil's Garden" on the northern edge of Big Cypress 

Swamp, 15 to 20 miles southwest of Lake Okeechobee. 
Big Hammock, north of Tampa Bay. 
Bowlegs' Town, chief's name, on Suwannee River and probably known usually 

under another name. 
Bucker Woman's Town, on Long Swamp east of Big Hammock. 
Burges' Town, probably on or near Flint or St. Marys River, southwestern 

Georgia. 
Calusahatchee, on the river of the same name and probably occupied by Calusa 

Indians. 
Capola, east of St. Marks River. 
Catfish Lake, on a small lake in Polk County nearly midway between Lake Pierce 

and Lake Rosalie, toward the headwaters of Kissimmee River. 
Chefixico's Old Town, on the south side of Old Tallahassee Lake, 5 miles east of 

Tallahassee. 
Chetuckota, on the west bank of Pease Creek, below Pease Lake, west central 

Florida. 
Choconikla, on the west side of Apalachicola River, probably in Jackson County, 
Chohalaboohulka, probably identical with Alapaha. 
Chukochati, near the hammock of the same name. 
Cohowofooche, 23 miles northwest of St. Marks. 
Cow Creek, on a stream about 15 miles northeast of the entrance of Kissimmee 

River. 
Cuscowilla (see Alachua). 
Etanie, west of St. Johns River and east of Black Creek. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 141 

Etotulga, 10 miles east of Old Mikasuki. 

Fish-eating Creek, 5 miles from a creek emptying into Lake Okeechobee. 
Fulemmy's Town, perhaps identical with Beech Creek, Suwannee River. 
Hatchcalamocha, near Drum Swamp, 18 miles west of New Mikasuki. 
Hiamonee, on the east bank of Ocklocknee River, probably on Lake lamonia. 
Hitchapuksassi, about 20 miles from the head of Tampa Bay and 20 miles south- 
east of Chukochati. 
Homosassa, probably on Homosassa River, 
lolee, 60 miles above the mouth of Apalachicola River on the west bank at or 

near Blountstown. 
John Hicks' Town, west of Payne's Savannah. 
King Heijah's Town, or Koe Hadjo's Town, consisted of Negro slaves, probably in 

Alachua County. 
Lochchiocha, 60 miles east of Apalachicola River and near Ocklocknee River. 
Loksachumpa, at the head of St. Johns River. 
Lowwalta (probably for Liwahali), location unknown. 

McQueen's Village, on the east side of Tampa Bay, perhaps identical with Alafiers. 
Miami River, about 10 miles north of the site of Fort Dallas, not far from Bis- 

cayne Bay, on Little Miami River. 
Mulatto Girl's Town, south of Tuscawilla Lake. 
Negro Town, near Withlacoochee River, probably occupied largely by runaway 

slaves. 
New Mikasuki, 30 miles west of Suwannee River, probably in Madison County. 
Notasulgar, location unknown. 

Ochisi, at a bluff so called on the east side of Apalachicola River. 
Ochupocrassa, near Miami. 

Ocilla, at the mouth of Aucilla River on the east side. 
Oclackonayahe, above Tampa Bay. 

Oclawaha, on Ocklawaha River, probably in Putnam County. 
Oithlakutci, on Little River 40 miles east of Apalachicola River. 
Okehumpkee, 60 miles southwest from Volusia. 
Oktahatki, 7 miles northeast of Sampala. 
Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee in Leon County. 

Oponays, "back of Tampa Bay," probably in Hillsboro or Polk Counties. 
Owassissas, on an eastern branch of St. Marks River and probably near its head. 
Payne's Town, near Koe Hadjo's Town, occupied by Negroes. 
Picolata, on the east bank of St. Johns River west of St. Augustine. 
Pilakhkaha, about 120 miles south of Alachua. 
Pilatka, on or near the site of Palatka, probably the site of a Seminole town and 

of an earlier town as well. 
Red Town, at Tampa Bay. 
Sampala, 26 miles above the forks of the Apalachicola on the west bank, in 

Jackson County, or in Houston County, Ala. 
Santa Fe, on the river of the same name, perhaps identical with Washitokha. 
Sarasota, at or near Sarasota. 
Seleuxa, at the head of Aucilla River. 
Sitarky, evidently named after a chief, between Camp Izard and Fort King, 

West Florida. 
Spanawalka, 2 miles below lolee and on the west bank of Apalachicola River. 
Suwannee, on the west bank of Suwannee River in Lafayette County. 
Talakhacha, on the west side of Cape Florida on the seacoast. 
Tallahassee, on the site of present Tallahassee. 
Tallahassee or Spring Gardens, 10 miles from Volusia, occupied by Yuchi. 



142 BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Talofa Okhase, about 30 miles west southwest from the upper part of Lake George. 
Taluachapkoapopka, a short distance west of upper St. Johns River, probably at 

the present Apopka. 
Tocktoethia, 10 miles above the junction of Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. 
Tohopki lagi, probably near Miami. 
Topananaulka, 3 miles west of New Mikasuki. 

Topkegalga, on the east side of Ocklocknee River near Tallahassee. 
Totstalahoeetska, on the west side of Tampa Bay. 

Tuckagulga, on the east side of Ocklocknee River between it and Hiamonee. 
Tuslalahockaka, 10 miles west of Walalecooche. 
Wacahoota, location unknown. 
Wachitokha, on the east side of Suwannee River between Suwannee and Santa Fe 

Rivers. 
Wakasassa, on the coast east of the mouth of Suwannee River. 
Wasupa, 2 miles from St. Marks River and 18 miles from St. Marks itself. 
Wechotookme, location unknown. 
Welika, 4 miles east of the Tallahassee town. 
Wewoka, at Wewoka, Qkla. 

Willanoucha, at the head of St. Marks River, perhaps identical with Alouko. 
Withlacoochee, on Withlacoochee River, probably in Citrus or Sumter County. 
Withlako, 4 miles from Clinch's battle ground. 
Yalacasooche, at the mouth of Ocklawaha River. 

Yulaka, on the west side of St. Johns River, 35 miles from Volusia or Dexter. 
Yumersee, at the head of St. Marks River, 2 miles north of St. Marks, a 

settlement of Yamasee. (See Georgia.) 

History. — The origin of the Seminole has already been given (p. 
112). The nucleus of the nation was constituted by a part of the 
Oconee, who moved into Florida about 1750 and were gradually fol- 
lowed by other tribes, principally of the Hitchiti connection. The 
first true Muskogee to enter the peninsula were some of the Indians 
of Lower Eufaula, who came in 1767^ but these were mixed with 
Hitchiti and others. There was a second Muskogee immigration in 
1778, but after the Creek-American War of 1813-14 a much greater 
immigration occurred from the Creek Nation, mainly from the Upper 
Towns, and as the great majority of the newcomers were Muskogee, 
the Seminole became prevailingly a Muskogee people, what is now 
called the Seminole language being almost pure Muskogee. Later 
there were two wars with the Whites; the first from 1817-18, in which 
Andrew Jackson lead the American forces; and the second, from 1835 
to 1842, a long and bitter contest in which the Indians demonstrated 
to its fullest capacity the possibihties of guerrilla warfare in a semi- 
tropical, swampy country. Toward the end of the struggle the Indi-* 
ans were forced from northern and central Florida into the Everglade 
section of the State. This contest is particularly noteworthy on ac- 
count of the personality of Osceola, the brains of Seminole resistance, 
whose capture by treachery is an ineffaceable blot upon all who were 
connected with it and incidentally upon the record of the American 

' But see footnote p. 134. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 143 

Army. Diplomacy finally accomplished what force had failed to 
effect — the policy put in practice by Worth at the suggestion of Gen- 
eral E. A. Hitchcock. The greater part of the hostile Indians sur- 
rendered and were sent to Oklahoma, where they were later granted 
a reservation of their own in the western part of the Creek Nation. 
Both the emigrants, who have now been allotted, and the small num- 
ber who stayed behind in Florida have since had an uneventful his- 
tory, except for their gradual absorption into the mass of the popu- 
lation, an absorption long delayed in the case of the Florida Seminole 
but nonetheless certain. 

Population. — Before the Creek-American war the number of Semi- 
nole was probably about 2,000; after that date the best estimates give 
about 5,000. Exclusive of one census which seems clearly too high, 
figures taken after the Seminole war indicate a gradual reduction of 
Seminole in Oklahoma from considerably under 4,000 to 2,500 in 1851. 
A new census, in 1857, gave 1,907, and after that time little change is 
indicated though actually the amount of Indian blood was probably 
dechning steadily. In Florida the figures were: 370 in 1847, 348 in 
1850, 450 in 1893, 565 in 1895, 358 in 1901, 446 in 1911, 600 in 1913, 
562 in 1914, 573 in 1919, 586 in 1937. In 1930 there were 1,789 in 
Oklahoma, 227 in Florida, and 32 scattered in other States. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The chief claim of this 
tribal confederation to distinction will always be the remarkable war 
which they sustained against the American Nation, the losses in men 
and money which they occasioned having been out of all proportion to 
the number of Indians concerned. The county in Oklahoma where 
most of the Seminole were sent at the end of the great war bears 
their name, as does a county in Florida, and it will always be asso- 
ciated with the Everglade country, where they made their last stand. 
Towns or post villages of the name are in Baldwin County, Ala.; 
Seminole County, Okla. ; Armstrong County, Pa.; and Gaines County, 
Tex. 

Sarruque. Meaning unknow^l. 

Connections. — Somewhat doubtful, but they were probably of the 
Timucuan linguistic group. (See Utina.) 

Location. — At or very close to Cape Canaveral. 

History. — The Surruque appear first in history as the "Sorrochos" 
of Le Moyne's map (1875), and his "Lake Sarrope" also probably 
derived its name from them. About the end of the same century, 
the sixteenth, trouble arose between them and the Spaniards, in 
consequence of which the Spanish governor fell upon a Surruque town, 
killed 60 persons and captured 54. Later they probably united with 
the Timucua people and shared their fortunes. 

Population. — No estimate is possible. (See Utina.) 



144 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Tacatacuru. The meaning is unknown, though it seems to have some- 
thing to do with "fire" (taca). 
Connections. — (See Utina.) 
Location. — On Cumberland Island to which the name Tacatacuru 

was applied. 

Villages 

It is probable that the same name was used for its chief town, which was 
missionized by the Spaniards under the name of San Pedro Mocama. Under 
this mission were those of Santo Domingo and Santa Maria de Sena. 

History.- — The chief of Tacatacuru (now Cumberland Island), or of 
the neighboring mainland, met Jean Ribault in 1562 and seems to 
have remained on good terms with the French during their occupancy 
of Fort Caroline in 1564-65. He, or a successor, is mentioned among 
those who joined De Gourgues in his attack upon the Spaniards in 
1567, but soon afterward they made peace with Spain and one chief, 
Don Juan, was of great assistance to the white men in many ways, 
particularly in driving back the Guale Indians after their rising in 
1597. This chief died in 1600, and was succeeded by his niece. The 
church built by these Indians was said to be as big as that in St. 
Augustine. The good relations which subsisted between the Tacata- 
curu Indians and the Spaniards do not appear to have been broken 
by the Timucua rebellion of 1656. By 1675 the tribe had abandoned 
Cumberland Island and it was occupied by Yamasee. The mission 
of San Pedro Mocama consequently does not appear in the mission 
hst of 1680, although it is in that of 1655.* The tribe was subsequently 
amalgamated with the other Timucua peoples and shared their 
fortunes. (See Utina.) 

Population. — There is no estimate of the number of Tacatacuru 
distinct from that of the other Timucua. The missionary stationed 
among them in 1602 notes that there were then 8 settlements and 
792 Christianized Indians in his province, but this province may not 
have been confined to the tribe. In that year Santo Domingo 
served 180 Christians and Santa Maria de Sena 112. 

Tawasa. Meaning unkno^vn. 

Connections. — They spoke a dialect belonging to the Timucuan 
division of the Muskhogean linguistic family, intermediate between 
Timucua proper and Choctaw, Hitchiti, Alabama, and Apalachee. 

Location. — In 1706-7 in west Florida about the latitude of the 
junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers; at an earlier time 
and again later they were on the Alabama near the present Mont- 
gomery. (See also Louisiana.) 

* I have stated elsewhere (Swanton, 1946, p. 187) that the name of this mission was wanting In the list 
drawn up in 1665. I should have given the date as 1680. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 145 

Villages 

They usually occupied only one town but Autauga on Autauga Creek in the 
southeastern part of Autauga County, Ala., is said to have belonged to them. 

History. — De Soto found the Tawasa near the Montgomery site in 
1540. Some time during the next century and a half they moved to 
the neighborhood of Apalachicola River, but in 1707 they were 
attacked by the Creeks, who captured some of them, while the 
greater part fled to the French and were by them given lands near 
the present Mobile. They occupied several different sites in that 
neighborhood but in 1717 they moved back to the region where 
De Soto found them, their main village being in the northwestern 
suburbs of the present Montgomery. After the Treaty of Fort 
Jackson in 1814, they were compelled to abandon this place and move 
into the Creek territories between the Coosa and Talapoosa Rivers, 
where they remained until the main migration beyond the Mississippi. 
Previous to this, some of them had gone with other Alabama into 
Louisiana and they followed their fortunes. The name was remem- 
bered by Alabama in Polk County, Tex., until within a few years. 

Population. — The French census of 1760 returned 40 Tawasa men 
and the Georgia census of 1792 "about 60." The census of 1832-33 
gives 321 Indians in towns called Tawasa and Autauga, but all of 
these were quite certainly not Tawasa Indians in the strict apphcation 
of that term. (See Alabama.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Tawasa tribe will 
be remembered ethnologically on account of the rescue of so much 
important information regarding the early history of themselves and 
their neighbors through the captive Indian Lamhatty {in Bushnell, 
1908), who made his way into Virginia in 1708, and on account of 
the still more important vocabulary obtained from him. 

Tekesta or Tequesta. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — The language of this tribe was probably connected 
with the languages of the other peoples of the southeast coast of 
Florida and with that of the Calusa, and may have been Muskhogean. 

Locati&n. — In the neighborhood of Miami. 

Villages 

Besides Tekesta proper, the main town, four villages are mentioned between 
that and the next tribe to the north, the Jeaga, to whom some of the villages may 
have belonged. These were, in order from south to north: Tavuacio, Janar, 
Cabista, and Custegiyo. 

History. — The Tekesta do not appear in history much before the 
time of Fontaneda, who was a captive among the Calusa from 1551 
to 1569. In 1566 we learn that they protected certain Spaniards 
from the Calusa chief, although the latter is sometimes regarded as 



146 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

their overlord. A post was established in their country in 1566 but 
abandoned 4 years later. Attempts made to convert them to Chris- 
tianity at that time were without success. In 1573 they are said to 
have been converted by Pedro Menendez Marques, but later they 
returned to their primitive beliefs. It was these Indians who, accord- 
ing to Romans (1775), went to Cuba in 1763 along with some others 
from this coast. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were 
1 ,000 Indians on the southeast coast of Florida. According to Romans 
those who went to Cuba in 1763 had 30 men. Adair (1775) says 
there were 80 families. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Although the name has 
found rlo topographical lodgement, the Tekesta may be remembered 
as the earliest known body of people to occupy the site of Miami. 

Tocobaga. Meaning unknown, though toco means in Timucua "to 
come out," "to proceed from." 
Connections. — (See Utina.) 
Location. — About Old Tampa Bay, 

Villages 

The main town was at or near Safety Harbor at the head of Old Tampa Bay. 

History. — Narvaez probably landed in the territory of this tribe in 
1528, but his chroniclers speak of meeting very few Indians. Eleven 
years later De Soto's expedition disembarked just south in Tampa Bay 
but came into little contact with this tribe. Two years after driving 
the French from St. Johns River in 1565, Menendez visited Tocobaga, 
and left a captain and 30 soldiers among them, all of whom were wiped 
out the year following. In 1612 a Spanish expedition was sent to 
punish the chiefs of Pohoy and Tocobaga because they had attacked 
Christian Indians, but spent little time in the latter province. There 
is no assured reference to a mission nearer than Acuera, nor do the 
Tocobaga appear among the tribes which participated in the great 
Timucua revolt of 1656. Ultimately it is probable that they joined 
the other Timucua and disappeared with them, though they may have 
united with the Calusa. It is also possible that they are the 
"Tompacuas" who appear later in the Apalachee country, and if so 
they may have been the Indians placed in 1726 in a mission near 
St. Augustine caUed San Buenaventura under the name "Macapiras" 
or "Amacapiras." (See Utina.) 

Population. — Unknown. (See Utina.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The principal claim to 
notoriety on the part of the Tocobaga is the fact that Narvaez landed 
in their country in 1528. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 147 

Ucita, see Pohoy. 

Utina or Timucua. The first name, which probably refers to the 
chief and means "powerful," is perhaps originally from iiti, "earth," 
while the second name, Timucua, is that from which the linguistic 
stock, or rather this Muskhogean subdivision of it, has received 
its name. 

Connections. — As given above. 
Location. — The territory of the Utina seems to have extended from 

the Suwannee to the St. Johns and even eastward of the latter, 

though some of the subdivisions given should be rated as independent 

tribes. (See Timucua under Georgia.) 

Towns 

Laudonni^re (1586) states that there were more than 40 under the Utina chief, 
but among them he includes "Acquera" (Acuera) and Moquoso far to the south 
and entirely independent, so that we are uncertain regarding the status of the 
others he gives, which are as follows: Cadecha, Calanay, Chilili, Eclauou, Molona, 
Omittaqua, and Onachaquara. 

As the Utina, with the possible exception of the Potano, was the leading Timucua 
division and gave its name to the wliole, and as the particular tribe to wlilch 
each town mentioned in the documents belonged cannot be given, it will be well 
to enter all here, although those that can be placed more accurately will be 
inserted in their proper places. 

In De Soto's time Aguacaleyquen or Caliquen seems to have been the principal 
town. In the mission period we are told that the chief lived at Ayaocuto. 
.\cassa, a town inland from Tampa Bay. 
Aguacaleyquen, a town in the province of Utina between Suwannee and Santa 

Fe Rivers. 
Ahoica, probably near the Santa Fe River. 
Alachepoyo, inland from Tampa Bay. 
Alatico, probably on Cumberland Island. 
Albino, 40 leagues or 4 days inland from St. Augustine and within lYz to 2 

leagues of two others called Tucuro and Utiaca. 
Alimacani, on an island of the same name not far north of the mouth of St. 

Johns River. 
Amaca, inland from Tampa Bay. 

Anacapa, in the Fresh Water Province 20 leagues south of St. Augustine. 
Anacharaqua, location unknown. 
Antonico, in the Fresh Water Province. 
Apalu, in the province of Yustaga. 

Arapaja, 70 leagues from St. Augustine, Probably on Alapaha River. 
Araya, south of the Withlacoochee River. 
Archaha, location unknown. 
Assile, on or near Aucilla River. 
Astina, location unknown. 

Atuluteca, probably near San Pedro or Cumberland Island. 
Ayacamale, location unknown. 

Ayaocute, in the Utina country 34 leagues from St. Augustine. 
Ayotore, inland from Cumberland Island and probably southwest. 
Beca, location unknown. 



148 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Becao, location unknown. 

Bejesi, location unknown, perhaps the Apalachee town of Wacissa. 

Cachipile, 70 leagues west of St. Augustine. 

Qacoroy, south of St. Augustine and 1}4 leagues from Nocoroco, probably in the 

Fresh Water Province. 
Cadecha, allied with Utina. 
Calany, allied with Utina. 
Caparaca, south of St. Augustine, southwest of Nocoroco and probably in the 

Fresh Water Province. 
Casti, location unknown. 
Cayuco, near Tampa Bay. 
Chamini, 70 leagues west of St. Augustine. 
Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine. 
Chinica, 134 leagues from St. Augustine. 
Cholupaha, south of Aguacaleyquen in the Potano Province. 
Chuaquin, 60 leagues west of St. Augustine. 
Cicale, south of St. Augustine and 3 leagues south of Nocoroco, perhaps in the 

Fresh Water Province. 
Cilili, said to be a Utina town. 
Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco. 
Coya, location unknown. 

Disnica, south of St. Augustine, perhaps should be Tisnica. 
Egalamototo, on the site of Picolata. 
Egita, near Tampa Bay, possibly a variant of Ocita. 
Eclauou, location unknown. 

Edelano, on an island of the same name in St. Johns River. 
Elajay, location unknown, perhaps Calusa. 
Elanogue, in the Fresh Water Province near Antonico. 
Emola, location unknown. 
Enecaque, location unknown. 
Equale, in the Fresh Water Province. 
Ereze, inland from Tampa Bay. 
Esquega, a town or tribe on the west coast. 
Exangue, near Cumberland Island. 
Filache, in the Fresh Water Province. 
Guacara, on Suwannee River in northwestern Florida. 
Guagoco, probably a town on a plain so called in the Urriparacoxl country. 
Heliocopile, location unknown. 
Helmacape, location unknown. 
Hicachirico ("Little town"), one league from the mission of San Juan del Puerto, 

which was probably at the mouth of St. Johns River in the Saturiwa Province. 
Hiocaia, the probable name of a town giving its name to a chief, location unknown. 
Huara, inland from Cumberland Island. 
Itaraholata, south of Potano, Potano Province. 
Juraya, a rancheria, apparently in the Timucua territory. 
Laca, another name for Egalamototo. 
Lamale, inland from Cumberland Island. 
Luca, between Tampa Bay and the Withlacoochee River in the Urriparacoxi 

country. 
Machaba, 64 leagues from St. Augustine, near the northern border of the Timucua 

country inland. 
Maiaca, the town of the Fresh Water Province most distant from St. Augustine, 

a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral and on St. Johns River. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 149 

Malaca, south of Nocoroco. 

Marracou, location unknown. 

Mathiaqua, location unknown. 

Mayajuaca, near Maiaca. 

Mayara, on lower St. Johns River. 

Mocama, possibly a town on Cumberland Island, province of Tacatacuru, but 

probably a province. 
Mogote, south of St. Augustine in the region of Nocoroco. 

Moloa, on the south side of St. Johns River near its mouth, province of Saturiwa. 
Napa, on an island one league from Cumberland Island. 
Napituca, north of Aguacalej-quen, province of Utina. 
Natobo, a mission station and probably native town 2}^ leagues from San Juan 

del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns River, province of Saturiwa. 
Nocoroco, at the mouth of a river, perhaps Halifax River, one day's journey south 

of Matanzas Inlet, Fresh Water Province. 
Ocale, in a province of the same name in the neighborhood of the present Ocala. 
O^ita, probably on Terra Ceia Island, on Hillsborough Bay. 
Onathaqua, a town or tribe near Cape Canaveral. 
Osigubede, a chief and probably town on the west coast. 
Panara, inland from Cumberland Island. 
Parca, location unknown. 

Patica, on the seacoast 8 leagues south of the mouth of St. Johns River. 
Patica, on the west bank of St. Johns River in the Utina territory. 
Pebe, a chief and probably a town on the west coast. 
Pentoaya, at the head of Indian River. 
Perquymaland, south of Nocoroco; possibly the names of two towns, Perqui and 

Maland, run together. 
Pia, on the east coast south of Nocoroco. 
Pitano, a mission station and probably a native town a league and a half from 

Puturiba. 
Pohoy, a town or province, or both, at Tampa Bay, and perhaps a sj-nonym of 

O^ita. 
Potano, the principal town of the Potano tribe, on the Alachua plains. 
Potaya, 4 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St, Johns River. 
Puala, near Cumberland Island. 
Punhuri, inland from Cumberland Island. 
Puturiba, probably near the northern end of Cumberland Island, province of 

Tacatacuru. There was another town of the same name west of the Suwannee 

River. 
Sabobche, near the coast south of Nocoroco. 
Saint Julian, in the Fresh Water Province. 
San Mateo, about 2 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns 

River, province of Saturiwa. 
San Pablo, about l}^ leagues from San Juan del Puerto, province of Saturiwa. 
San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine. 
Sarauahi, a quarter of a league from San Juan del Puerto. 

Sena, on an "inlet" north of the mouth of St. Johns River, perhaps Amelia River. 
Siyagueche, near Cape Canaveral. 
Socochuno, location unknown. 
Soloy, not far from St. Augustine and probably on the river called Seloy by the 

French. 
Surruque, a town or tribe near Cape Canaveral. 



150 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Tacatacuru, the name of Cumberland Island and Province, and perhaps of the 

chief town, on the mainland side of the island near the southern end, 2 leagues 

from the Barra de San Pedro. 
Tafocole, inland from Tampa Bay. 
Tahupa, inland from Cumberland Island. 

Tanpacaste, a chief and perhaps town north of Pohoy, i. e., north of Tampa Bay. 
Tarihica, 54 leagues from St. Augustine, and perhaps in the Onatheaqua Province. 
Tocaste, on a large lake south of the Withlacoochee River, province of Urri- 

paracoxi. 
Tocoaya, very near Cumberland Island. 

Tocobaga, the chief town of the province so called, in Safety Harbor, Tampa Bay. 
Tocoy, in the Fresh Water Province 5 leagues south of St. Augustine. 
Tolapatafi, probably toward the west coast of the peninsula of Florida near 

Aucilla River. 
Toloco, location unknown. 
Tomeo, near the Fresh Water Province. 
Tucura, near the Fresh Water Province. 
Tucuro, see Abino. 

Tunsa, possibly a synonym of Antonico. 
Ujachile, a town or tribe in the Yustaga Province, perhaps the mother town of 

the Osochi. 
Uqueten, the southernmost village of the province of Ocale on Withlacoochee 

River entered by De Soto. 
Urica, 60 leagues from St. Augustine. 

Uriutina, just north of the river of Aguacaleyquen, perhaps at Lake City. 
Urubia, near Cape Canaveral and lyi leagues from the town of Surruque. 
Utayne, inland from Cumberland Island. 
Utiaca, see Abino. 
Utichini, inland from Cumberland Island and within a league and a half of 

Puturiba. 
Utinamocharra, 1 day's journey north of Potano, Potano Province. 
Vera Cruz, half a league from San Juan del Puerto, province of Saturiwa. 
Vicela, a short distance south of Withlacoochee River, province of Urriparacoxi. 
Xapuica, near the Quale country, perhaps a synonym of Caparaca. 
Xatalalano, inland from Cumberland Island. 
Yaocay, near Antonico in the Fresh Water Province. 
Ycapalano, inland from Cumberland Island and probably within half a league or 

a league of Puturiba. 
Yufera, inland and probably northwest from Cumberland Island. 

History. — The Utina were evidently tliose Indians occupying the 
province called Aguacaleyquen which De Soto passed through in 1539. 
In 1564 the French came in contact with them after the establisliment 
of Fort Caroline. On one occasion they sent a contingent to help 
them defeat the neighboring Potano. After the Spaniards had sup- 
planted the French, the Timucua allied themselves with the former 
and in 1576 or 1577 a body of soldiers was sent to support them against 
several neighboring tribes. They were missionized at a comparatively 
early date, and afterward followed the fortunes of the rest of the 
Timucua. 

Following is a brief over-all sketch of the history of the tribes consti- 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 151 

tuting the Timucuan group. They first came mto contact with 
Europeans during Ponce de Leon's initial expedition in 1513 when the 
peninsula and subsequently the State received its name. Narvaez in 
1528 and De Soto in 1539 passed through the country of the western 
tribes. Ribault visited those on and near St. Johns River in 1562, and 
the French settlers of Fort Caroline on that river in 1564-65 were in 
close contact with them. A considerable part of our knowledge 
regarding these Indians is contained in the records of that colony. 
The Spaniards supplanted the French in 1565 and gradually conquered 
the Timucua tribes while the Franciscans missionized them. Our 
knowledge of the Timucua language is derived mainly from religious 
works by the missionaries Pareja and Mouilla and a grammar com- 
piled by the former. During the early half of the seventeenth century 
the missions were in a flourishing condition but a general rebellion in 
1656 occasioned some losses by death and exile. They also suffered 
severely from pestilences which raged in the missions in 1613-17, 
1649-50, and 1672. It is probable that some decline in population 
took place even before the great rebellion but that and the epidemics 
occasioned considerable losses. Toward the end of the seventeenth 
century, however, all the Florida Indians began to suffer from the 
invasion of Creek and Yuchi Indians to the northward, and this was 
accentuated after the break-up of the Apalachee in 1704 by the 
expedition under Moore. Most of the remaining Timucua were then 
concentrated into missions near St. Augustine, but this did not secure 
immunity against further attacks by the English and their Indian 
allies. Sometime after 1736 the remnants of these people seem to have 
removed to a stream in the present Volusia County which in the 
form Tomoka bears their name. Here they disappear from history, 
and it is probable that they were swallowed up by the invading 
Seminole. 

Population. — The Timucua, in the wide extent of the term, are 
estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 13,000 in 1650, 
including 3,000 Potano, 1,000 Hostaqua, 8,000 Timucua proper and 
their allies, and 1,000 Tocobaga. In a letter dated February 2, 1635, 
it is asserted that 30,000 Christian Indians were connected with the 
44 missions then maintained in the Quale and Timucua provinces. 
While this figure is probably too high, it tends to confirm Mooney's 
(1928) estimate. In 1675 Bishop Calder6n of Cuba states that he 
confirmed 13,152 in the four provinces of Timucua, Quale, Apalache, 
and Apalachicoli, but Qovernor Salazar estimates only 1,400 in the 
Timucua missions that year. Later, pestilences decimated the Timu- 
cua very rapidly, and their ruin was completed by attacks of the 
English and the northern Indians, so that by 1728 the single town 
which seems to have contained most of the survivors had but 15 men 



152 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

and 20 women. Eight years later 17 men were reported there. Not 
long after this time the tribe disappears entirely, though it is highly 
probable that numbers of individuals who had belonged to it had 
made their homes with other Indians. 

As to the Utina tribe by itself, we have a missionary letter dated 
1602 which estimates its population as 1,500, in this case probably an 
understatement. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — This tribe, known as 
the Utina or Timucua, is noteworthy (1) for having given its name to 
the peoples of the Timucuan or Timuquanan stock now regarded as 
part of the Muskogean family, and (2) as having been, next perhaps 
to the Potano, the most powerful tribe constituting that stock. 

The Timucuan group has left its name in that of the river above 
mentioned. 

Yamasee. Some tribes aflBliated with the Yamasee settled in the 
Apalachee country in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
The great body came to Florida from South Carolina after their war 
with the English colonists in 1715, and most of them remained in 
the northeastern part of the peninsula. Their final appearance is 
as the Ocklawaha band of Seminole. Part of them moved west, 
however, and settled near Mobile, and either this or a third party 
lived among the Creeks for a time, after which they seem to have 
returned to west Florida, where they were represented by the 
"Yumersee" town of the Seminole. A considerable number of them 
were captured by the Creek Indians and incorporated with them. 
(See Georgia.) 

Yuchi. In the seventeenth century a body of Yuchi established 
themselves west of Apalachicola River, but moved north to join 
the Upper Creeks before 1761. At a much later date a body of 
eastern Yuchi joined the Seminole and in 1823 had a settlement 
called Tallahassee or Spring Gardens 10 miles from Volusia. They 
probably moved to Oklahoma at the end of the last Seminole war. 
(See Georgia.) 

Yufera. This is the name of a town or group of towns reported as 
located somewhere inland from Cumberland Island, and perhaps in 
the present territory of Georgia. The name is derived through 
Timucua informants but it may have referred to a part of the Mus- 
kogee tribe called Eufaula. 

Yui. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — (See Utina.) 

Location. — On the mainland 14 leagues inland from Cumberland 
Island and probably in the southeastern part of the present state of 
Georgia. 



Sw ANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 153 

Villages 

They had five villages but the names of these are either unknown or unidenti- 
fiable. 

History. — The name of the Yui appears first in Spanish documents. 
They were visited by the missionary at San Pedro (Cumberland 
Island) and appear to have been Christianized early in the seventeenth 
century. No individual mission bore their name and they, are soon 
lost sight of, their history becoming that of the other Timucua tribes. 

Popvlation. — The missionaries estimated more than 1,000 Indians 
in this province in 1602. (See Utina.) 

Yustaga. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — No words of the Yustaga language have been 
preserved but circumstantial evidence indicates they belonged to the 
Timucuan branch of the Muskhogean linguistic stock, although 
occasionally the provinces of Timucua and Yustaga are spoken of as 
if distinct. 

Location. — Approximately between Aucilla and Suwannee Rivers, 
somewhat toward the coast. 

Villages 

The Yustaga villages cannot be satisfactorily identified though the missions of 
Asile, San Marcos, Machaba, and San Pedro seem to have belonged to it. 

History. — The Yustaga are first mentioned by Biedma {in Bourne, 
1904), one of the chroniclers of De Soto, who gives the title to a 
"province" through which the Spaniards marched just before coming 
to Apalachee. While the French Huguenots were on St. Johns River, 
some of them visited this tribe, and later it is again mentioned by the 
Spaniards but no mission bears the name. Its history is soon merged 
in that of the Timucuan peoples generally. The last mention of the 
name appears to be in 1659. It is of particular interest as the province 
from which the Osochi Indians who settled among the Lower Creeks 
probably emigrated in 1656 or shortly afterward. 

Population. — In 1675, 40 Indians were reported in the mission of 
Asile and 300 in each of the others, giving a total very close to 
Mooney's (1928) estimate of 1,000 as of the year 1600. 

ALABAMA 

Abihka, see Creek Confederacy and Muskogee. 

Alabama. Perhaps connected with the native word "albina," mean- 
ing "to camp," or alba amo, "weed gatherer," referring to the black 
drink. Also called: 

Ma'-mo a°-ya -di, or Ma'-mo ha°-ya, by the Biloxi. 

Oke-choy-atte, given by Schoolcraft (1851-57), the name of an Alabama 
town, Oktcaiutci. 



154 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Connections. — The Alabama language belonged to the southern 
division of the Muskhogean stock, and was perhaps connected with 
the tongues of the Muklasa and Tuskegee, which have not been pre- 
served. It was closely related to Koasati and more remotely to 
Hitchiti and Choctaw, 

Location. — The principal historic seat of this tribe was on the upper 
coiu-se of Alabama River. (See also Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma, 
and Texas.) 

Subdivisions 

The Tawasa and Pawokti, which later formed two Alabama towns, were origi- 
nally independent tribes (see under Florida), though the former, at least, was not 
properly Alabama. The same may have been true of some other Alabama towns, 
though we have no proof of the fact. 

Villages 

Besides the above: 
Autauga, on the north bank of Alabama River about the mouth of Autauga Creek 

in Autauga County. 
Kantcati, on Alabama River about 3 miles above Montgomery and on the same 

side. 
Nitahauritz, on the north side of Alabama River west of the confluence of the 

Alabama and Cahawba Rivers in Dallas County. 
Okchayutci, in Benjamin Hawkins' time (about 1800) on the east bank of Coosa 

River between Tuskegee and the Muskogee town of Otciapofa. (See Hawkins, 

1848, 1916.) 
Wetumpka, a branch village reported in 1761, 

History. — Native tradition assigns the origin of the Alabama 
to a point at the confluence of Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, but 
we seem to hear of the tribe first historically in what is now northern 
Mississippi west of the Chickasaw countiy. This is in the narratives 
of De Soto's chroniclers, which, however, do not altogether agree, 
since one writer speaks of a province of the name, two others bestow 
the designation upon a small village, and only Garcilaso (1723), the 
least reliable, gives the title Fort Alibamo to a stockade — west of the 
village above mentioned — where the Spaniards had a severe combat. 
While this stockade was probably held by Alabama Indians, there 
is no certainty that it was. The next we hear of the tribe it is in 
its historic seats above given. After the French had established 
themselves at Mobile they became embroiled in some small affrays 
between the Alabama and Mobile Indians, but peace was presently 
established and thereafter the French and Alabama remained good 
friends as long as French rule continued. This friendship was 
cemented in 1717 by the establishment of Fort Toulouse in the 
Alabama country and the admission among them of one, or probably 
two, refugee tribes, the Tawasa and Pawokti. (See Florida.) About 
1763 a movement toward the west began on the part of those Indiana 



SWANTONJ INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 155 

who had become accustomed to French rule. Some Alabama joined 
the Seminole in Florida. Others accompanied the Koasati to Tom- 
bigbee River but soon returned to their own country. Still another 
body went to Louisiana and settled on the banks of the Mississippi 
River, where they were probably joined from time to time by more. 
Later they advanced further toward the west and some are still 
scattered in St. Landry and Calcasieu Parishes, but the greatest 
single body finally reached Polk County, Tex., where they occupy 
a piece of land set aside for them by the State. Those who remained 
behind took a very prominent part in the Creek-American War and 
lost aU their land by the treat}^ of Fort Jackson, 1814, being obliged 
to make new settlements between the Coosa and Tallapoosa. They 
accompanied the rest of the Creeks to Oklahoma, and their des- 
cendants are to be found there today, principally about a little 
station bearing the name just south of Weleetka. 

Population. — In 1702 Iberville {in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 4, p. 514) 
estimated that there were 400 families of Alabama in two villages, 
and the English census of 1715 gives 214 men and a total population 
of 770 in four villages. These figures must have been exclusive 
of the Tawasa and Pawokti, which subsequent estimates include. 
About 1730-40 there is an estimate of 400 men in six towns. In 
1792 the number of Alabama men is given as 60, exclusive of 60 
Tawasa, but as this last included Kantcati the actual proportion 
of true Alabama was considerably greater. Hawkins, in 1799, esti- 
mated 80 gunmen in four Alabama towns, including Tawasa and 
Pawokti, but he does not include the population of Okchaiyutci. 
(See Hawkins, 1848.) In 1832 only two towns are entered which may 
be safely set down as Alabama, Tawasa and Autauga, and these had 
a population of 321 besides 21 slaves. The later figures given above 
do not include those Alabama who had moved to Louisiana. In 1805 
Sibley (1832) states there were two villages in Louisiana with 70 
men; in 1817 Morse (1822) gives 160 Alabama all told in Texas, 
but this is probably short of the truth. In 1882 the United States 
Indian Office reported 290 Alabama, Koasati, and Muskogee in 
Texas, the larger number of whom were probably Alabama. In 1900 
the figure is raised to 470. In 1910 a special agent from the Indian 
Office reported 192 Alabama alone. The census of 1910 gave 187 
in Texas and 111 in Louisiana, a total of 298. The 176 "Creek" 
Indians returned from Polk County, Tex., in 1930, were mainly 
Alabama. The number of Alabama in Oklahoma has never been 
separately reported. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Alabama attained 
early literary fame from Garcilaso de la Vega's (1723) description 



156 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

of the storming of "Fort Alibamo." Their later notoriety has 
rested upon the fact that their name became attached to Alabama 
River, and still more from its subsequent adoption by the State 
of Alabama. A railroad station in Oklahoma is named after them, 
and the term has been appUed to places in Genesee County, N. Y., 
and in Polk County, Wis. There is an Alabama City in Etowah 
County, Ala., and Alabam in Madison County, Ark. 

Apalachee. A part of this tribe lived for a time among the Lower 
Creeks and perhaps in this State, Another section settled near 
Mobile and remained there until West Florida was ceded to Great 
Britain when they crossed the Mississippi. A few seem to have 
joined the Creeks and migrated with them to Oklahoma. (See 
Florida.) 

Apalachicola. Very early this tribe lived on the Apalachicola and 
Chattahoochee Rivers, partly in Alabama. Sometime after 1715 
they settled in Russell County, on the Chattahoochee River w^here 
they occupied at least two different sites before removing with the 
rest of the Creeks to the other side of the Mississippi. (See Georgia.) 

Atasi. A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.). 

Chatot. This tribe settled near Mobile after having been driven 
from Florida and moved to Louisiana about the same time as 
the Apalachee. (See Florida.) 

Cherokee. In the latter part of the eighteenth century some Cher- 
okee worked their way down the Tennessee River as far as Muscle 
Shoals, constituting the Chickamauga band. They had settlements 
at Turkeytown on the Coosa, WiUstown on Wills Creek, and 
Coldwater near Tuscumbia, occupied jointly with the Creeks and 
destroyed by the Whites in 1787. All of their Alabama territory 
was surrendered in treaties made between 1807 and 1835. (See 
Tennessee.) 

Chickasaw. The Chickasaw had a few settlements in northwestern 
Alabama, part of which State was within their huntmg territories. 
At one time they also had a town called Ooe-asa (Wi-aca) among 
the Upper Creeks. (See Mississippi.) 

Choctaw. This tribe hunted over and occupied, at least temporarily, 
parts of southwestern Alabama beyond the Tombigbee. (See 
Mississippi.) 

Creek Confederacy. This name is given to a loose organization 
which constituted the principal political element in the territory of 
the present States of Georgia and Alabama from very early times, 
probably as far back as the period of De Soto. It was built around 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 157 

a dommant tribe, or rather a group of dominant tribes, called 
Muskogee. The name Creek early became attached to these 
people because when they were first known to the Carolina colonists 
and for a considerable period afterward the body of them which 
the latter knew best was living upon a river, the present Ocmulgee, 
called by Europeans "Ocheese Creek." The Creeks were early 
divided geographically into two parts, one called Upper Creeks, on 
the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers; the other, the Lower Creeks, on 
the lower Chattahoochee and Ocmulgee. The former were also 
divided at times into the Coosa branch or Abihka and the Talla- 
poosa branch and the two were called Upper and Middle Creeks 
respectively. Bartram (1792) tends to confuse the student by 
denominating all of the true Creeks "Upper Creeks" and the 
Seminole "Lower Creeks." The dominant Muskogee gradually 
gathered about them — and to a certain extent under them — the 
Apalachicola, Hitchiti, Okmulgee, Sawokli, Chiaha, Osochi, Yuchi, 
Alabama, Tawasa, Pawokti, Muklasa, Koasati, Tuskegee, a part 
of the Shawnee, and for a time some Yamasee, not counting broken 
bands and families from various quarters. The first seven of the 
above were for the most part among the Lower Creeks, the 
remainder with the Upper Creeks. (For further information, see 
the separate tribal names under Alabama, Georgia, and Florida.) 

Eufaula. A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.). 

Fas-hatchee. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.). 

EUlibi. A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.). 

Hitchiti. This tribe lived for considerable period close to, and at 
times within, the present territory of Alabama along its south- 
eastern margin. (See Georgia.) 

Ean-hatki. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.). 

Eealedji. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.). 

Koasati. Meaning unknown; often given as Coosawda and Cou- 

shatta, and sometimes abbreviated to Shati. 

Connections. — They belonged to the southern section of the Musk- 
hogean linguistic group, and were particularly close to the Alabama. 

Location. — The historic location of the Koasati was just below the 
junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers to form the Alabama 
and on the east side of the latter, where Coosada Creek and Station 
still bear the name. (See also Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, 
and Oklahoma.) 

Villages 

Two Koasati towns are mentioned as having existed in very early times, one 
of which may have been the Kaskinampo. (See Tennessee.) At a later period a 



158 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

town known as Wetumpka on the east bank of Coosa River, in Elmore County, 
near the falls seems to have been occupied by Koasati Indians. During part of 
its existence Wetumpka was divided into two settlements, Big Wetumpka on the 
site of the modern town of the same name, and Little Wetumpka above the falls 
of Coosa, 

History. — It is probable that from about 1500 until well along in 
the seventeenth century, perhaps to its very close, the Koasati lived 
upon Tennessee River. There is good reason to think that they are 
the Coste, Acoste, or Costehe of De Soto's chroniclers whose principal 
village was upon an island in the river, and in all probability this 
was what is now known as Pine Island. There is also a bare mention 
of them in the narrative of Pardo's expedition of 1567 inland from 
Santa Elena, and judging by the entries made upon maps published 
early in the eighteenth century this tribe seems to have occupied the 
same position when the French and English made their settlements 
in the Southeast. About that time they were probably joined by the 
related Kaskinampo. Not long after they had become known to the 
Whites, a large part of the Koasati migrated south and established 
themselves at the point mentioned above. A portion seems to have 
remained behind for we find a village called Coosada at Larkin's 
Landing in Jackson County at a much later date. The main body 
continued with the Upper Creeks until shortly after France ceded all 
of her territories east of the Mississippi to England in 1763, when a 
large part moved to Tombigbee River. These soon returned to their 
former position, but about 1795 another part crossed the Mississippi 
and settled on Red River. Soon afterward they seem to have split 
up, some continuing on the Red while others went to the Sabine and 
beyond to the Neches and Trinity Rivers, Tex. At a later date a 
few Texas bands united with the Alabama in Polk County, where 
their descendants still live, but most returned to Louisiana and 
gathered into one neighborhood northeast of Kinder, La. The 
greater part of the Koasati who remained in Alabama accompanied 
the Creeks to Oklahoma, where a few are still to be found. Previous 
to this removal, some appear to have gone to Florida to cast in their 
lot with the Seminole. 

Population. — The earliest estimates of the Alabama Indians prob- 
ably included the Koasati. In 1750 they are given 50 men; in 1760, 
150 men. Marbury (1792) credits them with 130 men. In 1832, 
after the Louisiana branch had split off, those who remained numbered 
82 and this is the last separate enumeration we have. Sibley (1806) 
on native authority gives 200 hunters in the Louisiana bands; in 
1814 Schermerhorn estimates that there were 600 on the Sabine; in 
1817 Morse places the total Koasati population in Louisiana and 
Texas at 640; in 1829 Porter puts it at 180; m 1850 Bollaert gives the 
number of men in the two Koasati towns on Trinity River as 500. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 159 

In 1882 the United States Indian Office reported 290 Alabama, 
Koasati, and Muskogee in Texas, but the Census of 1900 raised this 
to 470. The Census of 1910 returned 11 Koasati from Texas, 85 
from Louisiana, and 2 from Nebraska; those in Oklahoma were 
not enumerated separately from the other Creeks. The 134 "Creeks" 
returned from Louisiana in 1930 were mainly Koasati. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Coosada, a post village 
in Elmore County, Ala., near the old Koasati town, and Coushatta, 
the capital of Red River Parish, La,, preserve the name of the Koasati. 

Kolomi. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.). 

Mobile. Meaning unknown, but Halbert (1901) suggests that it 
may be from Choctaw moeli, "to paddle," since Mobile is pro- 
nounced moila by the Indians. It is the Mabila, Manilla, Mavila, 
or Mauvila of the De Soto chroniclers. 

Connections.— The language of the tribe was closely connected with 
that of the Choctaw and gave its name to a trade jargon based upon 
Choctaw or Chickasaw. 

Location. — When the French settled the seacoast of Alabama the 
Mobile were living on the west side of Mobile River a few miles be- 
low the junction of the Alabama and Tombigbee. 

History. — When they make their first appearance in history in 1540 
the Mobile were between the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, and 
on the east side of the former. Their chief, Tuscaloosa, was a very 
tall and commanding Indian with great influence throughout the 
surrounding country. He inspired his people to attack the invading 
Spaniards and a terrific battle was fought October 18, 1540, for the 
possession of one of his fortified towns (Mabila), which the Spaniards 
carried with heavy losses to themselves in killed and wounded, while 
of the Indians 2,500 or more fell. It is probable that the village of 
Nanipacna, through which a force of Spaniards of the De Luna 
colony passed in 1559, was occupied by some of the survivors of this 
tribe. At a later date they may have settled near Gees Bend of the 
Alabama River, in Wilcox County, because earl}^ French maps give 
a village site there which they call "Vieux Mobiliens." A Spanish 
letter of 1686 speaks of them as at war with the Pensacola tribe. 
When the French came into the country, the Mobile were, as stated 
above, settled not far below the junction of the Tombigbee and Ala- 
bama. After a post had been established on the spot where Mobile 
stands today, the Mobile Indians moved down nearer to it and re- 
mained there until about the time when the English obtained posses- 
sion of the country. They do not appear to have gone to Louisiana 
like so many of the smaller tribes about them and were probably 
absorbed in the Choctaw Nation. 



160 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Population. — After allowing for all exaggerations, the number of 
MobUe Indians when De Soto fought with them must have been very 
considerable, perhaps 6,000 to 7,000. Mooney (1928) estimates 2,000 
Mobile and Tohome in 1650, over a hundred years after the great 
battle. In 1702 Iberville states that this tribe and the Tohome 
together embraced about 350 warriors; in 1725-26 Bienville (1932, 
vol. 3, p. 536), gives 60 for the Mobile alone, but in 1730 R^gis de 
Rouillet (1732) cuts this in half. In 1758 De Kerl^rec (1907) esti- 
mates the number of warriors among the Mobile, Tohome, and Na- 
niaba at about 100. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Mobile have 
attained a fame altogether beyond anything which their later numer- 
ical importance would warrant: (1) on account of the desperate 
resistance which they offered to De Soto's forces, and (2) from the 
important Alabama city to which they gave their name. There is a 
place called Mobile in Maricopa County, Ariz. 

Muklasa. Meaning in Alabama and Choctaw, "friends," or "people 

of one nation." 

Connections. — Since the Muklasa did not speak Muskogee and their 
name is from the Koasati, Alabama, or Choctaw language, and since 
they w^ere near neighbors of the two former, it is evident that they 
were connected with one or the other of them. 

Location. — On the south bank of Tallapoosa River in Montgomery 
County. (See Florida and Oklahoma.) 

History. — When we first hear of the Muklasa in 1675 they were in 
the position above given and remained there until the end of the 
Creek- American War, when they are said to have emigrated to Florida 
in a body. Nothing is heard of them afterward, however, and 
although Gatschet (1884) states that there was a town of the name 
in the Creek Nation in the west in his time, I could learn nothing about 
it when I visited the Creeks in 1911-12. 

Population. — In 1760 the Muklasa are said to have had 50 men, 
in 1761, 30, and in 1792, 30. These are the only figures available 
regarding their numbers. 

Muskogee. Meaning unknown, but perhaps originally from Shawnee 
and having reference to swampy ground. To this tribe the name 
Creeks was ordinarily apphed. Also called: 

Ani'-Gu'sa, by the Cherokee, meaning "Coosa people," after an ancient 

and famous town on Coosa River. 
Ku-H'sha, by the Wyandot. 
Ochesee, by the Hitchiti. 
Sko'-ki ha°-ya, by the Biloxi. 

Connections. — The Muskogee language constitutes one division of 
the Muskhogean tongues proper, that which I call Northern. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 161 

Location. — From the earliest times of which we have any record 

these people seem to have had to^vns aU the way from the Atlantic 

coast of Georgia and the neighborhood of Savannah River to central 

Alabama. (See also Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee, 

and Texas.) 

Subdivt^ions and Villages 

It is difficult to separate major divisions of the Muskogee from towns and 
towns from villages, but there were certainly several distinct Muskogee tribes at 
a very early period. The following subdivisional classification is perhaps as good 
as any: 

Abihka (in St. Clair, Calhoun, and Talladega Counties): 

Abihka-in-the-west, a late branch of Abihka in the western part of the Creek 

Nation, Okla. 
Abihkutci, on Tallassee Hatchee Creek, Talladega County, on the right bank 

5 miles from Coosa River. 
Kan-tcati, on or near Chocolocko, or Choccolocco, Creek and probably not far 

from the present "Conchardee." 
Kayomalgi, possibly settled by Shawnee or Chickasaw, probably near Sylacauga, 

Talladega County. 
Lun-ham-ga, location unknown. 
Talladega, on Talladega Creek, Talladega County. 
Tcahki lako, on Choccolocco Creek in Talladega or Calhoun County. 
Atasi: Location (1) on the upper Ocraulgee River, (2) on the Chattahoochee, 
(3) on the Tallapoosa in Tallapoosa County, (4) on the south side of the Talla- 
poosa in Macon County, and (5) on the north side near Calebee Creek in 
Elmore County. 
Coosa: 

Abihkutci, a division of Okfuskee, which apparently came into existence after 

the Creeks had removed to Oklahoma. 
Atcinaulga, on the west bank of Tallapoosa River in Randolph County. 
Big Tulsa, on the east bank of Tallapoosa River at the mouth of Ufaubee Creek 

in Tallapoosa County. 
Chatukchufaula, possibly identical with the last, on Nafape Creek or Tallapoosa 

River. 
Chuleocwhooatlee, on the left bank of Tallapoosa River, 11 miles below Nuyaka, 

in Tallapoosa County. 
Holitaiga, on Chattahoochee River in Troup County, Ga. 
Imukfa, on Emaufaw Creek in Tallapoosa Countj'. 
Ipisagi, on Sandy Creek in Tallapoosa County. 
Kohamutkikatsa, location unknown. 
Little Tulsa, on the east side of Coosa River, 3 miles above the falls, Elmore 

County. 
Lutcapoga, perhaps near Loachapoka in Lee County, or on the upper Tallapoosa. 
Nafape, on a creek of the same name flowing into Ufaubee Creek. 
Okfuskee, location (1) at the mouth of Hillabee Creek, (2) at the mouth of 

Sand Creek, both in Tallapoosa County. 
Okfuskutci, (1) on Chattahoochee River in Troup County, Ga.; (2) on the upper 

Tallapoosa in Tallapoosa County, Ala.; (3) another town of the name or an 

earlier location of the first somewhere near the lower Tallapoosa. 
Old Coosa, near the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers. 



162 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Otciapofa, on the east side of the Coosa River in Elmore County, just below 
the falls. 

Saoga-hatchee, on Saogahatchee Creek, in Tallapoosa or Lee County. 

Suka-ispoga, on the west bank of Tallapoosa River below the mouth of Hillibee 
Creek, in Tallapoosa Countj'. 

Tallassehasee, on Tallassee Hatchee Creek in Talladega County. 

Tcahkilako, on Chattahoochee River near Franklin, Heard County, Ga. 

Tcatoksofka, seemingly a later name of the main Okfuskee town. 

Tcawokela, 25 miles east northeast of the mouth of Upatoie Creek, probably 
near Chewacla Station, Lee County. 

Tculakonini, on Chattahoochee River in Troup County, Ga. 

Tohtogagi, on the west bank of Tallapoosa River, probably in Randolph 
County. 

Tukabahchee Tallahassee, later called Talmutcasi, on the west side of Talla- 
poosa River in Tallapoosa County. 

Tukpafka, on Chattahoochee River in Heard County, Ga., later moved to 
Tallapoosa, settled on the left bank 11 miles above Okfuskee, Tallapoosa 
County, and renamed Nuyaka. 

Tulsa Canadian, a branch of Tulsa on the Canadian River, Okla. 

Tulsa Little River, a branch of Tulsa near Holdenville, Okla. 
Coweta (early location on the upper Ocmulgee, later on the west bank of Chatta- 
hoochee River in Russell County, Ala., opposite Columbus, Ga.): 

Coweta Tallahassee, later Likatcka or Broken Arrow, probably a former location 
of the bulk of the tribe, on the west bank of Chattahoochee River in Russell 
County, Ala. 

Katca tastanagi's Town "at Cho-lose-parp-kari." 

Settlements on "Hallewokke Yoaxarhatchee." 

Settlements on "Toosilkstorkee Hatchee." 

Settlements on "Warkeeche Hatchee." 

Wetumpka, a branch of the last on the main fork of Big Uchee Creek 12 miles 
northwest from the mother town, Coweta Tallahassee. 
Eufaula: 

A branch among the Seminole called Kan-tcati. (See Florida, Seminole.) 

A branch village of Eufaula hopai on a creek called "Chowokolohatchee." 

Eufaulahatchee or Eufaula Old Town, on Talladega Creek, also called Eufaula 
Creek, 15 miles from its mouth. 

Lower Eufaula or Eufaula hopai, above the mouth of Pataula Creek, in Clay 
County, Ga. 

Upper Eufaula, on the right bank of Tallapoosa River 5 miles below Okfuskee, 
in Tallapoosa County — at one time separated into Big Eufaula and Little 
Eufaula. 
Hilibi (at the junction of Hillabee and Bear Creeks, Tallapoosa County) : 

Anetechapko, 10 miles above Hilibi on a branch of Hillabee Creek. 

Etcuseislaiga, on the left bank of Hillabee Creek, 4 miles below Hilibi. 

Kitcopataki, location unknown. 

Lanutciabala, on the northwest branch of Hillabee Creek, probably in Talla- 
poosa County. 

Little Hilibi, location unknown. 

Oktahasasi, on a creek of the name 2 miles below Hilibi. 
Holiwahali (on the north bank of Tallapoosa River in Elmore County): 

Laplako, on the south side of Tallapoosa in Montgomery County nearly opposite 
Holiwahali. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 163 

Kasihta (best-known location on the east bank of Chattahoochee River, at the 

junction of Upatoie Creek in Chattahoochee County, Ga.): 
Apatai, in the forks of Upatoie and Pine Knob Creeks in Muskogee County, Ga. 
Salenojuh, on Flint River 8 miles below Aupiogee Creek (?). 
Settlements bearing the same name (Kasihta). 
Settlements on Chowockeleehatchee Creek, Ala. 
Settlements on Little Uchee Creek, Ala. 
Settlements on "Tolarnulkar Hatchee." 
Sicharlitcha, location unknown. 
Tallassee Town, on Opillikee Hatchee, perhaps in Schley or Macon Counties, 

Ga. 
Tuckabatchee Harjo's Town, on Osenubba Hatchee, a west branch of the 

Chattahoochee, Ala. 
Tuskehenehaw Chooley's Town, near West Point, Troup County, Ga. 
Okchai: 

Asilanabi, on Yellow Leaf Creek in Shelby County. 

Lalogalga, or Fish Pond, on a branch of Elkhatchee Creek, 14 miles up, in 

Tallapoosa or Coosa County. 
Okchai, location (1) on the east side of the lower Coosa in Elmore County; (2) 

in the southeastern part of Coosa County, on a creek bearing their name, 

which flowed into Kialaga Creek. 
Potcas hatchee, probably a branch of this on the upper course of Hatchet 

Creek in Clay or Coosa County. 
Tcahki lako, on Chattahoochee River. 
Tulsa hatchee, location uncertain. 
Pakana: 

Pakan Tallahassee, on Hatchet Creek, Coosa County. 

The Pakana who settled near Fort Toulouse at the junction of Coosa and 

Tallapoosa Rivers and aftenvard moved to Louisiana, living on Calcasieu 

River for a while. 
Tukabahchee (in the sharp angle made where Tallapoosa River turns west in 

Elmore County) : 
Only one small out village is mentioned, Wihili, location unknown. 
Wakokai (on the middle course of Hatchet Creek in Coosa County) : 

Sakapadai, probably on Sacapartoy, a branch of Hatchet Creek, Coosa County. 
Tukpafka, on Hatchet Creek, Coosa County. 
Wiogufki, on Weogufka Creek in Coosa County. 
Besides the Muskogee tribes noted above, there were the following: 
Fus-hatchee. Not a major division; on the north bank of Tallapoosa River in 
Elmore County, 2 miles below HoHwahali. They may have been related to 
the Holiwahali. 
Kan-hatki. Not a major division; just below Kolomi on the north bank of 

Tallapoosa River in Elmore County. Possibly related to the Holiwahali. 
Kealedji. Not a primary division; perhaps a branch of Tukabahchee; location 
(1) on the Ocmulgee, (2) on Kialaga Creek in Elmore County or Tallapoosa 
County, having one branch Hatcheetcaba, west of Kealedji, probably in Elmore 
County. 
Kolomi. Probably not a major division; location (1) on the Ocmulgee, (2) on the 
middle Chattahoochee in Russell County, Ala., (3) on the north side of the 
lower Tallapoosa in Elmore County. They may have been related to the 
HoHwahali. 



164 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull, 145 

Wiwohka. Not a primary division but a late town; location (1) near the mouth 
of Hatchet Creek in Coosa County, (2) on Weoka Creek in Elmore County. 

In addition to the above there were a number of towns and villages which 
cannot be classified, or only with extreme doubt. They are as follows: 
Acpactaniche, on the headwaters of Coosa River, perhaps meant for Pakana. 
Alkehatchee, an Upper Creek town. 

Atchasapa, on Tallapoosa River not far below Tulsa, possibly for ' tcheechubba. 
Aucheucaula, in the northwestern part of Coosa County. 
Auhoba, below Autauga. (See Alabama.) 
Breed Camp, an Upper Creek town, probably meant for the Chickasaw settlement 

of Ooe-asa. 
Cauwaoulau, a Lower Creek village in Russell County west of Uchee Post Office 

and south of the old Federal road. 
Chachane, the Lower Creek town farthest downstream. 

Chanahunrege, between the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers in or near Coosa County. 
Chananagi, placed by Brannon (1909) "in Bullock County, just south of the 

Central of Georgia Railroad near Suspension." 
Chichoufkee, an Upper Creek town in Elmore County, east of Coosa River and 

near Wiwoka Creek. 
Chinnaby's Fort, at Ten Islands in the Coosa River. 
Chiscalage, in or near Coosa County, perhaps a body of Yuchi. 
Cholocco Litabixee, in the Horseshoe Bend of Tallapoosa River. 
Chuahla, just below White Oak Creek, south of Alabama River. 
Cohatchie, in the southwestern part of Talladega County on the bank of Coosa 

River. 
Conaliga, in the western part of Russell County or the eastern part of Macon, 

somewhere near the present Warrior Stand. 
Cooccohapofe, on Chattahoochee River. 

Cotohautustenuggee, on the right bank of Upatoie Creek, Muscogee County, Ga. 
Cow Towns, location uncertain. 

Donnally's Town, on the Flint or the Chattahoochee River. 
Ekun-duts-ke, probably on the south bank of Line Creek in Montgomery County. 
Emarhe, location uncertain. 

Eto-husse-wakkes, on Chattahoochee River, 3 miles above Fort Gaines. 
Fife's Village, an Upper Creek village a few miles east of Talladega, Ala. 
Fin'halui, a Lower Creek settlement, perhaps the Yuchi settlement of High Log. 
Habiquache, given by the Popple Map as on the west side of Coosa River. 
Ikan atchaka, "Holy Ground," in Lowndes County, 2}^ miles due north of White 

Hall, just below the mouth of Holy Ground Creek on the Old Sprott Plantation. 
Istapoga, in Talladega County near the influx of Estaboga Creek into Choc- 

colocco Creek, about 10 miles from Coosa River. 
Kehatches, somewhere above the bend of Tallapoosa River and between it and the 

Coosa. 
Kerofif, apparently on the upper Coosa. 
Litafatchi, at the head of Canoe Creek in St. Clair County. 
Lustuhatchee, above the second cataract of Tallapoosa River. 
Melton's Village, in Marshall County, Ala., on Town Creek, at the site of the 

present "Old Village Ford." 
Ninnipaskulgee, near Tukabahchee. 
Nipky, probably a Lower Creek town. 
Oakchinawa Village, in Talladega County, on both sides of Salt Creek, near the 

point where it flows into Big Shoal Creek. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 165 

Old Osonee Town, on Cahawba River in Shelby Ck)unty. 

Opillako, on Pinthlocco Creek in Coosa County. 

Oti palin, on the west bank of Coosa River, just below the junction of Canoe Creek. 

(See Chinnaby's Fort.) 
Oti tutcina, probably between Coosa and OpiHako or Pakan Tallahassee and on 

Coosa River. 
Pea Creek, perhaps an out settlement of Tukabahchee, location unknown. 
Pin Huti, somewhere near Dadeville iu Tallapoosa County. 
Rabbit Town, possibly a nickname, location unknown. 
St. Taffery's, location unknown. 
Satapo, on Tennessee River. 
Talipsehogy, an Upper Creek settlement. 
Talishatchie Town, in Calhoun County east of a branch of Tallasehatchee Creek, 

3 miles southwest of Jacksonville. 
Tallapoosa, said to be within a day's journey of Fort Toulouse at the junction of 

the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers and probably on the river of that name. 
Talwa Hadjo, on Cahawba River. 
Tohowogly, perhaps intended for Sawokli, 8 to 10 miles below the falls of the 

Chattahoochee. 
Turkey Creek, in Jefferson County, on Turkey Creek north of Trussville, prob- 
ably Creek. 
Uncuaula, in the western part of Coosa County on Coosa River. 
Wallhal, an Upper Creek town given on the Purcell map, perhaps intended for 

Eufaula, or an independent town on Wallahatchee Creek, Elmore County. 
WeyoUa, a town so entered on the Popple Map, between the Coosa and Tallapoosa 

but near the former; probably a distorted form of the name of some well-known 

place. 

History. — Muskogee tradition points to the northwest for the origin 
of the nation. In the spring of 1540, De Soto passed through some 
settlements and a "province" called Chisi, Ichisi, and Achese, in 
southern Georgia, which may have been occupied by Muskogee because 
they are known to Hitchiti-speaking people as Ochesee. Somewhat 
later he entered Cofitachequi, probably either the later Kasihta, or 
Coweta, and the same summer he entered Coosa and passed through 
the country of the Upper Creeks. Companions of De Luna visited 
Coosa again in 1559 and assisted it in its wars with a neighboring 
tribe to the West, the Napochi. Cofitachequi was visited later by 
Juan Pardo and other Spanish explorers and some of Pardo's com- 
panions penetrated as far as Coosa. It is probable that part if not 
all of the province of Guale on the Georgia coast was at that time occu- 
pied by Muskogee, and relations between the Guale Indians and the 
Spaniards continued intimate from 1565 onward. Soon afterward 
the Spaniards also encountered the Creeks of Chattahoochee River. 
At what time the confederacy of which the Muskogee were the most 
important part was estabhshed is unknown but the nucleus probably 
existed in De Soto's time. At any rate it was in a flourishing condi- 
tion in 1670 when South Carolina was colonized and probably con- 
tinued to grow more rapidly than before owing to the accession of 



166 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Creek tribes displaced b}'' the 'Whites or other tribes whom the Whites 
had displaced. Before 1715 a large body were Hving on Ocmulgee 
River but following on the Yamasee outbreak of that year they with- 
drew to the Chattahoochee from which they had moved previously 
to be near the English trading posts. Occupying as they did a cen- 
tral position between the Enghsh, Spanish, and French colonies, the 
favor of the Creeks was a matter of concern to these nations, and they 
played a more important part than any other American Indians in 
the colonial history of the Gulf region. For a considerable period 
they were allied with the English, and they were largely instrumental 
in destroying the former Indian inhabitants of Florida and breaking 
up the missions which had been established there. Finding the terri- 
tory thus vacated very agreeable and one abounding in game, they 
presently began to settle in it permanently, particularly after it was 
ceded to Great Britain in 1763. The first of the true Muskogee to 
emigrate to Florida, except for a small band of Coweta, were some 
Eufaula Indians, and the Muskogee do not seem to have constituted 
the dominant element until after the Creek- American war, 1813-14. 
In the last decades of the eighteenth century, the internal organization 
of the Confederacy was almost revolutionized by Alexander McGiUi- 
vray, the son of a Scotch trader, who set up a virtual dictatorship and 
raised the Confederacy to a high position of influence by his skill in 
playing off one European nation against another. After his death 
friction developed between the factions favorable to and those opposed 
to the Whites. Inspired by the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, a large 
part of the Upper Creeks broke out into open hostihties in 1813, but 
nearly all of the Lower Creeks and some of the most prominent Upper 
Creek towns refused to join with them and a large force from the 
Lower Creeks under William Macintosh and Timpoochee Barnard, 
the Yuchi chief, actively aided the American army. This war was 
ended by Andrew Jackson's victory at Horsehoe Bend on the Talla- 
poosa River, March 27, 1814. One immediate result of this war was 
to double or triple the number of Seminole in Florida, owing to the 
multitude of Creeks who wished to escape from their old country. 
Fx'om this time on friction between the pro-White and anti-White 
Creek factions increased. When the United States Government 
attempted to end these troubles by inducing the Indians to emigrate, 
the friction increased stiU more and culminated in 1825 when the 
Georgia commissioners had induced William Macintosh, leader of the 
pro-American faction, and some other chiefs to affix their signatures 
to a treaty ceding all that was then left of the Creek lands. For this 
act formal sentence of death was passed upon Macintosh, and he was 
shot by a band of Indians sent to his house for that purpose May 1, 
1825. However, the leaders of the Confederacy finally agreed to the 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 167 

removal, which took place between 1836 and 1840, the Lower Creeks 
settling in the upper part of their new lands and the Upper Creeks in 
the' lower part. The former factional troubles kept the .relations be- 
tween these two sections strained for some years, but they were finally 
adjusted and in course of time an elective government with a chief, 
second chief, and a representative assembly of two houses was estab- 
lished, which continued until the nation was incorporated into the 
State of Oklahoma. 

Population. — Except where an attempt is made to give the popu- 
lation by towns, it is usually impossible to separate the Muskogee 
from other peoples of the Confederacy. Correct estimates of all 
Creeks are also rendered difficult because they were taking in smaller 
tribes from time to time and giving off colonists to Florida and 
Louisiana. In 1702 Iberville placed the whole number of Creek and 
Alabama families at 2,000. In 1708 South Carolina officials esti- 
mated about 2,000 warriors. In 1715 something approaching a 
census was taken of the tribes in their vicinity by the government of 
South Carolina and a total of 1,869 men and a population of 6,522 
was returned for the Creeks, exclusive of the Alabama, Yuchi, Shawnee, 
Apalachicola, and Yamasee. A town by town enumeration made 
by the Spaniards in 1738 shows 1,660 warriors; a French estimate of 
1750, 905; another of 1760, 2,620; a North Carolina estimate of 1760, 
2,000 warriors; an English estimate of 1761, 1,385; one of about 3,000 
the same year; an American estimate of 1792, 2,850; and finally the 
census taken in 1832-33 just before the emigration of the Creeks to 
their new lands across the Mississippi, showed a total of 17,939 in 
the true Aluskogee towns. Besides these more careful statements, 
we have a number of general estimates of warriors in the eighteenth 
century ranging from 1,250 up to between 5,000 and 6,000. This 
last was by Alexander McGillivray and is nearest that shown by the 
census of 1832-33. It would seem either that the earlier estimates 
were uniformly too low or that the Confederacy increased rapidly dur- 
ing the latter part of the eighteenth century and the first part of the 
nineteenth. After the removal estimates returned by the Indian 
Office and from other sources ranged between 20,000 and 25,000. 
When a new census was taken in 1857, however, less than 15,000 were 
returned, and there was a slow falling off until 1919 when there were 
about 12,000. It must be noted that the census of 1910 returned 
only 6,945, a figure which can be reconciled with that of the United 
States Indian Office only on the supposition that it is supposed to 
cover only Indians of full or nearly full blood. The report of the 
United States Indian Office for 1923 gives 11,952 Creeks by blood. 
Regarding the later population it must be remembered that it has 
become more and more diluted. The United States Census of 1930 



168 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

gave 9,083 but included the Alabama and Koasati Indians of Texas 
and Louisiana and individuals scattered through more than 13 other 
States outside of Oklahoma, where 8,760 lived. These "general 
estimates" include the incorporated tribes. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — In the form Mus- 
khogean, the name of this tribe was adopted by Powell (1891) for that 
group of languages to which the speech of the Muskogee belongs. 
In the form Muscogee it has been given to a county in western Georgia, 
and to a railroad junction in it, and to a post-village in Escambia 
County, Fla. In the form Muskogee it is the name of the capital of 
Muskogee County, Okla., the third largest city in that state. The 
political organization of which they constituted the nucleus and the 
dominant element represents the most successful attempt north of 
Mexico at the formation of a superstate except that made by the 
Iroquois, and the part they played in the early history of our Gulf 
region was greater than that of any other, not even excepting the 
Cherokee. They were one of the principal mound-building tribes to 
survive into modern times and were unsurpassed in the elaborate 
character of their ceremonials (except possibly by the Natchez), 
while their prowess in war was proven by the great contest which 
they waged with the United States Government in 1813-14, and the 
still more remarkable struggle which their Seminole relatives and 
descendants maintained in Florida in 1835-1842. Their great war 
speaker, Hopohithli-yahola, was probably surpassed in native great- 
ness by no chief in this area except the Choctaw Pushmataha. (See 
Foreman, 1930.) 

Napochi. If connected with Choctaw Napissa, as seems not unlikely, 

the name means "those who see," or "those who look out," probably 

equivalent to "frontiersmen." 

Connection. — They belonged to the southern division of the Musk- 
hogeans proper, and were seemingly nearest to the Choctaw. 

Location. — Along Black Warrior River. 

History. — The tribe appears first in the account of an attempt to 
colonize the Gulf States in 1559 under Don Tristan de Luna. A 
part of his forces being sent inland from Pensacola Bay came to 
Coosa in 1560 and assisted its people against the Napochi, whom 
they claimed to have reduced to "allegiance" to the former. After 
this the Napochi seem to have left the Black Warrior, and we know 
nothing certain of their fate, but the name was preserved down to 
very recent times among the Creeks as a war name, and it is probable 
that they are the Napissa spoken of by Iberville in 1699, as having 
recently united with the Chickasaw. Possibly the Acolapissa of 
Pearl River and the Quinipissa of Louisiana were parts of the same 
tribe. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 169 

Population. — Unknown. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The only claim the 
Napochi have to distinction is their possible connection with the 
remarkable group of momids at Mound ville, Hale County, Ala. 

Natchez. One section of the Natchez Indians settled among the 
the Abihka Creeks near Coosa River after 1731 and went to Okla- 
homa a century later with the rest of the Creeks. (See Mississippi.) 

Okchai. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.). 
Okmulgee. A Creek tribe and town of the Hitchiti connection. 
(See Georgia.) 

Osochi. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — Within recent times the closest connections of this 
tribe have been with the Chiaha, though their language is said to 
have been Muskogee, but there is some, reason to think that they 
may have been originally a part of the Timucua. (See below.) 

Location. — Their best known historic seat was in the great bend of 
Chattahoochee River, Russell County, Ala., near the Chiaha. (See 
also Georgia and Florida.) 

Villages 

The town of Hotalgi-huyana was populated in part from this tribe and in part 
from the Chiaha. The census of 1832 gives two settlements, one on the Chatta- 
hoochee River and one on a stream called Opillike Hatchee. 

History. — The suggestion that the Osochi may have been Timucua 
is founded (1) on the resemblance of their name to that of a Timucua 
division in northwest Florida called by the Spaniards Ossachile or 
Ugachile, (2) on the fact that after the Timucua uprising of 1656 
some of the rebels "fled to the woods," and (3) the later mention of 
a detached body of Timucua in the neighborhood of the Apalachicola. 
Early in the eighteenth century they seem to have been living with 
or near the Apalachicola at the junction of the Chattahoochee and 
Flint. From what Hawkins (1848) tells us regarding them, we must 
suppose that they moved up Flint River somewhat later and from 
there to the Chattahoochee, in the location near the Chiaha above 
given. They migrated to Oklahoma with the rest of the Lower 
Creeks, and maintained their separateness in that country for a 
while but were later absorbed in the general mass of the Creek 
population. 

Population. — The following estimates of the effective male popula- 
tion of the Osochi occur: 1750, 30; 1760, 50; 1792, 50. The census 
of 1832-33 returned a total of 539, but one of the two towns inhabited 
by these Indians may have belonged to the Okmulgee. 



170 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Pakana. A division of the Muskogee (q, v.). 

Pawokti. This tribe moved from Florida to the neighborhood of 
Mobile along with the Alabama Indians and afterward established 
a town on the upper course of Alabama River. Still later they 
were absorbed into the Alabama division of the Creek Confederacy. 
(See Florida.) 

Pilthlako. A division of the Creeks, probably related to the Muskogee 
(q. v.), and possibly a division of the Okchai, 

Sawokli. Possibly meaning "raccoon people," in the Hitchiti language, 
and, while this is not absolutely certain, the okli undoubtedly 
means "people." 

Connections. — The Sawokli belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic 
stock and to the subdivision called Atcik-hata. (See Apalachicola.) 

Location. — The best known historic location was on Chattahoochee 
River in the northeastern part of the present Barbour County, Ala. 
(See Florida and Georgia.) 

Villages 

Hatches tcaba, probably on or near Hatchechubbee Creek, in Russell County, 

Ala. 
Okawaigi, on Cowikee Creek, in Barbour County, Ala. 
Okiti-yagani, in Clay County, Ga., not far from Fort Gaines. 
Sawokli, several different locations, the best known of which is given above. 
Sawoklutci, on the east bank of the Chattahoochee River, in Stewart County, Ga. 
Tcawokli, probably on Chattahoochee River in the northeastern part of Russell 

County, Ala. 

History. — When first known to the Spaniards the Sawokli were living 
on Chattahoochee River below the falls. A Spanish mission, Santa 
Cruz de Sabacola, was established in one section of the tribe by Bishop 
Calder6n of Cuba in 1675, and missionaries were sent to a larger body 
among the Creeks in 1679 and again in 1681. Most of the Indians 
surrounding these latter, however, soon became hostile and those who 
were Christianized withdrew to the junction of the Chattahoochee 
and Flint Rivers, where they were settled not far from the newly 
established Chatot missions. The Sawokli appear to have remained 
in the same general region until 1706 or 1707, when they were displaced 
by hostile Indians, probably Creeks. At least part lived for a while on 
Ocmulgee River and returned to the Chattahoochee, as did the resi- 
dents of many other Indian towns, about 1715, after which they 
gradually split up into several settlements but followed the fortunes 
of the Lower Creeks. In the seventeenth century there may have been 
a detached body as far west as Yazoo River, since a map of that period 
gives a "Sabougla" town there and the name is preserved to the 
present day in a creek and post village. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 171 

Population. — In 1738 a Spanish report gives the Sawokh 20 men, 
evidently an underestimate. In 1750 four settlements are given with 
more than 50 men, and in 1760 the same number of settlements and 
190 men, including perhaps the Tamati, but to these must be added 30 
men of Okiti-yakani. In 1761, including the neighboring and probably 
related villages, they are reported to have had 50 hunters. Hawkins 
in 1799 gives 20 hunters in Sawoklutci but no figures for the other 
towns. (See Hawkins, 1848.) In 1821 Young {in Morse, 1822) 
estimates 150 inhabitants in a town probably identical with this, and, 
according to the census of 1832-33, there were 187 Indians in Sawokli 
besides 42 slaves, 157 Indians in Okawaigi, and 106 in Hatcheetcaba; 
altogether, exclusive of the slaves, 450. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Sawokla is the name of 
a small place in Oklahoma, and a branch of this town has had its name 
incorporated in that of a stream, the Chewokeleehatchee, in Macon 
County., Ala., and in a post office called Chewacia in Lee County, Ala. 

Shawnee. In 1716 a band of Shawnee from Savannah River moved 
to the Chattahoochee and later to the Tallapoosa, where they 
remained until early in the nineteenth century. A second band 
settled near Sylacauga in 1747 and remained there until some time 
before 1761 when they returned north. (See Tennessee.) 

Taensa. This tribe was moved from Louisiana in 1715 and given a 
location about 2 leagues from the French fort at Mobile, one which 
had been recently abandoned by the Tawasa, along a watercourse 
which was named from them Tensaw River. Soon after the cession 
of Mobile to Great Britain, the Taensa returned to Louisiana. (See 
Louisiana.) 

Tohome. Said by Iberville to mean "little chief," but this is evidently 

an error. 

Connections. — They belonged to the southern branch of the 
Muskhogean linguistic group, their closest relatives being the Mobile. 

Location. — About Mcintosh's Bluff on the west bank of Tombigbee 
River, some miles above its junction with the Alabama. 

Subdivisions 

Anciently there were two main branches of this tribe, sometimes called the 
Big Tohome and Little Tohome, but the Little Tohome are known more often 
as Naniaba, "people dwelling on a hill," or "people of the Forks;" the latter 
would be because they were where the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers unite. 

Villages 

No others are known than those which received their names from the tribe 
and its subdivisions. 



172 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

History. — Cartographical evidence suggests that the Tohome may 
once have lived on a creek formerly known as Oke Thome, now- 
contracted into Catoma, which flows into Alabama River a short 
distance below Montgomery. When first discovered by the Whites, 
however, they were living at the point above indicated. In the De 
Luna narratives (1559-60) the Tombigbee River is called "River of 
the Tome." Iberville learned of this tribe in April 1700, and sent 
messengers who reached the Tohome village and returned in May. 
In 1702 he went to see them himself but seems not to have gone 
beyond the Naniaba. From this time on Tohome history is identical 
with that of the Alobile and the two tribes appear usually to have been 
in aUiance although a rupture between them was threatened upon one 
occasion on account of the murder of a Mobile woman by one of the 
Tohome. In 1715 a Tohome Indian killed an English trader named 
Hughes who had come overland from South Carolina, had been 
apprehended and taken to Mobile by the French and afterward 
liberated. A bare mention of the tribe occurs in 1763 and again in 
1771-72. They and the Mobile probably imited ultimately with the 
Choctaw. 

Population. — In 1700 Iberville estimated that the Tohome and 
Mobile each counted 300 warriors, but 2 years later he revised his 
figures so far that he gave 350 for the two together. In 1730 Regis de 
Rouillet estimated that there were 60 among the Tohome and 50 
among the Naniaba. In 1758 Governor De Kerlerec estimated that 
the Mobile, Tohome, and Naniaba together had 100 warriors. (See 
Mobile.) 

Tukabahchee. One of the four head tribes of the Muskogee (q. v.). 

Tuskegee. Meaning unknown, but apparently containing the 

Alabama term taska, "warrior." 

Connections. — The original Tuskegee language is unknown but it 
was probably affiliated with the Alabama, and hence with the southern 
branch of Muskhogeans. 

Location. — The later and best known location of this tribe was on 
the point of land between Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers, but in 1685 
part of them were on the Chattahoochee River near modern Columbus 
and the rest were on the upper Tennessee near Long Island. (See also 
Oklahoma and Tennessee.) 

Villages 

None are known under any except the tribal name. 

History. — In 1540 De Soto passed through a town called Tasqui 2 
days before he entered Coosa. In 1567 Vandera was informed that 
there were two places in this neighborhood near together called Tasqui 
and Tasquiqui, both of which probably belonged to the Tuskegee. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 173 

By the close of the seventeenth century the Tuskegee appear to have 
divided into two bands one of which Coxe (1705) places on an island 
in Tennessee River. This band continued to live on or near the Ten- 
nessee for a considerable period but in course of time settled among 
the Cherokee on the south side of Little Tennessee River, just above 
the mouth of Tellico, in the present Monroe County, Tenn. Sequoya 
hved there in his boyhood. Another place wliich retained this name, 
and was probably the site of an earlier settlement was on the 
north bank of Tennessee River, in a bend just below Chattanooga, 
while there was a Tuskegee Creek on the south bank of Little Tennes- 
see River, north of Robbinsville, in Graham County, N. C. This 
band, or the greater part of it, was probably absorbed by the Cherokee. 
A second body of Tuskegee moved to the location mentioned above 
where the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers come together. It is possible 
that they first established themselves among the Creek towns on the 
Ocmulgee, moved with them to the Chattahoochee in 1715 and finally 
to the point just indicated, for we have at least two documentary 
notices of Tuskegee at those points and they appear so situated on a 
number of maps. It is more Ukely that these were the Tuskegee who 
finally settled at the Coosa-Tallapoosa confluence than a third division 
of the tribe but the fact is not yet established. In 1717 the French 
fort called Fort Toulouse or the Alabama Fort was built close to this 
town and therefore it continued in the French interest as long as 
French rule lasted. After the Creek removal, the Tuskegee formed 
a town in the southeastern part of the Creek territories in Oklahoma, 
but at a later date part moved farther to the northwest and estabhshed 
themselves near Beggs. 

Population. — There are no figures for the Tuskegee division which 
remained on Tennessee River. The southern band had 10 men 
according to the estimate of 1750, but this is evidently too low. 
Later enumerations are 50 men in 1760, 40 in 1761, including those of 
Coosa Old Town, 25 in 1772 and 1792, 35 in 1799. The census of 
1832-33 returned a population of 216 Indians and 25 Negro slaves. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Tuskegee 
became applied locally to several places in eastern Tennessee and 
western North Carolina, and one in Creek County, Okla., but the most 
important place to receive it was Tuskeegee or Tuskegee, the county 
seat of Macon County, Ala. The Tuskegee Normal and Industrial 
Institute for colored people, located at this place, has, under the 
guidance of the late Booker T. Washington, made the name better 
known than any other association. 

Wakokai. A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.). 



174 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Wiwohka. A division of the Muskogee made up from several different 
sources. (See Muskogee.) 

Yamasee. There was a band of Yamasee on MobUe Bay shortly after 
1715, at the mouth of Deer River, and such a band is entered on 
maps as late as 1744. It was possibly this same band which appears 
among the Upper Creeks during the same century and in particular 
is entered upon the Mitchell map of 1755. Later they seem to have 
moved across to Chattahoochee River and later to west Florida, 
where in 1823 they constituted a Seminole town. (See Florida.) 

Yuchi. A band of Yuchi seems to have lived at a very early date 
near Muscle Shoals on Tennessee River, whence they probably 
moved into east Tennessee. A second body of the same tribe 
moved from Choctawhatchee River, Fla., to the Tallapoosa before 
1760 and established themselves near the Tulcabahchee, but they 
soon disappeared from the historical record. In 1715 the Westo 
Indians, who I believe to have been Yuchi, settled on the Alabama 
side of Chattahoochee River, probably on Little Uchee Creek. The 
year afterward another band, accompanied by Shawnee and Apala- 
chicola Indians, established themselves farther down, perhaps at 
the mouth of Cowikee Creek in Barbour County, and not long 
afterward accompanied the Shawnee to Tallapoosa River. They 
settled beside the latter and some finally united with them. They 
seem to have occupied several towns in the neighborhood in succes- 
sion and there is evidence that a part of them reached the lower 
Tombigbee. The main body of Yuchi shifted from the Savannah 
to Uchee Creek in Russell County between 1729 and 1740 and 
continued there until the westward migration of the Creek Nation. 
(See Georgia.) 

MISSISSIPPI 

Acolapissa. When first known to Europeans, this tribe lived on Pearl 
River, partly in what is now Mississippi, -partly in Louisiana, but 
they were more closely associated with Louisiana in later times and 
will be treated among the tribes of that State. (See Louisiana.) 

Biloxi. Apparently a corruption of their own name Taneks a°ya, 
"first people," filtered over the tongues of other Indians. Also 
called : 

Ananis, Anaxls, Annocchy, early French spellings intended for Taneks. 
Polu'ksalgi, Creek name. 

Connections. — They belonged to the Siouan linguistic family. 
Location. — Their earUest historical location was on the lower course 
of Pascagoula River. (See also Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.) 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 175 

Villages 

None are knowii except those bearing the name of the tribe, unless we assume 
the "Moctobi" or "Capinans" to be a part of them. These, however, may have 
been merely synonyms of the tribal name. 

History. — It is possible that the Biloxi are the Capitanesses who 
appear west of Susquehanna River on early Dutch charts. On the 
De Crenay map of 1733, a Biloxi town site appears on the right bank 
of the Alabama River, a little above the present Clifton in Wilcox 
County, Ala. This was probably occupied by the Biloxi during their 
immigration from the north. Individuals belonging to the tribe were 
met by Iberville on his first expedition to Louisiana in 1699, and in 
June of the same year his brother Bienville visited them. In 1700 
Iberville found their town abandoned and does not mention encounter- 
ing the people themselves, though they may have been sharing the 
Pascagoula village at which he made a short stop. A few years later, 
P^nicaut says (1702-23), St. Denis persuaded the Biloxi to abandon 
their village and settle on a small bayou near New Orleans but by 
1722 they had returned a considerable distance toward their old home 
and were established on the former terrain of the Acolapissa Indians 
on Pearl River, They continued in this neighborhood and close to 
the Pascagoula until 1763, when French government east of the 
Mississippi came to an end. Soon afterward, although we do not 
know the exact date, they moved to Louisiana and settled not far 
from Marksville. They soon moved farther up Red River and still 
later to Bayou Boeuf, Early in the nineteenth century they sold 
their lands, and, while part of them remained on the river, a large 
body migrated to Texas and settled on Biloxi Bayou, in Angelina 
County. All of these afterward left, either to return to Louisiana or 
to settle in Oklahoma, A few Biloxi are still hving in Rapides Parish, 
La., and there are said to be some in the Choctaw Nation, but the 
tribe is now practically extinct. In 1886 the Siouan relationship of 
their language was established by Dr, Gatschet of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology, and a considerable record of it was obtained by Mr. 
James O. Dorsey of the same institution in 1892-93. (See Dorsey 
and Swanton, 1912.) 

Population. — On the basis of the imperfect records available, I have 
made the following estimates of Biloxi population at different periods: 
420 in 1698, 175 in 1720, 105 in 1805, 65 in 1829, 6-8 in 1908, Mooney 
(1928) estimated that this tribe, the Pascagoula, and the "Moctobi" 
might number 1,000 in 1650. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Biloxi are remark- 
able (1) as having spoken a Siouan dialect unlike all of their neighbors 
with one possible exception; (2) as the tribe first met by Iberville when 
he reached the coast of Louisiana and estabhshed the French colony 



176 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

of that name; (3) as having furnished the names of the first two capitals 
of Louisiana, Old and New Biloxi; that of the present Biloxi, Miss.; 
and the name of Biloxi Bay. 

Capinans. The name of a body of Indians connected in French 
references with the Biloxi and Pascagoula and probably a branch 
of one of them. 

Chakchiuma. Proper spelling Shaktci homma, meaning "Red 

Crawfish [People]." 

Connections. — They spoke a dialect closely related to Choctaw and 
Chickasaw. Their nearest relatives were the Houma (q. v.), who 
evidently separated from them in very recent times. 

Location. — In the eighteenth century on Yalobusha River where it 
empties into the Yazoo but at an early period extending to the head 
of the Yalobusha and eastward between the territories of the Choctaw 
and Chickasaw tribes as far as West Point. 

Subdivisions 

A French map dated about 1697 seems to call that section of the tribe on Yazoo 
River, Sabougla, though these may have been a branch of the Sawokli. 
(See Georgia.) 

History. — According to tradition, this tribe came from the west at 
the same time as the Chickasaw and Choctaw and settled between 
them. When De Soto was among the Chickasaw, an expedition was 
directed against the Chakchiuma "who the [Chickasaw] Cacique said 
had rebelled," but their town was abandoned and on fire. It was 
claimed that they had planned treachery against the Spaniards. The 
chief of the tribe at this time was Miko Lusa (Black Chief). After 
the French settlement of Louisiana a missionary was killed by these 
people and in revenge the French stirred up the neighboring tribes to 
attack them. They are said to have been reduced very considerably 
in consequence. Afterward, they remained closely allied with the 
French, assisted them after the Natchez outbreak, and their chief 
was appointed leader of the Indian auxiliaries in the contemplated 
attack upon the Chickasaw in 1739. The animosity thus excited 
probably resulted in their destruction by the Chickasaw and absorption 
into the Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes. From De Crenay's map it 
appears that a part had gone to live with the Chickasaw by 1733. 
The rest may have gone to the Choctaw, for a band bearing their name 
constituted an important division of that nation. Tradition states 
that they were destroyed by the united efforts of the Chickasaw and 
Choctaw, but the latter were uniformly alUed with the French and 
hostile to the Chickasaw when this alliance is supposed to have 
been in existence. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 177 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates 1,200 souls among the 
Chakchiuma, Ibitoupa, Taposa, and Tiou in 1650; exclusive of the 
Tiou, my owti would be 750. In 1699 they are said to have occupied 
70 cabins. In 1702 it is claimed that there were 400 famihes, which 
in 1704 had been reduced to 80, but probably the first figure is an 
exaggeration. About 1718-30 there were 50 Chakchiuma cabins and 
in 1722 the total population is placed at 150. 

Chickasaw. Meaning unknown, though the ending suggests that it 
might have been a place name. Also called: 

Ani'-Td'ksA, Cherokee name. 
Kasahd unii°, Yuchi name. 
Tchaktch^n, Arapaho name. 
Tchfkasa, Creek name. 
Tci'-ka-sa', Kansa name. 
Ti-ka'-jS,, Quapaw name. 
Tsi'-ka-c^, Osage name. 

Connections. — Linguistically the Chickasaw were closely connected 
with the Choctaw and one of the principal tribes of the Muskhogean 
group. 

Location. — In northern Mississippi, principally in Pontotoc and 
Union Counties. (See South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, 
Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Tennessee.) 

Subdivisions 

Aside from some incorporated tribes such as the Napochi and Chakchiuma, no 
major subdivisions other than towns are mentioned until late in Chickasaw 
history when we hear of three such subdivisions: those of Tishomingo, Sealy, and 
McGilvery, named after their chiefs. These, however, were probably superficial 
and temporary. 

Villages 

Ackia. 

Alaoute, mentioned only by Iberville. 

Amalahta. 

.\peonn6. 

Apile faplimengo (Iberville). 

Ashukhuma. 

Ayebisto (Iberville). 

Chatelaw. 

Chinica (Iberville). 

Chucalissa. 

Chukafalaa. 

Coiii loussa, (French Memoir of 1755). 

Latcha Hoa, on Latcha Hoa Run, an affluent of Ahoola Ihalchubba, a western 

tributary of Tombigbee River, northeastern Mississippi. 
Etoukouma (De Batz). 
Falatchao. 
Gouytola (Iberville). 



178 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Ogoula-Tchetoka (Dc Batz). 

Onthaba atchosa (Iberville). 

Ooe-asa, in Creek Nation near Sylacauga. 

Oucahata (Iberville). 

Oucthambolo (Iberville). 

Outanquatle (French Memoir of 1755). 

Tanvachilca (Iberville). 

Thanbolo (Iberville). 

Tuckahaw. 

Tuskawillao. 

Yaneka. 

All of the above, with one or two exceptions noted, were close to one another 
in the general location given above. 

History. — Like most of the other Muskhogean peoples, the Chicka- 
saw believed they had come from the west. They thought that they 
had settled for a time at a spot in northern Alabama on the north 
side of the Tennessee River long known as Chickasaw Old Fields. 
There is little doubt that Chickasaw had once hved at that place 
w^hether or not the whole tribe was so located. The first Europeans 
to become acquainted with the tribe were the Spaniards under De Soto, 
who spent the months of January, February, and March 1541, in 
the Chickasaw country, and in the latter month were attacked by the 
tribe with such fury that they were nearly destroyed. Little is heard 
of the Chickasaw from this time until French explorers and colonists 
arrived, at the end of the seventeenth century. They found the tribe 
in approximately the position in which De Soto had encountered 
them, and they found them as warhke as before. Although the French 
tried to make peace with them, English traders had effected estabUsh- 
ments in their country even before the settlement of Louisiana, and 
they remained consistent alhes of England while England and France 
were fighting for the possession of North America. In the south their 
alliance meant much the same to the English as L*oquois friendship 
meant to them in the north. As practically all of the sm-rounding 
peoples were devoted to the French, and the Chickasaw were not 
numerous, they were obliged to maintain a very unequal struggle 
until the final victory of England in 1763, and they suffered severely 
in consequence. They supported the Natchez when they revolted 
in 1729, and when French expeditions from the north and south were 
hurled upon them simultaneously in 1736, they beat both off with 
heavy losses. In 1740 a gigantic attempt was made to conquer them, 
but the greater part of the force assembled dissolved without accom- 
plishing anything. A small French expedition under Celoron suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a treaty of peace advantageous to the French 
but this soon became a dead letter, and French coromunications up 
and down the Mississippi River were constantly threatened and 
French voyageurs constantly attacked in the period following. In 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 179 

1752 and 1753 the French commanders Benoist and Reggio were 
defeated by the Chickasaw. At an earUer period, shortly before 
1715, they and the Cherokee together drove the Shawnee from their 
settlements on the Cumberland, and in 1745 they expelled another 
Shawnee band from the same region. In 1769 they utterly routed 
the Cherokee on the site of the Chickasaw Old Fields. In 1793-95 
war broke out with the Creeks, who invaded their territories with 
1,000 men, but while they were attacking a small stockade, a band 
of about 200 Chickasaw fell upon them, whereupon an unaccountable 
terror took possession of the invaders, and they fled precipitately. 
There was at one time a detached body of Chickasaw on the lower 
Tennessee not far from its mouth. They also had a town among the 
Upper Creeks for a brief period (Ooe-asa), and a settlement near 
Augusta, Ga., from about 1723 to the opening of the American 
Revolution. The Chickasaw maintained friendship with the Ameri- 
can Government after its establishment, but, being pressed upon by 
white settlers, parted with their lands by treaties made in 1805, 1816, 
1818, and 1832. The actual migration to new homes in what is now 
Oklahoma began in 1837 and extended to 1847. The Chickasaw and 
Choctaw mingled rather indiscriminately at first but their lands were 
separated in 1855 and the Chickasaw set up an independent govern- 
ment modeled on that of the United States which lasted until merged 
in the new State of Oklahoma. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were about 8,000 
in 1600. In 1702 Iberville estimated that there were 2,000 families 
of Chickasaw, but in 1715 a rather careful enumeration made by 
the colony of South Carolina, gave 6 villages, 700 men, and a popula- 
tion of 1,900. In 1761, a North Carolina estimate gives about 400 
men; in 1766, about 350. Most of the subsequent estimates of the 
number of warriors made during the eighteenth century vary between 
250 and 800. In 1817 Morse (1822) places the total population at 
3,625; in 1829 General Peter B. Porter estimates 3,600 {in School- 
craft, 1851-57, vol. 3); and a more accurate report in Schoolcraft 
gives 4,715 in 1833. The figures of the United States Indian OflBce 
between 1836 and the present time vary from 4,500 for 1865 to 1870 
to nearly 11,000 in 1923, but this latter figure includes more than 5,000 
freedmen and persons intermarried in the tribe, and, when we allow 
for mixed bloods, we shall find that the Chickasaw population proper 
has usually stood at between 4,500 and 5,500 during the entire period. 
There has probably been a slow decline in the absolute amount of 
Chickasaw blood owing to constant intermixture with other peoples. 
The 1910 census returned 4,204 Chickasaw and that of 1930, 4,745. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Chickasaw were 
noted (1) as one of the most warlike tribes of the Gulf area, (2) as 



180 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

the tribe of all those encountered by the Spaniards who came nearest 
putting an end to De Soto's army, (3) as the constant allies of the 
English without whom the control of the Gulf region by the latter 
would many times have been jeopardized. There are post villages 
of the name in Mobile County, Ala., and Mercer County, Ohio, 
and Chickasha, a variant form, is the name of the county seat of 
Grady County, Okla. 

Choctaw. Meaning unknown, though Halbert (1901) has suggested 
that they received their name from Pearl River, "Hachha". Also 
called: 

Ani'-Tsa'ta, Cherokee name. 

Flat Heads, from their custom of flattening the heads of infants. 

Henne'sb, Arapaho name. 

Nabuggindebaig, probably the Chippewa name for this tribe, signifying 

"flat heads." 
Pa°s falaya, "Long Hairs," given by Adair. 

Sanakfwa, Cheyenne name, meaning "feathers sticking up above the ears." 
Ta-qta, Quapaw name. 

Tca-qtd, a°-ya-df, or Tca-qta ha''-ya, Biloxi name. 
Tca-td, Kansa name. 

T^tes Plates, French equivalent of "Flat Heads." 
Tsah-t<i, Creek name. 

Connections. — This was the largest tribe belonging to the southern 
Muskhogean branch. Linguistically, but not physically, it was most 
closely allied with the Chickasaw and after them with the Alabama. 

Location. — Nearly all of the Choctaw towns were in the southeastern 
part of Mississippi though they controlled the adjoining territory 
in the present State of Alabama. The small tribes of Mobile were 
sometimes called Choctaw. (See also Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, 
Alabama, and Arkansas.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

From the earliest times of which we have any knowledge the Choctaw villages 
were distributed into three divisions: a southern, a northeastern, and a western, 
though a central group may also be distinguished. The southern division is 
fairly well defined by our several informants, but there is considerable disagree- 
ment with reference to the others. One authority gives but two divisions, an 
eastern and a western, and even cuts up the southern group between them. 
The following locations were established largely by Mr. H. S. Halbert (1901): 
Southern or Sixtown Division: 

Bishkun, in the northern part of Jasper County. 

Bissasha, on the west side of Little Rock Creek, in Newton County, sect. 23, 
tp. 8, range 12, east. 

Boktoloksi, on Boguetuluksi Creek, a southwest affluent of Chickasawhay 
River. 

Chickasawhay, on Chickasawhay River about 3 miles south of Enterprise, 
Clarke County. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 181 

Chinakbi, on the site of Garlandville, in Jasper County. 

Chiskilikbacha, probably in Jasper County. 

Coatraw, 4 miles southwest of the town of Newton in sect. 17, tp. 5, range 11, 

east, Newton County. 
Inkillis tamaha, in the northeastern part of Jasper County. 
Nashobawenya, in the southwestern part of Jasper County. 
Okatalaia, in the eastern part of Smith County or the western part of Jasper 

County. 
Oktak chito tamaha, location unknown. 
Oskelagna, probably in Jasper County. 
Puskustakali, in the southwest corner of Kemp>er County or the proximate 

part of Neshoba County. 
Siniasha, location uncertain. 
Tala, in the southern part of Newton County, between Tarlow and Bogue 

Felamma Creeks. 
Talahoka, in Jasper County. 
Yowani, on the east side of Chickasawhay River, in the southern part of Clarke 

County. 
Western Division: 

Abissa, location uncertain. 

Atlantchitou, location unknown. 

Ayoutakale, location unknown. 

Bok chito, probably on Bogue Chitto, in Neshoba and Kemper Counties. 

Bokfalaia, location uncertain. 

Bokfoka, location unknown. 

Boktokolo, location unknown. 

Cabea Hoola, location unknown. 

Chunky, on the site of Union, Newton County. 

Chunky chito, on the west bank of Chunky Creek, about half a mile below the 

confluence of that creek with Talasha Creek — later this belonged to the 

southern district. 
East Kunshak chito, near Moscow, in Kemper County. 
Filitamon, location unknown. 

Halunlawi asha, on the site of Philadelphia, in Neshoba County. 
Hashuk chuka, location unknown. 
Hashuk homa, location unknown. 

Imoklasha, on the headwaters of Talasha Creek, in Neshoba County, in sec- 
tions 4, 9, and 16, tp. 9, range 13, east, 
lyanabi, on Yannubbee Creek, about 8 miles southwest of De Kalb, in Kemper 

County. 
Itichipota, between the headwaters of Chickasawhay and Tombigbee Rivers. 
Kafitalaia, on Owl Creek, in section 21, tp. 11, range 13, east, in Neshoba 

County. 
Kashtasha, on the south side of Custusha Creek, about 3 miles a little south of 

West Yazoo Town. 
Konshak osapa, somewhere west of West Imoklasha. 
Koweh chito, northwest of De Kalb, in Kemper County. 

Kushak, on Lost Horse Creek, 4 miles southeast of Lazelia, liauderdale County. 
Kunshak bolukta, in the southwestern part of Kemper County some 2 miles 

from Neshoba County line and 1% miles from the Lauderdale County line. 
Kunshak chito, on or near the upper course of Oktibbeha River. 
Lushapa, perhaps on Lussalaka Creek, a tributary of Kentarcky Creek, in 

Neshoba County. 



182 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bcll. 145 

Oka Chippo, location unknown. 

Oka Coopoly, on Ocobly Creek, in Neshoba County. 

Oka hullo, probably on or near the mouth of Sanoote Creek, which empties 

into Petickfa Creek in Kemper County. 
Oka Kapassa, about Pinckney Mill, in sect. 23, tp. 8, range 11, east, in Newton 

County — possibly in the southern section. 
Okalusa, in Romans' time on White's Branch, Kemper County. 
Okapoola, location unknown. 
Okehanea tamaha, location unknown. 
Oklabalbaha, location unknown. 
Oklatanap, location unknown. 
Oony, south of Pinckney Mill, in Newton County — possibly in the southern 

division. 
Osak talaia, near the line between Neshoba and Kemper Counties. 
Osapa chito, on the site of Dixon Post OfRce, in Neshoba County. 
Otuk falaia, location unknown. 

Pante, at the head of Ponta Creek, in Lauderdale County. 
Shinuk Kaha, about 7 miles a little north or east of Philadelphia, in Neshoba 

County. 
Shumotakali, in Kemper County, between the two head prongs of Black Water 

Creek. 
Tiwaele, location unknown. 
Tonicahaw, location unknown. 
Utapacha, location unknown. 
Watonlula, location uncertain. 
West Abeka, location unknown. 
West Kunshak chito, in Neshoba Covmty, near the headwaters of Oktibbeha 

Creek. 
Wiatakali, about 1 mile south of the De Kalb and Jackson road, in Neshoba 

County. 
Yazoo, or West Yazoo, in Neshoba County, near the headwaters of Oktibbeha 

Creek, in sections 13 and 24, tp. 10, range 13, east. 
Northeastern Divison: 

Alamucha, 10 miles from Sukenatcha Creek, in Kemper Coimty. 

Athlepele, location unknown. 

Boktokolo chito, at the confluence of Running Tiger and Sukenatcha Creeks, 

about 4 miles northwest of De Kalb. 
Chichatalys, location unknown. 
Chuka hullo, on the north side of Sukenatcha Creek, somewhere between the 

mouths of Running Tiger and Straight Creeks, in Kemper County. 
Chuka lusa, location unknown. 
Cutha Aimethaw, location unknown. 

Cuthi Uckehaca, probably on or near the mouth of Parker's Creek, which emp- 
ties into Petickfa, in sect. 30, tp. 10, range 17, east. 
East Abeka, at the junction of Straight Creek with the Sukenatcha, in Kemper 

Count}'. 
Escooba, perhaps on or near Petickfa Creek, in Kemper County. 
Hankha Ula, on a fiat-topped ridge between the Petickfa and Black Water 

Creeks, in Kemper County. 
Holihta asha, on the site of De Kalb, in Kemper County. 
Ibetap okla chito, perhaps on Straight Creek, in Kemper County. 
Ibetap okla iskitini, at the head of the main prong of Yazoo Creek, in Kemper 

County. 



SWAHTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 183 

Imoklasha iskitiui, on Flat Creek, the eastern prong of Yazoo Creek, in Kemper 

County. 
Itokchako, near East Abeka, in Kemper County. 
Kunshaktikpi, on Coonshark Creek, a tributary of Kentarky Creek, in Neshoba 

County. 
Lukfata, on the headwaters of one of the prongs of Sukenatcha River. 
Oka Altakala, probably at the confluence of Petickfa and Yannubbee Creeks, 

in Kemper County. 
Osapa issa, on the north side of Blackwater Creek, in Kemper County. 
Pachanucha, location unknown. 

Skanapa, probably on Running Tiger Creek, in Kemper County. 
Yagna Shoogawa, perhaps on Indiao. branch of Running Tiger Creek. 
Yanatoe, probably in southwest Kemper County. 
Yazoo iskitini, on both sides of Yazoo Creek. 
The following were outside the original town cluster: 

Bayou Chicot, south of Cheneyville, St. Landry Parish, La. 

Boutt^ Station, in St. Charles Parish, La. 

Cahawba Old Towns, in Perry County, Ala., and probably on Cahawba River, 

Cheponta's Village, on the west bank of the'Tombigbee River in the extreme 

southeastern part of Choctaw County, Ala. 
Chisha Foka, on the site of Jackson. 

Coila, in Carroll County, probably occupied by Choctaw. 
Heitotowa, at the site of the later Sculleyville, Choctaw Nation, Okla. 
Shukhata, on the site of Columbus, Ala. 
Teeakhaily Ekutapa, on the lowQr Tombigbee River. 
Tombigbee, on or near Tombigbee River. 

A few other names of towns placed in the old Choctaw country appear on various 
maps, but most of these are probably intended for some of the villages given 
above. 

History. — After leaving the ruins of Mabila, De Soto and his fol- 
lowers, according to the Gentleman of Elvas (see Robertson, 1933), 
reached a province called PafaUaya, but, according to Ranjel, to a 
chief river called Apafalaya. Halbert is undoubtedly right in be- 
lieving that in these words we have the old name of the Choctaw, 
Pa°sfalaya, "Long Hairs," and this is the first appearance of the 
Choctaw tribe in history. We hear of them again, in Spanish Florida 
documents of the latter part of the seventeenth century, and from 
this time on they occupied the geographical position always asso- 
ciated with them until their removal beyond the Mississippi. The 
French of necessity had intimate dealings with them from the time 
when Louisiana was first colonized, and the relations between the 
two peoples were almost invariably friendly. At one time an English 
party was formed among the Choctaw, partly because the prices 
charged by the Carolina traders were lower than those placed upon 
French goods. This was led by a noted chief named Red Shoes and 
lasted for a considerable time, one of the principal Choctaw towns 
being burned before it came to an end with the defeat of the British 
party in 1750. In 1763, after French Government had given way to 



184 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

that of the English east of the Mississippi, relations between the 
latter and the Choctaw were peaceful though many small bands of 
Indians of this tribe crossed the Mississippi into Louisiana. The 
American Revolution did not alter conditions essentially, and, though 
Tecumseh and his emissaries endeavored to enlist the Choctaw in 
his favor, only about 30 individuals joined the hostile Creeks. The 
abstinence of the tribe as a whole was due very largely to the personal 
influence of the native statesman, Pushmataha, whose remains He in 
the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, surmounted by an im- 
pressive monument. Meanwhile bands of Choctaw continued moving 
across the Mississippi, but the great migration occurred after the 
Treaty of Dancing Rabbit, September 30, 1830, by which the tribe 
ceded their old lands. However, a considerable body of Choctaw did 
not leave at this time. Many followed, it is true, at the time of the 
allotment in Oklahoma, but upward of a thousand still remain, prin- 
cipally in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, Miss. The western 
Choctaw established a government on the model of those of the other 
civihzed tribes and that of the United States, and it was not given up 
until merged in the State of Oklahoma early in the present century. 

Population. — Estimates of the number of Choctaw warriors between 
1702 and 1814 vary between 700 and 16,000. A North Carolina 
estimate made in 1761 says they numbered at least 5,000 men. 
Conmion estimates are between 4,000 and 5,000, but even these 
figures may be a trifle low since the first rehable census, that of Arm- 
strong, in 1831, gave 19,554. However, there may have been a shght 
increase in population after the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
when an end was put to intertribal wars. Figures returned by the 
Indian Office since that time show a rather unusual constancy. They 
go as low as 12,500, and at the other extreme reach 22,707, but the 
average is from 18,000 to 20,000. The census of 1910 gave 15,917, 
including 1,162 in Mississippi, 14,551 in Oklahoma, 115 in Louisiana, 
57 in Alabama, and 32 in other States, but the United States Indian 
Office Report for 1923 has 17,488 Choctaw by blood in Oklahoma, 
1,600 "Mississippi Choctaw" in Oklahoma, and 1,439 in the State of 
Mississippi, not counting about 200 in Louisiana, Alabama, and 
elsewhere. A few small tribes were gathered into this nation, but 
only a few. The census of 1930 returned 17,757, of whom 16,641 were 
in Oklahoma, 624 in Mississippi, 190 in Louisiana, and the rest in 
more than 14 other States. In 1937 the Mississippi Choctaw num- 
bered 1,908, from which it seems that many of the Mississippi Choc- 
taw were missed in 1930 unless the "Mississippi Choctaw" ah'eady in 
Oklahoma are included. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Choctaw were 
noted (1) as the most numerous tribe in the Southeast next to the 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 185 

Cherokee, (2) as depending more than most other tribes in the region 
on agriculture, (3) for certain peculiar customs such as head deforma- 
tion, extensive use of ossuaries for the dead, and the male custom of 
wearing the hair long, (4) as faithful allies of the French against the 
English but always at peace with the United States Government, 
(5) as having furnished the names to counties in Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, and Oklahoma, and settlements in the same States, and in Van 
Buren County, Ark. 

Choola. Bernard de La Harpe gives this as the name of a small 
tribe of 40 individuals on the Yazoo River. There is some reason 
to think it was applied to a part of the Ibitoupa tribe (q. v.). 
The name means "fox" in Chickasaw and Choctaw. 

Grigra. Said to have been given them from the frequent occurrence 
of these two syllables in their speech. They sometimes appear as 
the "Gray Village" of the Natchez. 

Convections. — The fact that the language of this tribe contained an 
r suggests a probable relationship with the tribes of the Tunican 
group. 

Location. — When first known to us, it formed one of the Natchez 
villages on St, Catherines Creek, Miss. 

Villages 

Only one village is mentioned called by a shorter form of the name given to the 
tribe, Gris or Gras. 

History. — The Grigra had been adopted by the Natchez at an earher 
period than the Tiou (q. v.) and, Uke them, may once have resided on 
Yazoo River, but there is no absolute proof of this. They are men- 
tioned as one of three Natchez tribes belonging to the anti-French 
faction. Otherwise their history is identical with that of the Natchez. 

Population. — One estimate made about 1720-25 gives about 60 
warriors. 

Houma. Literally "red," but evidently an abbreviation of saktci 

homma, "red crawfish." 

Connections. — They spoke a Muskhogean language very close to 
Choctaw, and it is practically certain from the fact that their emblem 
was the red crawfish that they had separated from the Chakchiuma 
(q. v.). 

Location. — The earliest known location of the Houma was on the 
east side of the Mississippi River some miles inland and close to the 
Mississippi-Louisiana boundary line, perhaps near the present Pinck- 
ney, Miss. (See also Louisiana.) 



186 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Villages 

At one time the people of this tribe were distributed between a Little Houma 
village 2 leagues below the bead of Bayou La Fourche and a Great Houma 
village half a league inland from it. This was after thej- had moved from their 
earlier home. 

History. — La Salle heard of the Houma in 1682, but he did not visit 
them. Tonti made an alliance with them 4 years later, and in 1699 
their village was the highest on the Mississippi reached by Iberville be- 
fore returning to his ships. In 1700 Iberville visited them again and 
left a missionary among them to build a church, which was an accom- 
plished fact when Gravier reached the tribe in November of the same 
year. A few years later the Tunica, who had been impelled to leave 
their old town, were hospitably received by this tribe, but in 1706 they 
rose upon their hosts, destroyed part of them, and drove the rest down 
the Mississippi. These reestablished themselves on Bayou St. John 
near New Orleans, but not long afterward they reascended the river to 
the present Ascension Parish and remained there for a considerable 
period. In 1776 they sold a part at least of their lands to two French 
Creoles but seem to have remained in the neighborhood until some years 
after the purchase of Louisiana by the United States. By 1805 some 
had gone to hve with the Atakapa near Lake Charles. Alost of the 
remainder appear to have drifted slowly across to the coast districts 
of Terrebonne and La Fourche Parishes, where their descendants, 
with Creole and some Negro admixture, still live. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates a Houma population in 1650 
of 1,000. In 1699 Iberville gives 140 cabins and about 350 warriors, 
while the Journal of the second vessel in this expedition gives a popu- 
lation of 600-700. In 1718, after the tribe had suffered from both 
pestilence and massacre. La Harpe estimates 60 cabins and 200 war- 
riors. In 1739 a French officer who passed their town rates the 
number of their warriors at 90-100 and the whole population at 270- 
300. In 1758 there is an estimate of 60 warriors and in 1784 one of 25 
while, in 1803, the total Houma population is placed at 60. In 1907 
the native estimate of mixed-blood population calling itself Houma 
was 800-900, but the census of 1910 returned only 125 Indians from 
Terrebonne. To these there should probably be added some from 
La Fourche but not a number sufficient to account for the discrepancy. 
In 1920, 639 were returned and in 1930, 936 from Terrebonne besides 
1 1 from La Fourche. Speck estimates double the number. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Houma, the capital of 
Terrebonne Parish, preserves the name. 

Ibitoupa. Meaning probably, people "at the source of" a stream 
or river. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 187 

Connections. — No words of this language are known unless the tribal 
name itself is native, but from this and Le Page du Pratz's (1758) 
statement that their language, unlike that of the Tunica group, was 
without an r, there is every reason to class it as Muskhogean and closely 
related to Chackchiuma, Chickasaw, and Choctaw. 

Location. — On Yazoo River in the present Holmes County, perhaps 
between Abj^atche and Chicopa Creeks. 

Villages 

Only one village is known, and that called by the tribal name, though it is 
possible that the Choula, (q. v.) mentioned by La Harpe were an offshoot. 

History.— The Ibitoupa are mentioned in 1699 by Iberville, and in 
Coxe's Carolana (1705). Before 1722 they had moved higher up and 
were 3 leagues above the Chakchiuma (q. v.), who were then probably 
at the mouth of the Yalobusha. They probably united with the 
Chickasaw soon after the Natchez War, though they may first have 
combined with the Chakchiuma and Taposa. They were perhaps re- 
lated to the people of the Choctaw towns called Ibetap okla. 

Population. — All that we know of the population of the Ibitoupa is 
that in 1722 it occupied 6 cabins; in the same year there are said to 
have been 40 Choula, a possible offshoot. 

Connection in which their name has become noted. — It seems to have 
been the original of the name of Tippo Bayou, Miss. 

Koasati. A band of Koasati moved from Alabama to Tombigbee 
River in 1763 but returned to their old country a few years later 
impelled by the hostilities of their new neighbors. (See Alabama.) 

Koroa. Meaning unknowTi. Also called: 

Kiilua, Choctaw name, the Muskhogean people being unable to pronounce 
r readily. 

Connections. — The name and associations, together with Le Page 
du Pratz's (1758) statement that their language possessed an r sound, 
are practically conclusive proof that this tribe belonged to the Tunican 
linguistic group. 

Location. — The Koroa appear oftenest in association with the Yazoo 
on the lower course of Yazoo River, but at the very earliest period 
they were on the banks of the Mississippi or in the interior of what is 
now Louisiana on the other side of that river. (See also Louisiana.) 

Villages 

None are known under any other name. 

History. — In the De Soto narratives a people is mentioned called 
Coligua and Colima which may be the one under discussion. If not, 
the first appearance of the Koroa in history is on Marquette's map 



188 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

applying to 1673, though they are there misplaced. The La Salle 
narratives introduce us, apparently, to two tribes of the name, one on 
Yazoo River, the other below Natchez, but there are reasons for 
thinking that the latter was the tribe elsewhere called Tiou. In 
Tonti's account of his expedition overland to the Red River in 1690 
we learn of a Koroa town west of the Mississippi, and also of a Koroa 
River. In 1700 Bienville also learned of a trans-Mississippi Koroa 
settlement. From the time of Tonti's expedition to the mouth of 
the Mississippi in 1686 there seems to have been a Koroa town on or 
near the lower Yazoo, as mentioned above. When the Natchez out- 
break occurred, this tribe and the Yazoo joined them and destroyed 
the French post on Yazoo River, but they suffered severely from 
Indians allied with the French and probably retired soon afterward 
to the Chickasaw, though part, and perhaps all of them, ultimately 
settled among the Choctaw. The Choctaw chief Allen Wright 
claimed to be of Koroa descent. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 2,000 
Koroa, Yazoo, Tunica, and Ofo in 1650. Le Page du Pratz places 
the number of Koroa cabins in his time at 40. In 1722 the total 
population of the Koroa, Yazoo, and Ofo is given as 250, and in 1730 
the last estimate of the Koroa and Yazoo together gives 40 warriors, 
or perhaps 100 souls. 

Moctobi. This name appears in the narratives of the first settlement 
of Louisiana, in 1699, applied to a tribe living with or near the Biloxi 
and Pascagoula. It is perhaps the name of the latter in the Biloxi 
language, or a subdivision of the Biloxi themselves, and is best 
treated in connection with the latter. 

Natchez. Meaning unknown (the z should not be pronounced). 
Also called: 

Ani'-Na'tsT, Cherokee name. 

Sunset Indians, given by Swan {in Schoolcraft (1851-57)). 
Theloel or Thecoel, name used by the Natchez but seemingly derived from 
that of a town. 

Connections. — The Natchez were the largest of three tribes speaking 
closely related dialects, the other two being Taensa and Avoyel, and 
this group was remotely related to the great Muskhogean family. 

Location. — The historic seat of the Natchez Indians was along St. 
Catherines Creek, and a little east of the present city of Natchez. 
(See also Alabama, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oldahoma, South 
Carolina, and Tennessee.) 

Villages 

Iberville gives the following list of Natchez villages: "Natch6s, Pochougoula, 
Ousagoucoulas, Cogoucoulas, Yatanocas, Ymacachas, Thoucoue, Tougoulas, and 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 189 

Achougoulas." This list was obtained through the medium of the Mobilian trade 
language and part of the names are undoubtedly translated into it. Thus we 
find the Mobilian and Choctaw word for people, okla, "ougoula," or "oucoula," in 
five of these. The term Tougoulas probably designates the town of the Tiou (q. v.), 
an adopted tribe, and one of the others is perhaps a designation for the adopted 
tribe of Grigra (q. v.). Later writers usually speak of but five settlements, 
including that of the Grigra. One of these, the town of the "walnuts," is evi- 
dently the Ousagoucoulas of Iberville's informants, meaning, in reality, the town 
of the Hickories. The Great Village was probably the town called Nachds or 
Natchez, and Pochougoula, the Flour Village, but the others mentioned, Jen- 
zenaque or Jensenac and the White Apple or Apple Village cannot be identified. 
A White-earth village is mentioned by one writer, probably intended for the 
White Apple village. The Natchez among the Cherokee lived for a time at a 
town called Guhlaniyi. 

History. — Undoubtedly tribes of the Natchez group were encoun- 
tered by De Soto and his companions in 1541-43, and it is highly 
probable that the chief Quigaltanqui, who figures so prominently in 
the pursuit of the Spaniards when they took to the Mississippi, was 
leader of the tribe in question or of one of its divisions. The name 
Natchez appears first, however, in the narratives of La Salle's descent 
of the Mississippi in 1682. Relations between the French and Natchez 
were at first hostile, but peace was soon made and in 1699 a mis- 
sionary visited the latter with a view to permanent residence. The 
next year Iberville, who had stopped short of the Natchez in his earlier 
ascent of the Mississippi, opened negotiations with the Natchez chief. 
A missionary was left among them at this time and the mission was 
maintained until 1706. In 1713 a trading post was established. 
The next year four Canadians, on their way north, were killed by 
some Natchez Indians and this resulted in a war which Bienville 
promptly ended. Inmiediately afterward a stockaded fort was built 
on a lofty bluff by the Mississippi and named Fort Rosalie. Several 
concessions were granted in the neighborhood and settlers flowed in 
until this was one of the most flourishing parts of the new colony. 
Between 1722 and 1724 there were shght disturbances in the good 
relations which had prevailed between the settlers and Indians, but 
they were soon smoothed over and harmony prevailed until a new 
commandant named Ch^part, who seems to have been utterly unfit 
for his position, was sent to take command of Fort Rosahe. In 
consequence of his mismanagement a conspiracy was formed against 
the French and on November 28, 1729, the Indians rose and destroyed 
both post and settlement, about 200 Whites being slain. Next year 
the French and their Choctaw allies attacked the forts into which 
the Natchez had retired and hberated most of their captives but ac- 
complished httle else, and one night their enemies escaped across the 
Mississippi, where they established themselves in other forts in the 
marshy regions of northeastern Louisiana. There they were again 



190 BUREAIf OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

attacked and about 400 were induced to surrender, but the greater 
part escaped during a stormy night and withdrew to the Chickasaw, 
who had been secretly aiding them. Later they divided into two 
bands, one of which settled among the Upper Creeks while the other 
went to live with the Cherokee. Afterward each followed the fate of 
their hosts and moved west of the Mississippi with them. Those who 
had hved with the Creeks Established themselves not far from Eufaula, 
Okla., where the last who was able to speak the old tongue died about 
1890. The Cherokee Natchez preserved their language longer, and 
a few are able to converse in it at the present day (1925). 

Population. — Mooney's (1928) estimate of Natchez population in 
1650 is 4,500; my own, as of- 1698, 3,500. In 1731, after the losses 
suffered by them during their war with the French, Perrier estimated 
that they had 300 warriors. In 1735, 180 warriors were reported 
among the Chickasaw alone. During the latter half of the eighteenth 
century estimates of the warriors in the Creek band of Natchez vary 
from 20 to 150, and in 1836 Gallatin conjectures that its numbers 
over aU were 300, which is probably above the fact. There are no 
figures whatever for the Cherokee band of Natchez. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Natchez have 
become famous in a number of ways: (1) because they were the largest 
and strongest tribe on the lower Mississippi when Louisiana was 
settled by the French, (2) on account of their monarchical government 
and the peculiar- institution of the Sun caste, (3) on account of the 
custom of destroying relatives and companions of a dead member of 
the Sun caste to accompany him or her into the world of spirits, (4) for 
the massacre of the French post at Natchez and the bitter war which 
succeeded it, (5) from the name of the city of Natchez, Miss., adopted 
from them. The name is also borne by post villages in Monroe 
County, Ala.; and Natchitoches Parish, La.; and a post hamlet in 
Martin County, Ind. 

Ofo, or Ofogoula, see Mosopelea under Ohio. 

Okelousa. A tribe living at one time in northern Mississippi. (See 
Louisiana.) 

Pascagoula. "Bread people." Also called: 

Miskigiila, Biloxi name. 

Connections. — They were probably Muskhogeans although closely 
associated with the Siouan Biloxi. 

Location. — Their earhest known location was on the river which 
stiU bears their name, about 16 French leagues from its mouth. 
(See also Louisiana and Texas.) 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 191 

Villages 
Unknown, but see Biloxi. 

History. — Iberville heard of the Pascagoula in 1699 when he made 
the first permanent settlement in Louisiana. That summer his brother 
Bienville visited them, and the following winter another brother, 
Sauvolle, who had been left in charge of the post, received several 
Pascagoula visitors. Some Frenchmen visited the Pascagoula town 
the next spring and P^nicaut (in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 5) has left 
an interesting account of them. In Le Page du Pratz's time (early 
eighteenth century) they were on the coast, but they did not move 
far from this region as long as France retained possession of the 
country. When French rule ended the Pascagoula passed over to 
Louisiana and settled first on the Mississippi River and later on Red 
River at its junction with the Rigolet du Bon Dicu. In 1795 they 
moved to Bayou Boeuf and established themselves between a band 
of Choctaw and the Biloxi. Early in the nineteenth century all 
three tribes sold these lands. A part of the Pascagoula remained in 
Louisiana for a considerable period, Morse mentioning two distinct 
bands, but a third group accompanied some Biloxi to Texas and hved 
for a time on what came to be called Biloxi Bayou, 15 miles above its 
junction with the Neches. I have been able to find no Indians in 
Louisiana claiming Pascagoula descent, but in 1914 there were two 
among the Alabama who stated that their mother was of this tribe, 
their father having been a Biloxi. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were 1,000 
all told of the Biloxi, Pascagoula, and Moctobi. My own estimate 
for about the year 1698 is 875 of whom I should allow 455 to the 
Pascagoula. In 1700 Iberville states that there were 20 families, 
which would mean that they occupied the same number of cabins, 
but Le Page du Pratz raises this to 30. In 1758 the Pascagoula, 
Biloxi, and Chatot are estimated to have had about 100 warriors. 
In 1805 Sibley (1832) gives 25 among the Pascagoula alone. Morse 
(1822) estimates a total Pascagoula population of 240, and Schoolcraft 
(1851-57) cites authority for 111 Pascagoula in 1829. This is the 
last statement we have bearing upon the point. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Pascagoula tribe 
is of some note as a constant companion of the Siouan Biloxi, and 
from the fact that it has bequeathed its name to Pascagoula River, 
Pascagoula Bay, and Pascagoula Port, Miss. 

Pensacola. This tribe moved inland from Pensacola Bay near the 
end of the seventeenth century and in 1725-26 had established 
themselves near the Biloxi on Pearl River, (See Florida.) 



192 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Quapaw. When the French discovered this tribe in 1673 one town 
was on the east side of the Mississippi, but before 1700 it moved to 
the western bank. (See Arkansas.) 

Taposa. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — As this tribe is said to have been alhed with the 
Chickasaw and, unlike the Tunica and Tiou, did not have an r sound 
in their language, there is every reason to suppose that they belonged 
to the Muskhogean stock. Probably they were most closely affiUated 
with their neighbors, the Chakchiuma and Chickasaw. 

Location. — Their earliest known location was on Yazoo River a 
few miles above the Chakchiuma. 

History. — The Taposa are first mentioned by Iberville and the 
missionary De Montigny, in 1699. On the De Crenay map of 1733 
(1910) their village is placed very close to that of the Chakchiuma, 
whose fortunes they probably followed. 

Population. — The only hint as to the size of this tribe is given by 
Le Page du Pratz who says that the Taposa had about 25 cabins, 
half the number he assigns to the Chakchiuma. Other writers usually 
include them with the Chakchiuma (q. v.). 

Tiou. Meaning unknown. The name has occasionally been mis- 
printed "Sioux," thus causing confusion with the famous Sioux 
or Dakota of Minnesota and the Dakotas. 

Connections. — The Tiou are proved by a statement of Diron 
d'Artaguiette (1916) to have belonged to the Tunica linguistic group 
of the Tunican family. 

Location. — Their earliest location was near the upper course of 
Yazoo River; later they lived a little south of the Natchez and then 
among them. 

History. — Shortly before 1697 the Tiou appear to have been in the 
locality first mentioned, and a map of that date seems to give two 
towns of Tiou, one above the Tunica and one below them. By 1699 
part had settled among the Natchez, having been driven from their 
former homes, according to Le Page du Pratz (1758), by the Chicka- 
saw. Before establishing themselves finally with the Natchez, they 
seem to have lived for a time a short distance below them on the 
Mississippi River, where La Salle and his companions speak of them as 
Koroa. Part of the tribe appears to have remained on the Yazoo for 
some years after the rest had left. At a later period the Bayogoula 
called in Tiou and Acolapissa to take the places of the Mugulasha with 
whom they had formerly lived and whom they had destroyed. Soon 
after Fort Rosalie had been built, the Tiou sold the lands upon which 
they had settled to the Sieur Roussin and moved elsewhere. After 
the Natchez massacre the hostile Indians sent them to the Tunica in a 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 193 

vain endeavor to induce the latter to declare against the French. In 
1731, if we may trust a statement by Charlevoix, they were utterly cut 
off by the Quapaw, and while the completeness of this destruction may 
well be doubted, we hear nothing of them afterward. 

Population. — No estimate of Tiou population separate from that of 
the Natchez is known. 

Tunica. Meaning "the people," or "those who are the people." 
Also called: 

Yoron, their own name. 

Connections. — They were the leading tribe of the Tunica group of 
the Tunican stock, the latter including also the Chitimacha and 
Atakapa. 

Location. — On the lower course of Yazoo River, on the south side 
about 4 French leagues from its mouth. (See also Arkansas.) 

History. — There is evidence that tribes belonging to the Tunica 
group were encountered by De Soto west of the Mississippi and very 
probably the name of the tribe is preserved in that of the town of 
Tanico mentioned by Elvas {in Robertson, 1933), where people made 
salt, for in later years we find the Tunica engaged in the making and 
selling of this commodity. An early location for them on the eastern 
side of the Mississippi is indicated by the "Tunica Oldfields" near 
Friar Point, not many miles below Helena, Ark. The name appears on 
Marquette's map (1673) but there they are wrongly placed. In 1682 
La Salle and his companions learned of this tribe, then located as given 
above, but neither he nor his lieutenant Tonti visited them on this or 
any subsequent expedition, though they learned of Tunica villages in 
the salt-making region of northeastern Louisiana. The Yazoo town of 
the tribe was first seen, apparently, by three missionary priests from 
Canada, one of whom, Father Davion, established himself among 
them in 1699. In 1702 he fled from his charges, but two or three 
years later was induced by them to return, and he remained among 
them for about 15 years more. In 1706 this tribe left the Yazoo and 
were received into the Houma town nearly opposite the mouth of 
Red River, but later, according to La Harpe (1831), they rose upon 
their hosts and killed more than half of them, and for a long period 
they continued to live in the region they had thus appropriated. They 
were firm friends of the French and rendered them invaluable service 
in all difficulties with the tribes higher up, and particularly against the 
Natchez, but in 1719 or 1720 Davion was so much discouraged at the 
meager results of his efforts that he left them. The anger excited 
against them by their support of the French resulted in an attack by a 
large party of Natchez and their allies in 1731 in which both sides 
suffered severely and the head chief of the Tunica was killed. The 



194 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Tunica remained in the same region until some time between 1784 and 
1803, when they moved up Red River and settled close to the present 
Marksville, La., on the land of the Avoyel Indian village which they 
claimed to have bought from the Avoyel tribe. Before this event took 
place, in company with the Ofo, Avoyel, and some Choctaw, they 
attacked the pirogues of a British expedition ascending the Mississippi, 
killed six men, wounded seven, and compelled the rest to turn back. 
A few families descended from the Tunica are still settled on the site 
just mentioned, which forms a small reservation. Sibley (1832) says 
that in his time Tunica had settled among the Atakapa, and it was 
perhaps some of their descendants of whom Dr. Gatschet heard as 
living near Beaumont, Tex., about 1886. Mooney (1928) learned of 
some Tunica families in the southern part of the Choctaw Nation, 
Okla., but they had lost their old language. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the total 
population of the Tunica, Yazoo, Koroa, and Ofo was 2,000, and this 
very figure, except that it does not include the Koroa, is given by the 
missionary De Montigny in 1699. My own figure for the same date 
is somewhat higher, 2,450, out of which I estimate about 1,575 were 
Tunica. In 1719 the number of Tunica was conjectured to be 460 
and in 1803, 50 to 60, though a second statement of about the same 
period gives 25 warriors. Morse (1822) reports 30 Tunica inLouisiana. 
The census of 1910 gives 43 Tunica in all, but among these are included 
some Indians of other tribes and there w&re many mixed-bloods. 
The census of 1930 gives only 1, he being the onlj^ one who could 
speak the old language. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Tunica were 
prominent in history (1) from the fact that their language was the 
principal dialect of a stock on the lower Mississippi which received 
its name from them, (2) for their sedentary character, (3) for their 
devotion to the French interest and their part in the Natchez wars, 
(4) from the perpetuation of their name in Tunica County, and 
Tunica Oldfields, Miss., and a post village of the name in West 
Feliciana Parish, La. 

Yazoo. Meaning unknown. 

Connections. — The associations of this tribe with the Koroa and the 
fact that their language contained an r sound make it reasonably 
certain that they belonged to the Tunican group and stock. 

Location. — On the south side of Yazoo River about 4 French leagues 
above its mouth. (See also Ai'kansas.) 

History. — The Yazoo appear to have been the first of the tribes 
living on the lower part of the Yazoo River to have established 
themselves there, and hence it was from them that the stream received 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 195 

its name. They are mentioned by La Salle and his companions in 
connection with their voyage to the mouth of the Mississippi in 1682. 
A French post was established near them in 1718, and in 1727 a Jesuit 
missionary, Father Seuel, settled nearby. In 1729, however, the 
Yazoo joined the Natchez in their uprising, murdered the missionary, 
and massacred the French garrison. Their subsequent fortunes were 
identical with those of the Koroa, and they were probably absorbed 
into the Chickasaw or Choctaw. It is not improbable that. there is 
some connection between the name of this tribe and that of two of 
the Yazoo towns among the Choctaw, but if so it goes back beyond 
recorded history. 

Population. — I have estimated that in 1698 there were somewhat 
more than 600 Yazoo and Koroa together. In 1700 Gravier reported 
30 Yazoo cabins, but a quarter of a century later Le Page du Pratz 
(1758) estimated 100. In 1722 the Yazoo, Koroa, and Ofo together 
are said to have numbered 250. In 1730, however, the number of 
Yazoo and Koroa warriors is placed at 40. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Yazoo are noted 
principally from the fact that they have transmitted their name to 
Yazoo River, Miss., and secondarily to Yazoo County and its capital 
city, in the same State. 

LOUISIANA 

Acolapissa. Meaning "those who listen and see," indicating possibly 
"borderers" or "scouts." Also called: 

Aquelou pissas, by Le Page du Pratz (1758, 2: 219). 
Cenepisa, by La Salle {in IMargry, 1875-86, 1: 564). 
Colapissas, in 1699 by P^nicaut {in French, 1869, p. 38). 
Coulapissas, in 1700 by Sauvole {in Margry 1875-86, 4: 462). 
Equinipichas, by Sauvole {in French, 1851, 3: 225). 
Kinipissa, by Tonti {in Margry, 1875-86; 1: 604). 
Kolapissas, in 1700 by Gravier {in French, 1875, p. 88). 

Connections. — The Acolapissa belonged to the Muskhogean lin- 
guistic family and evidently spoke a language closely related to 
Choctaw and Chickasaw. They may have been more intimately 
connected with the Napissa who united with the Chickasaw and who 
were perhaps identical with the Napochi (q. v.) of De Luna, but their 
closest relatives were the Tangipahoa (q. v.). 

Location. — Their earliest known location was on Pearl River about 
11 miles above its mouth. (See also Mississippi.) 

Villages 

Iberville was told that they consisted of six villages and that the Tangipahoa 
constituted a seventh, but we treat the latter separately, and the names of the 
six are not given. 



196 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

History. — The Acolapissa are not mentioned among the tribes that 
came to Iberville in 1699 to form an alliance with him, but after his 
departure for France, Bienville visited them and was well received, 
although at first they were terrified because of a slave raid made upon 
them 2 days before by the English and Chickasaw. In 1702 (or 1705) 
they moved from Pearl River and settled on a bayou on the north 
side of Lake Pontchartrain called "Castembayouque" (now Castine 
Bayou). Six months later the Natchitoches Indians (q. v.) de- 
scended to the French fort on the Mississippi from their town on Red 
River to ask assistance from St. Denis, the commandant there, because 
of the ruin of their crops. St. Denis sent them under the charge of 
Penicaut to the Acolapissa, who welcomed them and assigned a place 
for them to settle close to their own village. Late in 1713 or early in 
1714 St. Denis, who had received a commission to proceed to Texas 
to examine the Spanish settlements, sent for the Natchitoches intend- 
ing to reestablish them in their former seats, but upon hearing of this 
project the Acolapissa fell upon them and killed and captured a con- 
siderable number. In 1718, according to Penicaut, but in any case 
before 1722, they moved over to the Mississippi River and settled on 
the east side 13 leagues from New Orleans. In 1739 they constituted 
practically one settlement with the Bayogoula and Houma, with 
whom they finally merged. Their later history is one with that of 
the Houma (q. v.). 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the population 
of the Acolapissa and the Tangipahoa together was 1,500. My own 
calculation as of 1698 is 1,050, based on La Harpe's (1831) estimate of 
300 Acolapissa warriors in 1699 and Iberville's estimate of 250 families 
3 years later. In 1722 Charlevoix states that there were 200 warriors 
and in 1739 there are said to have been of the Acolapissa, Houma, and 
Bayogoula together 90 to 100 warriors and 270 to 300 people exclu- 
sive of children. 

Adai. Meaning unloiown. 

Connections. — This tribe was at first thought to have constituted 
an independent linguistic stock and the name Adaizan was given to 
it, but later Dr. Gatschet determined that the Adai language was a 
somewhat aberrant Caddo dialect, and it was therefore placed in the 
Caddoan stock. 

Location. — Near the present Robeline in Natchitoches Parish. 

History. — In 1699 Iberville mentions the Adai under the name 
Natao. In 1717 the mission of San Miguel de Linares was established 
among them by Spanish Franciscan missionaries. The buildings were 
destroyed in 1719 by a force of French and Indians, but they were 
rebuilt 2 years later as San Miguel de los Adaes, and the mission was 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 197 

not finally abandoned until 1773. In October 1721 a military post 
called Nuestra Senora del Pilar de los Adaes was located close to the 
mission and continued until the latter was given up. For 50 years this 
post was the capital of Texas in spite of, or because of, the fact that it 
was on its extreme eastern frontier. In 1778 De M^zieres states {in 
Bolton, 1914) that the tribe was almost extinct, but in 1805 Sibley 
reported a small Adai settlement on Lake Macdon near an affluent 
of Red River. The survivors probably combined with the other 
Caddoan tribes of the region and followed their fortunes. 

Population. — Bienville reported 50 warriors among them in 1700 
but twice as many in 1718. When the mission of San Miguel was 
rebuilt it is said to have served 400 Indians. In 1805 the Adai village 
contained only 20 men but the number of women was much greater. 
The total Adai population in 1825 was 27. My own estimate for 1698 
is about 400. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Adai were peculiar 
in having spoken a dialect so diverse from the other Caddo forms of 
speech that, as already stated, Powell (1891) at first gave them an 
independent status as constituting the Adaizan linguistic family. 
Historically, the Adai Indian and White settlement was noted as the 
easternmost outpost of the Spaniards and of the Franciscan Spanish 
missions, and it was the capital of the Province of Texas for 50 years. 

Alabama. Some of this tribe moved to Louisiana shortly after the 
territory east of the Mississippi was abandoned by the French. 
Most of them finally passed on into Texas, but a few are still settled 
in the southwestern part of the State. (See Alabama.) 

Apalachee. A band of Apalachee Indians moved from the neighbor- 
hood of Mobile to Louisiana in 1764, remained for a short time on the 
Mississippi River and then moved up to Red River, where they 
obtained a grant of land along with the Taensa. Later they sold 
this land and part of them probably removed to Oklahoma, but 
others remained in Louisiana and amalgamated with other tribes, 
(See Florida.) 

Atakapa. Meaning in Choctaw and MobiUan, "man eater," because 
they and some of the Indians west of them at times ate the flesh 
of their enemies. 

Skunnemoke, the name of a chief, extended to the whole people. 
Ttlk-pa'-ha°-ya-di, Biloxi name. 
Yuk'hiti ishak, own name. 

Connections. — The Atakapa were originally placed in an independent 
linguistic stock, including also the Bidai, Deadose, and probably the 
Opelousa, but it has now been determined that they belonged to one 
family ^vith the Chitimacha, their eastern neighbors, and probably 



198 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

the Tunican group on the Mississippi, the whole being called the 
Tunican stock. 

Location. — Atakapa bands extended along the coast of Louisiana 
and Texas from Vermillion Bayou to and including Trinity Bay. 
(See Akokisa under Texas.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The Atakapa about Trinity Bay and the lower course of Trinity River were 
called Akokisa by the Spaniards, but they diflfered in no respect from the Atakapa 
of Lake Charles. There was, however, an eastern Atakapa dialect which was 
distinctly different from the one current in the Lake Charles and Trinity Bay 
sections and was spoken by two different bands, one about Vermillion Bay and 
one on the Mermentou River. There were a number of small villages but their 
names are unknown. 

History. — In 1528 Cabeza de Vaca learned of the existence of some 
of these Indians, calling them Han. The portion of the Atakapa 
living in Louisiana came to the attention of the French after the latter 
had established themselves on the Mississippi River, but it so hap- 
pened that they had more dealings with the people of Trinity Bay, 
the Akokisa. This was owing in the first place to the romantic adven- 
tures of a French officer, Simars de Belle-Isle, left upon this coast in 
1719. In 1721 Bernard de la Harpe and Captain Beranger accom- 
panied by Belle-Isle visited the bay and carried some Indians off 
with them to New Orleans. Fortunately for us, Beranger recorded 
a number of words in their language which prove it to have been 
almost identical with the Atakapa of Lake Charles. The Indians 
subsequently escaped and are reported to have reached their own 
country. In 1779 the band of Atakapa on Vermillion Bayou fur- 
nished 60 men and the Mermentou band 120 men to Galvez for his 
expedition against the British forts on the Mississippi. In the latter 
part of the eighteenth century numerous plots of land were sold to 
French Creoles by the Atakapa Indians, but the last village of the 
easternmost band was not abandoned until early in the nineteenth 
century. The last village of the Atakapa who spoke the eastern 
dialect was on the Mermentou and Indians are said to have lived 
there down to 1836. The Calcasieu band held together for a longer 
period, so that in 1908 a few persons were living who once made their 
homes in the last native village on Indian Lake or Lake Prien. It 
was from two of these that Dr. Gatchet, in January 1885, obtained 
his Atakapa linguistic material. (See Gatschet and Swanton, 1932.) 
Although in 1907 and 1908 I found a few Indians who knew some- 
thing of the old tongue, it is today practically extinct. (See also 
J. O. Dyer, 1917.) As early as 1747 a Spanish mission was proposed 
for the Akokisa Indians, and in 1756, or about that time, it was estab- 
lished on the left bank of Trinity River, a short distance below the 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 199 

present Liberty. It was named Nuestra Senora de la Luz, and near 
it was the presidio of San Agustfn de Ahumada erected the same year. 
Be'fore 1772 both of these had been abandoned. In 1805 the principal 
Akokisa village was on the west side of Colorado River about 200 
miles southwest of Nacogdoches, but there was another between the 
Neches and the Sabine. The ultimate fate of the tribe is unlcnown. 

Population. — Exclusive of the Akokisa, Mooney (1928) estimates a 
population of 1,500 Atakapa in 1650, which the Akokisa would per- 
haps swell to 2,000. In 1747 a Spanish report gives 300 Akokisa 
families, a figure which is probably too high. In 1779 the Bayou 
Vermillion and Mermentou bands had 180 warriors. Sibley (1832) 
states that in 1805 there were 80 warriors in the only Atakapa town 
remaining but that 30 of these were Houma and Tunica. The same 
writer adds that in 1760-70 the Akokisa numbered 80 men. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The traditional fame 
of the Atakapa rests upon the sinister reputation it had acquired as 
a body of cannibals. After the French began to settle southwestern 
Louisiana, they distinguished as the Atakapas district a section of 
southern Louisiana including the parishes of St. Mary, Iberia, Ver- 
million, St, Martin, and Lafayette, a usage which continues in com- 
mercial reports to the present day. The capital of this district, the 
modern St. Martinville, was known as the Atakapas Post. In Spar- 
tanburg County, S. C, is a place called Tucapau, the name of which 
may have been taken from this tribe. 

Avoyel. The name signifies probably "people of the rocks," referring 
to flint and very likely applied because they were middlemen in 
supplying the Gulf coast tribes with flint. Also called: 

Little Taensa, so-called from their relationship to the Taensa (q. v.). 
Tassenocogoula, name in the Mobilian trade language, meaning "flint 
people." 

Connections. — The testimony of early writers and circumstantial 
evidence render it almost certain that the Avoyel spoke a dialect of 
the Natchez group of the Muskhogean linguistic family. 

Location. — In the neighborhood of the present Alaxksville, La. 

History. — The Avoyel are mentioned first by Iberville in the ac- 
count of his first expedition to Louisiana in 1699, where they appear 
under the Mobilian form of their name, Tassenocogoula. He did not 
meet any of the people, however, until the year following when he 
calls them "Little Taensas." They were encountered by La Harpe 
in 1714, and Le Page du Pratz (1758) gives a short notice of them 
from which it appears that they acted as middlemen in disposing to 
the French of horses and cattle plundered from Spanish settlements. 
In 1764 they took part in an attack upon a British regiment ascending 



200 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

the Mississippi (see Ofo), and they are mentioned by some later 
writers, but Sibley (1832) says they were extinct in 1805 except for 
two or three women "who did Uve among the French inhabitants of 
Washita," In 1930 one of the Tunica Indians still claimed descent 
from this tribe. 

Population. — I have estimated an Avoyel population of about 280 
in 1698. Iberville and Bienville state that they had about 40 warriors 
shortly after this period. (See Taensa.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name of the 
Avoyel is perpetuated in that of Avoyelles Parish, La. 

Bayogoula. Meaning "bayou people," either from their location or 
from the fact that their tribal emblem was the alligator. 

Connections. — Their language was of the southern Mushkogean 
division, not far removed from Houma and Choctaw. 

Location. — Near the present Bayou Goula, in Iberville Parish, 

History. — Unless this tribe was the Pishenoa encountered by Tonti 
in 1686 and not mentioned subsequently, it was first visited by Iber- 
ville in 1699. It then occupied one town with the Mugulasha (q. v.). 
In the winter of 1699-1700 the Bayogoula suffered severely from a 
surprise attack of the Houma. In the spring of 1700, for what cause 
we know not, the Bayogoula attacked their fellow townsmen, the 
Mugulasha, and destroyed them, but in 1706 they suffered a similar 
fate at the hands of the Taensa who had sought refuge with them. 
The remnant of the Bayogoula was given a place near New Orleans, 
but some time later they moved up the river to the present Ascension 
Parish, where they were found in 1739 between the Houma and 
Acolapissa. Yet our informant states that the three tribes were 
virtually one and the same, the distinction being kept up merely 
because the chief of each band was descended from the tribe men- 
tioned. The subsequent history of the Bayogoula is identical with 
that of the Houma. (See Houma under Mississippi.) 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were 
1,500 of the Bayogoula, Quinipissa, and Mugulasha together. My 
own estimate for the same tribes, as of 1698, is 875. In 1699 IberviUe 
gave about 100 cabins and 200-250 warriors, and the Journal of his 
companion ship, Le Marin, has 400-500 people. In 1700, after the 
destruction of the Mugulasha, Gravier gives a population of 200, and 
about 1715 they are said to have had 40 warriors. For their numbers 
in 1739, see Houma under Mississippi. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — This tribe shared with 
the Washa the distinction of having been the first Indians within the 
limits of the present State of Louisiana to meet Iberville in the year 
in which the French colony of Louisiana was founded. The name is 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 201 

preserved in the post village of Bayou Goula, IberviUe Parish, La., 
which seems to be close to the location of the original Indian town. 

Biloxi. The Biloxi settled in Louisiana about 1764, and a very few 
are stUl Uving there. (See Mississippi.) 

Caddo. The Caddo Indians are given under five different heads: 
the Ada! and the Natchitoches Confederacy in Louisiana; the Eye- 
ish, the Hasinai Confederacy, and the Kadohadacho Confederacy 

in Texas. 

Chatot. The Chatot entered Louisiana about 1764, lived for a while 
on Bayou Boeuf, and later moved to Sabine River, after which 
nothing more is heard of them. (See Florida.) 

Chawasha. Meaning unknown, though possibly "raccoon place 
(people)." 

Connections. — A reference to this tribe- and the Washa by Bienville 
places them in the Chitimacha division of the Tunican linguistic 
stock. I had erroneously concluded at an earlier period, on slender 
circumstantial evidence, that they were Muskhogeans. 

Location. — On Bayou La Fourche and eastward to the Gulf of 
Mexico and across the Mississippi. 

History. — After the relics of De Soto's army had escaped to the 
mouth of the Mississippi River and while their brigantines were 
riding at anchor there, they were attacked by Indians, some of whom 
had "staves, having very sharp heads of fish-bone." (See Bourne 
1904, vol. 2, p. 202.) These may have belonged to the Chawasha and 
Washa tribes. The same two tribes are said, on doubtful authority, 
to have attempted to attack an English sea captain who ascended the 
Mississippi in 1699, but they were usually friendly to the French. 
In 1712 ^ they were moved to the Mississippi by Bienville and estab- 
lished themselves on the west side, just below the English Turn. In 
1713 (or more probably 1715) they were attacked by a party of 
Chickasaw, Yazoo, and Natchez, who kiUed the head chief and many 
of his family, and carried off 11 persons as prisoners. Before 1722 
they had crossed to the east side of the river, half a league lower down. 
In 1730, in order to allay the panic in New Orleans following on the 
Natchez uprising of 1729 which resulted in the massacre of the 
Whites at Natchez, Governor Perrier allowed a band of Negro slaves 
to attack the Chawasha, and it is commonly reported that they were 
then destroyed. The French writer Dumont (1753) is probably 
right, however, when he states that only seven or eight adult males 
were killed. At any rate they are mentioned as living with the 
Washa at Les AUemands on the west side of the Mississippi above 

• So given by Bienville in an unpublished ms. (See page 294.) 



202 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

New Orleans in 1739, and in 1758 they appear as constituting one 
vUlage "wdth the Washa. Except for one uncertain reference, this is 
the last we hear of them, but they may have continued for a con- 
siderable period longer before disappearing as a distinct body. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) gives an estimate of 1,400 for the 
Washa, Chawasha, and Opelousa together in the year 1650. My own 
estimate for the first two and the Okelousa, as of 1698, is 700. This 
is based on Beaurain's (La Harpe's) estimate (1831) of 200 warriors 
for the 3 tribes. About 1715 there are said to have been 40 Chawasha 
warriors; in 1739, 30 warriors of the Washa and Chawasha together; 
and in 1758, 10 to 12. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Chawasha at- 
tained temporary notoriety on account of the massacre perpetrated 
upon them in the manner above mentioned. 

Chitimacha. Perhaps derived from the name of Grand River in the 
native tongue, which was Sheti, though Gatschet (1883) interprets it 
through the Choctaw language as meaning "those who have pots." 

Connections. — The Chitimacha have given their name to a group of 
languages under the Tunican linguistic stock, including also the 
Chawasha and Washa. 

Location. — On Grand River, Grand Lake, and the lower course of 
Bayou La Teche. 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The earliest French writers couple with this tribe the name of a tribe or supposed 
tribe called Yakna-Chitto, "Big Earth," but it is not known whether they were 
a part of the Chitimacha or an entirely independent people. In later times the 
Chitimacha were drawn into two unnamed subdivisions, one near the upper end 
of Bayou La Fourche and the other on Grand Lake. Following are the known 
villages: 

Ama'tpan na'mu, two villages: (1) 3 miles east of Charenton on Bayou Teche; 

(2) on the east side of Grand Lake opposite Charenton. 
Grosse Tete na'mu, 2 miles from the village at Plaquemine. 
Hi'pinimsh na'mu, at the Fausse Pointe in the western part of Grand Lake, near 

Bayou Gosselin. 
Ka'me naksh teat na'mu, at Bayou du Plomb, near Bayou Chene, 18 miles north 

of Charenton. 
Ku'shuh na'mu, on Lake Mingaluak, near Bayou Chfine. 
Na'mu ka'tsi, the Bayou Ch^ne village, St. Martin's Parish. 
Ne'kun tsi'snis, opposite He aux Oiseaux, in the Lac de la Fausse Pointe. 
Ne Pinu'nsh, on Bayou Teche, 2 miles west of Charenton. 
Oku'nkiskin, probably at some sharp bend on Bayou La Teche judging from their 

name. 
Shatshnish, at Jeanerette. 

She'ti na'mu, on Grand River west of Plaquemine. 
Sho'ktangi ha'ne hetci'nsh, on the south side of Graine k Vol^e Inlet, Grand Lake. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 203 

Tca'ti kuti'ngi na'mu, at the junction of Bayou Teche with the Atchafalaya 

Bayou. 
Teat kasi'tunshki, on the site of Charenton. 
Tsa'htsinshup na'mu, the Plaquemine village, on Bayou des Plaquemines near 

Grand River. 
Waitinimsh, at Irish Bend near Franklin. 

There are said to have been others at the shell bank on the shore of Grand 
Lake, close to Charenton, and at a place called "Bitlarouges." 

History. — Iberville made an alliance with the Chitimacha in 1699, 
shortly after his arrival in the present Louisiana. In August 1706, 
the Taensa captured some Chitimacha by treachery and enslaved 
them, and later the same year a Chitimacha war partly killed St. 
Cosme, missionary to the Natchez, and three other Frenchmen en- 
camped with him. War followed between the Chitimacha on one 
hand and the French and their Indian allies on the other, which 
dragged along until 1718. The Chitimacha suffered severely during 
these 12 years and this war was responsible for the fact that in the 
early days of the Louisiana colony the greater part of the Indian 
slaves were Chitimacha. By the terms of the peace concluded in 
1718, the Chitimacha agreed to settle at a designated spot upon the 
Mississippi, not far from the present Plaquemine. This, they or 
rather the eastern portion of them, did in 1719. In 1739 they seem 
to have been farther down, near the head of Bayou La Fourche. In 
1784 one village is reported on Bayou La Fourche and two on the 
Teche. By 1881 the only survivors were near Charenton, where 
they occupied a small part of what had once been a considerable 
reservation. In that year and the year following Dr. A. S. Gatschet 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology collected from them a consider- 
able body of linguistic material and some ethnological information. 
(See Gatschet, 1883.) Descendants of the tribe, mostly mixed-bloods, 
occupy the same section at the present time, but the Plaquemine 
band has disappeared. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the Chiti- 
macha numbered 3,000 souls. The present writer allowed 750 war- 
riors to the tribe in 1698, based on Beaurain's estimate of 700-800 
in 1699, which would mean about 2,625 souls. In 1758 the Mississippi 
band counted only about 80 warriors and in 1784 Hutchins gives 27. 
The size of the western band is nowhere indicated separately but the 
census of 1910 gives 69 for the entire tribe, 19 of whom were then at 
school in Pennsylvania. In 1930, 51 were returned. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Chitimacha were 
the most powerful tribe of the northern Gulf coast west of Florida in 
United States territory. They also attained prominence in early 
Louisiana history on account of their long war with the French 



204 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

and the number of Chitimacha slaves in colonial families arising from 
that fact. The survivors are noteworthy as the best basket makers 
in the whole Gulf region. 

Choctaw. Choctaw began moving into Louisiana not long after the 
settlement of New Orleans, at first temporarily, but later for per- 
manent occupancy, especially after the territory east of the Mis- 
sissippi had been ceded lo Great Britain. Some settled on the 
northern shores of Lake Pontchartrain, where a few still remain, 
while other bands established themselves on the Nezpique, Red 
River, Bayou Boeuf, and elsewhere. Most of these drifted in time 
to the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, but a few families are still 
scattered about the State of Louisiana. (See Mississippi.) 

Doustioni. A smaU tribe of the Natchitoches Confederacy (q. v.). 

Houma. When first encountered by Europeans, the Houma hved 
near the present boundary line between Mississippi and Louisiana, 
if not actually on the Louisiana side. In 1706 or shortly afterward 
they moved altogether within the limits of Louisiana, where their 
descendants have remained to the present day. (See Mississippi.) 

Koasati. Part of this tribe entered Louisiana near the end of the 
eighteenth century and lived on Red River and in the western part 
of the State. At the present day, the largest single band of Koasati 
in existence is northeast of Kinder, La. (See Alabama.) 

Koroa. The Koroa camped, hunted, and had at times more perma- 
nent settlements in northeastern Louisiana. (See Mississippi.) 

Mugulasha. This was a tribe which formerly lived in the same town 
as the Bayogoula on the lower course of the Mississippi. Some 
early writers state that they were identical with the Quinipissa 
and they wUl be treated in connection with that tribe. 

Muskogee. The true Muskogee were represented by one band, a 
part of the Pakana tribe, which moved into the colony about 1764. 
They were settled upon Calcasieu River in 1805. Later they 
seem to have united with the Alabama now living in Polk County, 
Tex., but there are no known survivors at the present day. (See 
Alabama.) 

Natchez. When this tribe was attacked by the French after they had 
destroyed the Natchez post, they escaped into Louisiana and forti- 
fied themselves at Sicily Island, from which most of them again 
escaped. A part under the chief of the Flour Village attacked the 
French post at Natchitoches in the fall of 1731, drove the Natchi- 
toches from their town, and intrenched themselves in it. St. Denis, 
commander of that post, attacked them, however, having been 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 205 

previously reinforced by some Caddo and Atakapa, and inflicted 
upon them a severe defeat. After this no considerable number of 
Natchez seem to have remained in Louisiana. (See Mississippi.) 

Natchitoches Confederacy. The word "Natchitoches" is generally sup- 
posed to be derived from "nashitosh", the native word for pawpaw 
but an early Spanish writer, Josd Antonio Pichardo, was told that 
it was from a native word "nacicit" signifying "a place where the 
soil is the color of red ochre," and that it was applied originally to a 
small creek in their neighborhood running through red soil. The 
following are synonyms: 

Nachittoos, Yoakum, 1855-56, vol. 1, p. 392. 
Nachtichoukas, Jefferys, 1761, pt. 1, p. 164. 
Nacitos, Linares (1716) in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 6, p. 217. 
Nactythos, Iberville (1699) in Margry, 1880, 1875-86, vol. 4, p. 178. 
Nadchito, Bienville (1700), in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 4, p. 434, 
Naketosh, Gatschet, Caddo and Yatassi MS., p. 77, B. A. E. 
Napgitache, McKenney and Hall, 1854, vol. 3, p. 82. 
Naquitoches, Belle-Isle (1721), in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 6, p. 341. 
Nashi'tosh, Mooney, 1896, p. 1092. 

Nasitti, Joutel (1687) in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 3, p. 409. 
Natsytos, Iberville (1699) in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 4, p. 178. 
Notchitoches, Carver, 1778, map. 
Yatchitcohes, Lewis and Clark, 1840, p. 142. 

As part of the Caddo, the same terms were applied to them as appear 
under Kadohadacho (q. v.). 

Connections. — They belonged to the Caddo division of the Caddoan 
linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Indians of the Kado- 
hadacho and Hasinai Confederacies. 

Location. — In northwestern Louisiana. 

Subdivisions 

Doustioni, appearing sometimes as Souchitioni, a small tribe near the present 

Natchitoches. 
Natchitoches, close to the present site of Natchitoches. 
Ouachita, on Ouachita River not far from the present Columbia. 
Yatasi, on Red River near Shreveport. 

A tribe called Capich6 is mentioned by Tonti, but it is otherwise never referred 
to. Another called Nakasa, Nakas6, Natch^s or Natach^ was probably a part of 
the Yatasi, and Tonti mentions a tribe called Choye, probably the Chaye of 
Joutel (1713), as a people associated with the Yatasi. At a relatively late date 
part of the Yatasi went to live with the Indians of the Kadohadacho Confedera- 
tion while the rest settled close to the Natchitoches. 

History. — Moscoso, De Soto's successor, perhaps encountered some 
of the tribes of this group though his route lay farther north and 
west. On February 17, 1690, Tonti reached the villages of these 
Indians coming from the Taensa on Lake St. Joseph, and went on 
up the river to the Kadohadacho, visiting the Yatasi on the way. 



206 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

In March 1700 Bienville followed the same route from the Taensa 
and reached the Natchitoches Indians in April, stopping at the 
Ouachita town en route. He went up Red River as far as the Yatasi 
and then returned to Biloxi. In 1702 the Natchitoches tribe, having 
lost their crops, descended the Red River and the Mississippi to the 
French fort near the mouth of the latter, then commanded by Louis 
Juchereau de St, Denis, who received them kindly and sent them to 
live with the Acolapissa Indians on Lake Pontchar train. A few 
years later St. Denis visited the Natchitoches country himself. In 
1707 four Indians of this tribe took part in an expedition against the 
Chitimacha to avenge the death of the missionary St. Cosme. In 
1713-14 St. Denis sent for the Natchitoches Indians in order to take 
them back to their old country, where "he had planned to establish a 
post. On learning of the intentions of their neighbors, the Acolapissa 
Indians fell upon them, killed 17 and captured 50 women and girls, 
but the latter were apparently recovered soon afterward and all were 
returned to their old town, where the post was established according 
to plan in 1714. From this time until his death St. Denis' career 
was intimately bound up with this post and the Indians about it, 
though he was frequently engaged in expeditions into and across 
Texas. He was formally appointed commandant of the post July 1, 
1720, and retained it until his death in June 1744. In 1731, with the 
assistance of his Indians and a detachment of soldiers from the 
Spanish post of Adai, he won a signal victory over a large body of 
Natchez Indians, the only clear-cut advantage which the French 
gained in the Natchez War. In the meantime Natchitoches had 
become the center of a flourishing trade with the Indians extending 
far to the north and west, and when St. Denis died his son, Louis de 
St. Denis continued to enjoy the advantages of it and to share the 
prestige of his father. During all of this time, however, the Natchi- 
toches Indians seem to have been decreasing, and toward the end of 
the eighteenth century they parted with most of their lands to French 
Creoles, though their relations with the latter seem to have been 
uniformly cordial. Part of them remained in their old country per- 
manently and either died out or mixed with the newcomers, while the 
rest joined their relatives of the Kadohadacho and Hasinai Con- 
federations and followed their fortunes. 

Population. — In 1700 Bienville estimated that there were 400-450 
warriors in the Natchitoches Confederacy, but in 1718 he reported 
that the number had fallen to 80, while La Harpe (1831) reported a 
total population of 150-200. In 1805 Sibley (1832) reported 52 
warriors and for the Natchitoches tribe by itself, 32, and 20 years 
later a total population of 61 was returned. An estimate of 1,000 for 
all of these tribes before White contact would probably be ample. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 207 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The city of Natchi- 
toches, La., is named after this group of tribes and is noteworthy as 
the oldest permanent settlement in the State. The victory which 
they enabled St. Denis to win over the Natchez Indians occupies a 
noteworthy place in the history of the section. 

Ofo. This tribe entered Louisiana some time in the latter half of 
the eighteenth ccntiu-y and finally united with the Tunica, settling 
with them at Marksville. (See the article Mosopelea under Ohio 
and Tunica under Mississippi.) 

Okelousa. Meaning "black water." 

Connections. — The associations of this tribe were mainly with 
Muskhogean peoples and this fact, coupled with the Muskhogean 
name, indicates their linguistic affiliations with a fair degree of 
certainty. 

Location. — The Okelousa moved about considerably. The best- 
determined location is the one mentioned by Le Page du Pratz (1758), 
on the west side of the Mississippi back of and above Pointe Couple. 
(See History below.) (See also Mississippi.) 

History. — After De Soto reached the principal Chickasaw tow^n, 
the head chief came to him, January 3, 1541, "and promptly gave the 
Christians guides and interpreters to go to Caluga, a place of much 
repute among the Indians. Caluga is a province of more than 90 
villages not subject to anyone, with a savage population, very warlike 
and much dreaded, and the soil is fertile in that section." (See 
Bourne, 1904, 1922, vol. 2, p. 132.) There is every reason to think 
that Caluga is a shortened form of Okalousa and it is rather likely 
that the later Okelousa were descended from these people, but if so 
either De Soto's informants had very much exaggerated their numbers 
or they suffered immense losses before we hear of them again. The 
name in De Soto's time may, however, have been applied to a geo- 
graphical region. Nicolas de la Salle, writing in 1682, quotes native 
informants to the eflfect that this tribe, in alliance with the Houma, 
had destroyed a third. La Harpe (1831) mentions them as allied with 
the Washa and Chawasha and wandering near the seacoast, a state- 
ment which led me to the erroneous conclusion that the three tribes 
thus associated were related. The notice of them by Le Page du 
Pratz has been mentioned above. They finally united with the 
Houma, the Acolapissa, or some other Muskhogean band on the 
lower Mississippi. 

Population. — Unknown, but for an estimate, see Chawasha (p. 202). 

Opelousa. Probably from Mobilian and Choctaw Aba lusa, "black 
above," and meaning "black headed" or "black haired." 



208 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Connections. — No words of the Opelousa language have survived, 
but the greater number of the earher references to them speak as if 
they were allied with the Atakapa, and it is probable that they belonged 
to the Atakapan group of tribes. 

Location. — In the neighborhood of the present Opelousas. 

History. — The Opelousa seem to have been mentioned first by 
Bienville in an unpublished report on the Indians of the Mississippi 
and Gulf regions. They were few in numbers and led a wandering 
life. They maintained some sort of distinct tribal existence into the 
nineteenth century but disappeared by the end of the first quarter of it. 

Population. — About 1715 this tribe was estimated to have 130 
warriors; in 1805 they are said to have had 40, and in 1814 the total 
population of the tribe is placed at 20. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Opelousa gave 
their name to an important post and the district depending upon it. 

Ouachita. A tribe of the Natchitoches Confederacy (q. v.). 

Pascagoula. This tribe entered Louisiana about 1764 and lived on 
Red River and Bayou Boeuf. Their subsequent history is wrapped 
in uncertainty. (See Mississippi.) 

Quapaw. From 1823 to 1833 the Quapaw lived with the Kadohadacho 
on a southern affluent of Red River. (See Arkansas.) 

Quinipissa. Signifying "those who see," perhaps meaning "scouts," 

or "outpost." 

Connections. — The Quinipissa belonged to the southern division of 
the Muskhogean stock, and probably were very closely related to 
the Choctaw. 

Location. — On the west bank of the Mississippi River and some 
distance above New Orleans. 

History. — There may have been a connection between this tribe, 
the Acolapissa (q. v.) and the Napissa or Napochi. (See Mississippi.) 
They were met first by La Salle and his companions when the latter 
were on their way to the Gulf of Mexico in 1682. They treated the 
explorers in a hostile manner but made peace with Tonti in 1686. 
When Iberville ascended the river in 1699, no tribe of the name was 
to be found, but later it w^as learned that the chief of the Mugulasha 
tribe, then forming one village with the Bayogoula, was the same 
Quinipissa chief who had had dealings with La Salle and Tonti. 
According to some writers, the Mugulasha were identical with the 
Quinipissa; according to others, the Mugulasha had absorbed the re- 
mains of the Quinipissa. In May 1700, the Bayogoula rose against 
the Mugulasha and destroyed them as a tribe, though they probably 
adopted many of them as individuals. We hear nothing further re- 
garding them. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 209 

Population. — There is no separate estimate of the number of the 
Quinipissa. (See Bayogoula.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Quinipissa are 
noted only for the encounter, ultimately hostile, which La Salle had 
with them in 1682 when he descended to the mouth of the Mississippi. 

Souchitioni, see Natchitoches Confederacy. 

Taensa. Meaning unknown, but the name is evidently derived from 

that of one of the tribe's constituent towns. 

Connections. — The\'' were one of the three known tribes of the 
Natchez division of the Muskhogean stock. 

Location. — At the western end of Lake St. Joseph, in Tensas 
Parish. (See also Alabama.) 

Villages 

The only list of Taensa villages preserved was obtained by Iberville through 
the medium of the Mobilian trade language and it is uncertain how much of each 
name is a Mobilian translation. In four of them we recognize the Mobilian 
word for people, okla. These villages are: Taensas, Ohytoucoulas, Nyhougoulas, 
Couthaougoula, Conchayon, Talaspa, and Chaoucoula. Gatschet has endeav- 
ored to interpret all but one of them; Taensas by reference to ta°'tci, "corn"; 
Ohytoucoulas from u'ti, "chestnut"; Couthaougoula from uk'ha'tax, "lake"; 
Conchayon from ko'nshak, "reed"; Talaspa from ta"lapi, "five" or ta"lepa, 
"hundred"; Chaoucoula from issi, "deer" or ha'tche, "river." Most of these 
seem in the highest degree doubtful. All of the towns were situated close together 
in the place above indicated. 

History. — It is altogether probable that the Spaniards under De 
Soto encountered the Taensa or bands afterward affiliated with them, 
and the probability is strengthened by the fact that La Salle in 1682 
was shown some objects of Spanish origin by the chief of the Taensa. 
However, La Salle and his companions are the first Europeans known 
to have met them. The French were treated with great kindness 
and no war ever took place between the two peoples. The Taensa 
were subsequently visited by Tonti and by Iberville. When the 
latter was in their town in 1700 the temple was destroyed by fire, 
whereupon five infants were thrown into the flames to appease the 
supposedly offended deity. De Montigny undertook missionary 
work among them for a brief period but soon went to the Natchez 
as presenting a larger field and liis place was never filled. In 1706 
the Taensa abandoned their villages on account of the threatening 
attitude of the Yazoo and Chickasaw and settled in the town of the 
Bayogoula whom they afterward destroyed or drove away in the 
tragic manner above described. (See Bayogoula.) The Taensa ap- 
pear to have moved shortly to a spot in the vicinity of Edgard, St. 
John Baptist Parish, and later to the Manchac. In 1715 they left 
this latter place and moved to Mobile, where they were assigned a 



210 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

townsite 2 leagues from the French post, at a place formerly occupied 
by ihe Tavvasa. Before 1744 they had crossed the Tensaw River, to 
which they gave their name, and made a new settlement which they 
retained until Mobile was surrendered to the British in 1763. Soon 
after that event, they moved to Red River. In April 1764, they 
asked permission to establish themselves on the Mississippi River at 
the upper end of Bayou La Fourche, but they seem never to have 
gone there. For more than 40 years they occupied a tract of land 
on Red River adjoining that of the Apalachee. Early in the nine- 
teenth century both tribes sold their lands and moved to Bayou 
Boeuf. Still later the Taensa seem to have moved farther south to 
a small bayou at the head of Grand Lake which still bears their 
name, where they intermarried with the Chitimacha, Alabama, and 
Atakapa. Some Taensa blood is known to run in the veins of certain 
Chitimacha, but as a tribe they are entirely extinct. 

Population. — Mooney's estimate (1928) for the Taensa and Avoyel 
in 1650 is 800, and my own for 1698 slightly greater or nearly the 
same, although De Montigny (in Shea, 1861), writing in 1699, gives 
only 700. In 1700 Iberville estimated 120 cabins and 300 warriors, 
but in 1702 allows them 150 families. Somewhat later Le Page du 
Pratz (1758) says they had about 100 cabins. In 1764 this tribe, 
with the Apalachee and Pakana Creeks, counted about 200 all told. 
Sibley (1832) places the number of Taensa warriors in 1805 at 25. 

Connection in which they have become noted.— The Taensa were 
noted for (1) the peculiarity of their customs, which were like those 
of the Natchez, (2) the tragic destruction of their temple in 1700 and 
the human sacrifices which followed, (3) the perpetuation of their 
name in Tensas Parish, Tensas River, and Tensas Bayou, La., and 
the Tensaw River and Tensaw Village in Baldwin County, Ala. 

Tangipahoa. Meaning probably "corncob gatherers," or "corncob 

people." 

Connections. — The name of this tribe and its affiliations with the 
Acolapissa indicate that it belonged to the southern division of the 
Muskhogean stock. 

Location. — Probably on the present Tangipahoa River, Tangipahoa 
Parish. 

History. — The original home of the Tangipahoa seems to have been 
as given above, and their relations with the Acolapissa must have been 
very close, for Iberville was informed by some Indians that they con- 
stituted a seventh Acolapissa town. In 1682 La Salle's party dis- 
covered a town on the eastern side of the Mississippi, 2 leagues below 
the settlement of the Quinipissa, which had recently been destroyed, 
and one of his companions calls this "Tangibao," while others speak 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 211 

of it as Maheouala or Mahehoualaima. The last two terms may 
refer to the name of the town and the first to that of the tribe which 
occupied it. Probably a part of the Tangipahoa only settled here, 
but, as we hear little of them after this period, we must assume that 
they had been absorbed by some other people, most likely the 
Acolapissa. 

Population. — (See Acolapissa.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Tangipahoa Parish, 
Tangipahoa River, in Amite and Pike Counties, Miss., and Tangi- 
pahoa Parish, La., and the post town of Tangipahoa preserve the 
name of the Tangipahoa. 

Tawasa. Some Tawasa accompanied the Alabama to Louisiana but 
not until after the separate existence of the tribe had been ended. 
(See Alabama.) 

Washa. Appearing oftenest in literature in the French form Ouacha, 
meaning unkno"wn. 

Connections. — The nearest relations of the Washa were the Chawa- 
sha (q. V.) and both belonged to the Chitimachan branch of the 
Tunican linguistic family. 

Location. — Their earliest known location was on Bayou La Fourche, 
perhaps in the neighborhood of the present LabadievHle, Assumption 
Parish. 

Villages 

None are known under any but the tribal name. 

History. — As stated in treating the Chawasha, this tribe and the 
one just mentioned may have been those which attacked Moscoso's 
flotilla at the mouth of the Mississippi. Shortly after Iberville 
reached America in 1699, the Washa and three other tribes west of 
the Mississippi came to make an alliance with him and a little later, 
on his way up the great river, he fell in with some of them. He calls 
Bayou La Fourche "the River of the Washas." In July 1699, 
Bienville made a vain attempt to establish friendly relations with 
them, but we hear little more of them until 1715 ^ when Bienville 
moved them to the Mississippi and settled them 2 leagues above 
New Orleans on the south side of the Mississippi. In 1739 the 
Washa and Chawasha were found living together at Les Allemands, 
and they probably continued in the same neighborhood until a con- 
siderably later period. Sibley (1832) says the tribe in 1805 was 
reduced to 5 persons (2 men and 3 women) scattered in French 
families. 

« So stated in a ms. by Bienville. In Swanton (1911) this date was given erroneously as 1718 on other 
authority. 



212 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Population. — ^A memoir attributed to Bienville states that in 1715 
the Washa numbered 50 warriors, having been reduced from 200. 
This is the only separate estimate of them. (See Chawasha for the 
combined population of the two tribes at other periods.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Washa is 
preserved in Washa Lake, near the seacoast of Terrebonne Parish, 
La., and it was formerly given to Lake Salvador, southeast of Ncav 
Orleans. 

Yatasi. A tribe of the Natchitoches Confederacy (q. v.). 

ARKANSAS 

Caddo. These Indians are treated under the five following heads: 
Adai and the Natchitoches Confederacy in Louisiana, Eyeish and the 
Hasinai Confederacy in Arkansas, and Kadohadacho Confederacy 
in Texas. Tribes of the Kadohadacho Confederacy are the only 
ones known to have lived in Arkansas. 

Cahinnio. One of the tribes connected with the Kadohadacho 
Confederacy (q. v. under Texas). 

Cherokee. Some Cherokee lived in this State while they were on 
their way from their old territories to Oklahoma, and a tract of land 
in northwestern Arkansas was granted them by treaty in 1817, 
which in 1828 they re-ceded to the United States Government. 
(See Tennessee.) 

Chickasaw. Chickasaw passed through Arkansas on their way to 
Oklahoma but owned no land there. (See Mississippi.) 

Choctaw. The Choctaw had a village on the lower course of Arkansas 
River in 1805 and they owned a large strip of territory in the 
western part of the State, granted to them by the treaty of Doak's 
Stand, October 18, 1820. They surrendered the latter in a treaty 
concluded at Washington, January 20, 1825. (See Mississippi.) 

Illinois. When Europeans first descended the Mississippi an Illinois 
division known as Michigamea, "Big Water", was settled in north- 
eastern Arkansas about a lake known by their name, probably the 
present Big Lake in Mississippi County. They had probably 
come from the region now embraced in the State of Illinois only a 
short time before, perhaps from a village entered on some maps as 
"the old village of the Michigamea." Toward the end of the 
seventeenth century they were driven north again by the Quapaw 
or Chickasaw" and united with the cognate Kaskaskia. (See 
Illinois.) 

Kaskinampo. This tribe appears to have been encountered by De 
Soto in what is now the State of Arkansas in 1541 . (See Tennessee.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 213 

Michigamea. (See Illinois above.) 

Mosopelea, see Ofo. 

Ofo. If these are the Mosopelea, as seems assured, they appear to 
have lived for a short time near the end of the seventeenth century 
in the neighborhood of the Quapaw on the lower course of Arkansas 
River before moving farther south. (See Mississippi.) 

Osage. The Osage hunted over much of the northern, and particu- 
larly northwestern, part of Arkansas and claimed all lands now 
included in the State as far south as Arkansas River. They ceded 
most of their claims to these to the United States Government in a 
treaty signed at Fort Clark, Louisiana Territory, in 1808, and the 
remainder by treaties at St. Louis, September 25, 1818, and June 2, 
1825. (See Missouri.) 

Quapaw. Meaning "downstream people." They were known by 
some form of this word to the Omaha, Ponca, Kansa, Osage, and 
Creeks. Also called: 

Akansa, or Arkansas, by the Illinois and other Algonquian Indians, a 
name probably derived from one of the Quapaw social subdivisions. 

Beaux Hommes, a name given them by the French. 

Bow Indians, so-called probably because the bow wood from the Osage 
orange came from or through their country. 

Ima, by the Caddo, probably from one of their towns. 

Papikaha, on Marquette's map (1673). 

Utsdshuat, Wyandot name, meaning "wild apple," and referring to the 
fruit of the Carica papaya. 

Connections. — The Quapaw were one of the five tribes belonging to 
what J. O. Dorsey (1897) called the 0egiha division of the Siouan 
linguistic stock. 

Location. — At or near the mouth of Arkansas River. (See also 
Louisiana, Kansas, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas.) 

Villages 

Tongigua, on the Mississippi side of Mississippi River above the mouth of the 

Arkansas, probably in Bolivar County, Miss. 
Tourima, at the junction of White River with the Mississippi, Desha County, 

probably the town elsewhere called Imaha. 
Ukakhpakhti, on the Mississippi, probably in Phillips County. 
Uzutiuhi, on the south side of the lower course of Arkansas River not far from 

Arkansas Post. 

History. — Before the French became acquainted with this tribe (in 
1673) the Quapaw had lived on Ohio River above its junction with the 
Wabash, and that portion of the Ohio was known as Arkansas River 
by the Illinois from this circumstance. It was formerly thought that 
the Pacaha or Capaha met by De Soto in this part of Arkansas were 



214 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

the tribe in question, but it is not probable that they had left the Ohio 
then, and the name Capaha, the form on which the relationship is 
supposed to be established, is probably incorrect. In 1673 Mar- 
quette visited them and turned back at their towns without descend- 
ing the Mississippi any farther. La Salle in 1682, Tonti in 1686, and all 
subsequent voyagers down and up the Mississippi mention them, 
and they soon became firm allies of the French. Shortly after Mar- 
quette's visit they were ravaged by pestilence and the Ukakhpakhti 
village was moved farther downstream. A few years later and before 
1700 the people of Tongigua moved across and settled with those of 
Tourima, and still later all of the towns moved from the Mississippi 
to the Arkansas. Le Page du Pratz (1758) encountered them about 
12 miles above the entrance of White River. Sibley (1832) found 
them in 1805 on the south side of Arkansas River about 12 miles 
above Arkansas Post. By a treaty signed at St. Louis, August 24, 
1818, the Quapaw ceded all their claims south of Arkansas River except 
a small territory between Arkansas Post and Little Rock, extending 
inland to Saline River. The latter was also given up in a treaty 
signed November 15, 1824, at Harrington's, Arkansas Territory, and the 
tribe agreed to live in the country of the Caddo Indians. The}'' were 
assigned by the Caddo a tract on Bayou Treache on the south side of 
Red River, but it was frequently overflowed, their crops were often 
destroyed, and there was much sickness, and in consequence they 
soon returned to their old country. There they annoyed the white 
settlers so much that by a treaty signed May 13, 1833, the United 
States Government conveyed to them 150 sections of land in the ex- 
treme southeastern part of Kansas and the northeastern part of 
Indian Territory, to which they in turn agreed to move. February 
23, 1867, they ceded their lands in Kansas and the northern part of 
their lands in Indian Territory. In 1877 the Ponca were brought to 
the Quapaw Reservation for a short time, and when they removed 
to their own reservation west of the Osage most of the Quapaw went 
with them. Still later the lands of the Quapaw were allotted in 
severalty and they are now citizens of Oldahoma. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the Quapaw 
numbered 2,500. In 1750 Father Vivier stated that they had about 
400 warriers or about 1,400 souls. In 1766, however, the British 
Indian Agent, John Stuart, reported that they had but 220 gunmen. 
Porter estimated that the total Quapaw population in 1829 was 500. 
In 1843 it was 476. In 1885 there were 120 on the Osage Reservation 
and 54 on the Quapaw Reservation, and in 1890, 198 on both. The 
census of 1910 gave 231, but the Indian OflSce Report of 1916, 333, 
and that of 1923, 347. The census of 1930 returned 222. 



S WANTON 1 INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 215 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The native form of the 
name of this tribe, Quapaw, is but seldom used topographically, al- 
though there is a village of the name in Ottawa County, Okla., 
but Arkansas^ the term appUed to them by the Illinois Indians, has 
become affixed to one of the largest branches of the Mississippi and 
to one of the States of the American Union. It has also been given 
to a county and mountain in Arkansas and to cities in that State and 
in Kansas. 

Tunica. From some names given by the chroniclers of De Soto it is 
probable that the Tunica or some tribes speaking their language were 
living in Arkansas in his time. In fact it is not imlikely that the 
Pacaha or Capaha, who have often been identified with the Quapaw, 
were one of these. In later historic times they camped in the north- 
eastern part of Louisiana and probably in neighboring sections of 
Arkansas. (See Alississippi.) 

Yazoo. Like the Tunica this tribe probably camped at times in 
northeastern Louisiana and southeastern Arkansas, but there is no 
direct evidence of the fact. (See Mississippi.) 

TENNESSEE 

Catawba. For a brief period in their later history the Catawba Uved 
among the Cherokee and they may have occupied lands in Tennessee 
at that time. There are indications that they may have been in 
eastern Tennessee at a more remote epoch. (See South Carolina.) 

Cherokee. Meaning unknown, but possibly from Creek tciloki, 
"people of a different speech." The middle and upper dialects sub- 
stitute I for r. Also called: 

Alligewi or Alleghanys, a people appearing in Delaware tradition who 

were perhaps identical with this tribe. 
Ani'-Kltu'hwagI, own name, from one of their most important ancient 

settlements, and extended by Algonquian tribes to the whole. 
Ani'-Y<in'-wiy&', own name, meaning "real people." 
Baniatho, Arapaho name (Gatschet, MS., B, A. E.). 
Entari ronnon, Wyandot name, meaning "mountain people." 
Mfi°t6rd°', Catawba name, meaning "coming out of the ground." 
Ochie'tari-ronnon, a Wyandot name. 

Oyata' ge'ron6n, Iroquois name, meaning "inhabitants of the cave country." 
Sh^naki, Caddo name. 

Shdnnakiak, Fox name (Gatschet, Fox MS., B. A. E.). 
Talligewi, Delaware name (in Walam Glum), see Alligewi. 
Tcdlke, Tonkawa name. 
Tceroki^co, Wichita name. 
Uwatdyo-r6no, Wyandot name, meaning "cave people." 

Connections. — The Cherokee language is the most aberrant form of 
speech of the Iroquoian linguistic family. 



216 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Buli,. 145 

Location. — From the earliest times of which we have any certain 
knowledge the Cherokee have occupied the highest districts at the 
southern end of the Appalachian chain, mainly in the States of 
Tennessee and North Carolina, but including also parts of South 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Virginia, (See also Arkansas, 
Kansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Texas.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

There were anciently three Cherokee dialects which probably corresponded in 
some measure to the three groups of towns into which early traders and explorers 
divided the tribe. These groups, with the towns belonging to each according to 
the Purcell map, but following as far as possible the Handbook (Hodge, 1907, 
1910) orthography, are as follows: 
Lower Settlements: 

Estatoee, 2 towns: Old Estatoee on Tugaloo River below the junction of 
Chattooga and Tullalah Rivers, in Oconee County, S. C; and Estatoee in 
the northwestern part of Pickens County. 

Keowee, 2 towns: Old Keowee on Keowee River near Fort George, Oconee 
County, S. C; and New Keowee on the headwaters of Twelve-mile Creek in 
Pickens County, S. C, the latter also called probably Little Keowee. 

Kulsetsiyi, 3 towns: (1) on Keowee River, near Fall Creek, Oconee County, 
S. C; (2) on Sugartown or Cullasagee Creek near Franklin, Macon County, 
N. C; (3) on Sugartown Creek, near Morganton, Fannin County, Ga. 

Oconee, on Seneca Creek near Walhalla, Oconee County, S. C. 

Qualatchee, 2 towns: (1) on Keowee River, S. C; (2) on the headwaters of 
Chattahoochee River, Ga. 

Tomassee, 2 towns: (1) on Tomassee Creek of Keowee River, Oconee County, 
S. C. ; (2) on Little Tennessee River near the entrance of Burningtown Creek, 
Macon County, S. C. 

Toxaway, on Toxaway Creek, a branch of Keowee River, S. C. 

Tugaloo, on Tugaloo River at the junction of Toccoa Creek, Habersham 
County, Ga. 

Ustanali, several towns so called: (1) on Keowee River below the present Fort 
George, Oconee County, S. C; (2) probably on the waters of Tuckasegee 
River in western North Carolina; (3) just above the junction of Coosawatee 
and Conasauga Rivers to form the Oostanaula River in Gordon County, 
Ga.; (4) perhaps on Eastanollee Creek of Tugaloo River, Franklin County, 
Ga.; (5) perhaps on Eastaunaula Creek flowing into Hiwassee River in Mc- 
Minn County, Tenn.; and (6) possibly another. 
Middle Settlements: 

Cowee, about the mouth of Cowee Creek of Little Tennessee River, about 10 
miles below Franklin, N. C. 

Coweeshee, probably between the preceding and Yunsawi. 

Ellijay, 4 towns: (1) on the headwaters of Keowee River, S. C; (2) on Ellijay 
Creek of Little Tennessee River near Franklin, N. C; (3) about Ellijay in 
Gilmer County, Ga. ; and (4) on Ellejoy Creek of Little River near Marysville 
in Blount County, Tenn. 

Itseyi, 3 towns: (1) on Brasstown Creek of Tugaloo River, Oconee County, 
S. C; (2) on Little Tennessee River near Franklin, N. C; and (3) on upper 
Brasstown Creek of Hiwassee River, Towns County, Ga. 

Jore, on lola Creek, an upper branch of Little Tennessee River, N. C. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 217 

Kituhwa, on Tuckasegee River and extending from above the junction of the 
Oconaluftee nearly to the present Bryson City, Swain County, N. C. 

Nucassee, at the present Franklin, N. C. 

Stikayi, 3 towns: (1) on Sticoa Creek, near Clayton, Rabun County, Ga. ; (2) 
on Tuckasegee River at the old Thomas homestead just above Whittier, 
Swain County, N. C; and (3) on Stekoa Creek of Little Tennessee River, a 
few miles below the junction of Nantahala, Graham County, N. C. 

Tawsee, on Tugaloo River, Habersham County, Ga. 

Tekanitli, in upper Georgia. 

Tessuntee, on Cowee River, south of Franklin, N. C. 

Tikaleyasuni, on Burningtown Creek, an upper branch of Little Tennessee 
River, western North Carolina. 

Watauga, 2 towns: (1) on Watauga Creek, a branch of Little Tennessee River, 
a few miles below Franklin, N. C; (2) traditionally located at Watauga Old 
Fields, about Elizabethtown, on Watauga River, in Carter County, Tenn. 

Yunsawi, on West Buffalo Creek of Cheowa River, Graham County, N. C. 
Over-the-Hills and Valley Settlements, or Overhill Settlements: 

Chatuga, 3 towns: (1) on Chattooga River, on the boundary between South 
Carolina and Georgia; (2) probably on upper Tellico River, Monroe County, 
Tenn.; (3) perhaps on Chattooga River, a tributary of the Coosa, in north- 
west Georgia. 

Chilhowee, on Tellico River in Monroe County, Tenn., near the North Carolina 
border. 

Cotocanahut, between Natuhli and Niowe. 

Echota, 5 towns: (1) Great Echota, on the south side of Little Tennessee 
River, a short distance below Citico Creek, Monroe County, Tenn. ; (2) Little 
Echota on Sautee Creek, a head stream of the Chattahoochee west of Clarks- 
ville, Ga. ; (3) New Echota, at the junction of Oostanaula and Conasauga 
Rivers, Gordon County, Ga.; (4) the old Macedonian Mission on Soco Creek, 
of the North Carolina Reservation; and (5) at the great Nacoochee mound. 
(See Naguchee below.) 

Hiwassee, 2 towns: (1) Great Hiwassee on the north bank of Hiwassee River 
at the present Savannah Ford, above Columbus, Polk County, Tenn.; (2) at 
the junction of Peachtree Creek with Hiwassee River, above Murphy, N. C, 
probably the Guasuli of the De Soto Chroniclers. 

Natuhli, on Nottely River, a branch of Hiwassee River at or near the site of 
the present Ranger, Cherokee County, N. C. 

Nayuhi, seems to have been the name of four towns: (1) probably of the Lower 
Settlements, on the east bank of Tugaloo River, S. C. ; (2) on the upper waters 
of Tennessee River, apparently in North Carolina, and (3 and 4) in the same 
general region, the last three being mentioned by Bartram (1792). 

Sitiku, on Little Tennessee River at the entrance of Citico Creek, Monroe 
County, Tenn. 

Tahlasi, on Little Tennessee River about Talassee Ford in Blount County, 
Tenn. 

Tallulah, 2 towns: (1) on the upper Tallulah River, Rabun County, Ga.; (2) on 
Tallulah Creek of Cheowa River in Graham County, N. C. 

Tamahli, 2 towns: (1) on Valley River a few miles above Murphy, about the 
present Tomatola, Cherokee County, N. C; (2) on Little Tennessee River 
about Tomotley Ford, a few miles above Tellico River in Monroe County, 
Tenn. 

Tellico, 4 towns: (1) Great Tellico, at Tellico Plains on Tellico River, Monroe 
County, Tenn.; (2) Little Tellico, on Tellico Creek of Little Tennessee River 



218 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

about 10 miles below Franklin, N. C; (3) (also called Little Tellico at times) 

on Valley River about 5 miles above Murphy, N. C; (4) Tahlequah, capital 

of the Cherokee Nation in what is now Oklahoma. 
Tennessee, 2 towns: (1) on Little Tennessee River a short distance above its 

junction with the main stream in east Tennessee; (2) on an extreme head 

branch of Tuckasegee River, above the present Webster, N. C. 
Toquo, on Little Tennessee River about the mouth of Toco Creek, Monroe 

County, Tenn. 
Tsiyahi, 3 towns: (1) on a branch of Keowee River, near the present Cheochee, 

Oconee County, S. C; (2) a modern settlement on Cheowa River about 

Robbinsville, N. C; (3) a former settlement in Cades Cove, on Cover Creek, 

Blount County, Tenn. 
Ustanali; according to Purcell's map, there was a town of this name different 

from those already given, on the upper waters of Cheowa River, Graham 

County, N. C. 

Besides the above, the following settlements are given by Mooney and other 
writers: 

Amahyaski, location unknown. 

Amkalali, location unknown. 

Amohi, location unknown. 

Anisgayayi, a traditional town on Valley River, Cherokee County, N. C. 

Anuyi, location unknown. 

Aquohee, perhaps at the site of Fort Scott, on Nantahala River, Macon County, 

N. C. 
Atsiniyi, location unknown. 
Aumuchee, location unknown. 
Ayahliyi, location unknown. 
Big Island, on Big Island, in Little Tennessee River a short distance below the 

mouth of Tellico River. 
Briertown, on Nantahala River about the mouth of Briertown Creek, Macon 

County, N. C. 
Broomtown, location unknown. 
Brown's Village, location unknown. 
Buffalo Fish, location unknown. 
Canuga, 2 towns: (l)apparently on Keowee River, S. C; (2) a traditional town on 

Pigeon River probably near Waynesville, Haywood County, N. C. 
Catatoga, on Cartoogaja Creek of Little Tennessee River above Franklin, N. C. 
Chagee, near the mouth of Chatooga Creek of Tugaloo River at or near Fort 

Madison, southwest Oconee County, S. C. 
Cheesoheha, on a branch of Savannah River in upper South Carolina. 
Chewase, on a branch of Tennessee River in East Tennessee. 
Chlcherohe, on War Woman Creek in the northwestern part of Rabun County, 

Ga. 
Chickamauga, a temporary settlement on Chickamauga Creek near Chattanooga. 
Conisca, on a branch of Tennessee River. 
Conontoroy, an "out town." 
Conoross, on Conoross Creek which enters Keowee or Seneca River from the west 

in Anderson County, S. C. 
Coyatee, on Little Tennessee River about 10 miles below the Tellico, about the 

present Coytee, Loudon County, Tenn. 
Crayfish Town, in upper Georgia. 
Creek Path, with Creeks and Shawnee at Gunter's Landing, Ala. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 219 

Crowmocker, on Battle Creek which falls into Tennessee River below Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 

Crow Town, on the left bank of Tennessee River near the mouth of Raccoon 
Creek, Cherokee County, Ala. 

Cuclon, an unidentified town. 

Cusawatee, on lower Coosawatee River in Gordon County, Ga. 

Dulastunyi, on Nottely River, Cherokee County, N. C, near the Georgia line. 

Dustayalunyi, about the mouth of Shooting Creek, an affluent of Hiwassee River, 
near Hayesville, Clay County, N. C. 

Ecochee, on a head stream of Savannah River in northwest South Carolina or 
northeast Georgia. 

Elakulsi, in northern Georgia. 

Etowah, 2 towns: (1) on Etowah River about the present Hightower, Forsyth 
County, Ga.; (2) a possible settlement on Hightower Creek of Hiwassee River, 
Towns County, Ga. 

Euforsee, location unknown. 

Fightingtown, on Fightingtown Creek, near Morgantown, Fannin County, Ga. 

Frogtown, on a creek of the same name, north of Dahlonega, Lumpkin County, 
Ga. 

Guhlaniyi, occupied by Cherokee and Natchez, at the junction of Brasstown 
Creek with Hiwassee River a short distance above Murphy, N. C. 

Gusti, traditional, on Tennessee River near Kingston, Roane County, Tenn. 

Halfway Town, about halfway between Sitiku and Chilhowee on Little Tennessee 
River about the boundary of Monroe and Loudon Counties, Tenn. 

Hemptown, on Hemptown Creek near Morgantown, Fannin County, Ga. 

Hickory Log, on Etowah River a short distance above Canton, Cherokee County, 
Ga. 

High Tower Forks, probably one of the places called Etowah. 

Ikatikunahita, on Long Swamp Creek about the boundary of Forsyth and Chero- 
kee Counties, Ga. 

Ivy Log, on Ivy Log Creek, Union County, Ga. 

Johnstown, on the upper waters of Chattahoochee River and probably in the 
northern part of Hall County, Ga. 

Kalanunyi, a district or town laid off on the Eastern Cherokee Reserve in Swain 
and Jackson Counties, N. C. 

Kanastunyi, on the headwaters of French Broad River near Brevard in Transyl- 
vania County, N. C, also possibly a second on Hiwassee River. 

Kansaki, 4 towns: (1) on Tuckasegee River a short distance above the present 
Webster in Jackson County, N. C; (2) on the lower course of Canasauga Creek 
in Polk County, Tenn.; (3) at the junction of Conasauga and Coosawatee 
Rivers, the later site of New Echota, Gordon County, Ga. ; (4) mentioned in 
the De Soto narratives but perhaps identical with No. 2. 

Kanutaluhi, in northern Georgia. 

Kawanunyi, about the present Ducktown, Polk County, Tenn, 

Kuhlahi, in upper Georgia. 

Kulahiyi, in northeastern Georgia near Currahee Mountain. 

Leatherwood, at or near Leatherwood in the northern part of Franklin County, 
Ga. 

Long Island, at the Long Island in Tennessee River on the Tennessee-Georgia 
line. 

Lookout Mountain Town, at or near the present Trenton, Dade County, Ga. 



220 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Naguchee, about the junction of Soquee and Sautee Rivers in Nacoochee Valley 
at the head of Chattahoochee River, Habersham County, Ga. 

Nanatlugunyi, traditional, on the site of Jonesboro, Washington County, Tenn. 

Nantahala (see Briertown). 

Nickajack, on the south bank of Tennessee River in Marion County, Tenn. 

Nununyi, on Oconaluftee River near Cherokee, Swain County, N. C. 

Ocoee, on Ocoee River near its junction with the Hiwassee, about Benton, Polk 
County, Tenn. 

Oconaluftee, probably at the present Birdtown, on the Eastern Cherokee Reser- 
vation. 

Ooltewah, about the present Ooltewah, on Ooltewah Creek, James County, Tenn. 

Oothcaloga, on Oothcaloga (Ougillogy) Creek of Oostanaula River near Calhoun, 
Gordon County, Ga. 

Paint Town, on lower Soco Creek, within the reservation in Jackson and Swain 
Counties, N. C. 

Pine Log, on Pine Log Creek in Bartow County, Ga. 

Quacoshatchee, in northwest Pickens County, S. C. 

Qualla, agency of the Eastern Cherokee on a branch of Soco River, Jackson 
County, N. C. 

Quanusee, location unknown. 

Rabbit Trap, in upper Georgia. 

Red Bank, on Etowah River, at or near Canton, Cherokee County, Ga. 

Red Clay, on Oconaluftee River in Swain County, N. C, Eastern Cherokee Reser- 
vation. 

Running Water, on the southeast bank of Tennessee River below Chattanooga, 
near the northwestern Georgia line and 4 miles above Nickajack. 

Sanderstown, in northeastern Alabama. 

Selikwayi, on Sallacoa Creek probably at or near the present Sallacoa, Cherokee 
County, Ga. 

Seneca, on Keowee River about the mouth of Conneross Creek in Oconee County, 
S. C. 

Setsi, traditional, on the south side of Valley River, about 3 miles below Valley- 
town, Cherokee County, N. C. 

Skeinah, on Toccoa River, Fannin County, Ga. 

Soquee, on Soquee River, near ClarksviUe, Habersham County, Ga. 

Spikebuck Town, on Hiwassee River at or near Hayesville, Clay County, N. C. 

Spring Place, a mission station in Murray County, Ga. 

Standing Peach Tree, on Chattahoochee River, at the mouth of Peachtree Creek, 
northwest of Atlanta, Ga. 

Sutali, on Etowah River, probably in southwestern Cherokee County, Ga. 

Suwanee, on Chattahoochee River about the present Suwanee, Gwinnett County, 
Ga. 

Tagwahi, 3 towns: (1) on Toccoa Creek east of ClarkesviUe, Habersham County, 
Ga. ; (2) on Toccoa or Ocoee River about the present Toccoa in Fannin County, 
Ga. ; (3) perhaps on Persimmon Creek which enters Hiwassee River some 
distance below Murphy, Cherokee County, N. C. 

Takwashnaw, a Lower Cherokee town. 

Talahi, location unknown. 

Talaniyi, in upper Georgia. 

Talking Rock, on Talking Rock Creek, an affluent of Coosawattee River, Ga. 

Tasetsi, on the extreme head of Hiwassee River in Towns County, Ga. 

Taskigi, 3 towns occupied originally by Tuskegee Indians (see Alabama) : (1) on 
Little Tennessee River above the junction of the Tellico, Monroe County, 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 221 

Tenn. ; (2) on the north bank of Tennessee River just below Chattanooga, Tenn. ; 

(3) perhaps on Tuskegee Creek of Little Tennessee River near Robbinsville, 

Graham County, N. C. 
Tikwalitsi, on Tuckasegee River at Bryson City, Swain County, N. C. 
Tlanusiyi, at the junction of Hiwassee and Valley Rivers on the site of Murphy, N. C. 
Tocax, location unknovsTi, perhaps connected with Toxaway or Toccoa. 
Torsalla, one of the Keowee towns. 
Tricentee, one of the Keowee towns. 
Tsilaluhi, on a small branch of Brasstown Creek of Hiwassee River, just within 

the lines of Towns County, Ga. 
Tsiskwahi, a district or town in the Eastern Cherokee Reservation, Swain County, N. C. 
Tsistetsiyi, on South Mouse Creek, a branch of Hiwassee River in Bradley 

County,- Tenn. 
Tsistuyi, on the north bank of Hiwassee River at the entrance of Chestua Creek, 

in Polk County, Tenn., at one time occupied by Yuchi. 
Tsudinuntiyi, on lower Nantahala River, in Macon County, N. C. 
Tucharechee, location unknown. 
Tuckasegee, 2 towns: (1) about the junction of the two forks of Tuckasegee 

River, above Webster, Jackson County, N. C; (2) on a branch of Brasstown 

Creek of Hiwassee River, in Towns County, Ga. 
Turkeytown, on the west bank of Coosa River opposite the present Center, 

Cherokee County, Ala. 
Turniptown, on Turniptown Creek above EUijay, Gilmer County, Ga. 
Turtletown, in upper Georgia. 

Tusquittah, on Tusquittee Creek near Hayesville, Clay County, N. C. 
Two Runs, on Etowah River at the crossing of the old Indian trail between Coosa 

and Tugaloo Rivers, Bartow County, Ga. 
Ustisti, one of the Lower Towns. 

Valleytown, at Valleytown on Valley River, Cherokee County, N. C. 
Wahyahi, on upper Soco Creek on the Eastern Cherokee Reservation, Jackson 

County, N. C. 
Wasasa's Village, on Brown's Creek, a southern affluent of Tennessee River in 

northern Alabama. 
Willstown, on Wills Creek, below Fort Payne, De Kalb County, Ala. 

History. — There seems to have been a Cherokee migration legend 
something Hke that of the Creeks according to which the tribe entered 
their historic scats from some region toward the northeast. 

In 1540 De Soto seems to have passed through only one town that 
has a Cherokee name, but Pardo in 1566 learned of another, Tanasqui, 
which has a Cherokee appearance and may have given its name to 
Tennessee River. Continuous contact between the Cherokee and the 
Whites began after Virginia was settled, when traders from that 
colony commenced to work their way into the Appalachian Mountains. 
Contact became more intimate with the founding of the Carolina 
colonies, and a contingent of 310 Cherokee joined Moore in his attack 
on the Tuscarora in 1713. In 1730 Sir Alexander Cuming staged a 
personal embassy to the Cherokee and afterward took seven of the 
Indians to England vnih. him. In 1738 an enemy more serious even 
than White men made its first appearance in this tribe, namely small- 



222 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

pox, which cut down their numbers by nearly 50 percent. In 1755 the 
Cherokee won a great victory over the Abihka Creeks, who forthwith 
withdrew from the Tennessee River. Relations with the Whites 
were upon the whole friendly until 1759 when the Indians refused to 
accede to the demand of the Governor of South Carolina that a number 
of Indians including two leading chiefs be turned over to him for 
execution under the charge that they had killed a White man. He had 
asked also to have 24 other chiefs sent to him merely on suspicion 
that they entertained hostile intentions. War followed, and the 
Indians captured P'ort Loudon, a post in the heart of then* country, 
August 8, 1760, after having defeated an army which came to relieve 
it. The year following, however, the Indians were defeated on 
June 10, by a larger force under Col. James Grant, who laid the, 
greater number of the Middle Cherokee settlements in ashes, and 
compelled the tribe to make peace. In 1769 they are said to have 
suffered a severe defeat at the hands of the Chickasaw at the Chicka- 
saw Oldfields. On the outbreak of the American Revolution they 
sided with the British and continued hostilities after its close down 
to 1794. Meanwhile parties of Cherokee had pushed down Tennessee 
River and formed new settlements near the present Tennessee- 
Alabama boundary. Shortly after 1800 missionary work was begun 
among them, and in 1820 they adopted a regular form of government 
modeled on that of the United States. In the meantime large numbers 
of them, wearied of the encroachments of the Whites, had crossed the 
Mississippi and settled in the territory now included in the State of 
Arkansas. In 1821 Sequoya, son of a mixed-blood Cherokee woman by 
a White man, submitted a syllabary of his own devising to the chief 
men of the nation, and, on their approval, the Cherokee of all ages 
set about learning it with such zeal that in a few months numbers of 
them were able to read and write by means of it. In 1822 Sequoya 
went west to teach his alphabet to the Indians of the western- division, 
and he remained among them permanently. The pressure of the 
Whites upon the frontiers of the Eastern Cherokee was soon increased 
by the discovery of gold near the present Dahlonega, Ga., and after 
a few years of fruitless struggle the nation bowed to the inevitable 
and by the treaty of New Echota, December 29, 1835, sold all of their 
territories not previously given up and agreed to remove to the other 
side of the Mississippi to lands to be set apart for them. These lands 
were in the northeastern part of the present Oklahoma, and thither 
the greater part of the tribe removed in the winter of 1838-39, suffering 
great hardships and losing nearly one-fourth of their number on the 
way. Before the main migration took place one band of Cherokee 
had established themselves in Texas where they obtained a grant of 
land from the Mexican government, but the Texas revolutionists 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 223 

refused to recognize this claim although it was supported by Gon. 
Sam Houston. In consequence, the Cherokee chief Bowl was killed 
in 1839, along with many of his men, and the rest were expelled from 
the State. At the time of the great migration, several hundred 
Cherokee escaped to the mountains where they lived as refugees until 
in 1842, through the efforts of William H. Thomas, an influential 
trader, they received permission to remain on lands set apart for their 
use in western North Carolina, the Qualla Reservation, where their 
descendants still reside. The early years of the reestablished Cherokee 
Nation west of the Mississippi were troubled by differences between 
the faction that had approved removal and that which had opposed it. 
Afterward the tribal life was entirely disrupted for a few years by the 
Civil War. In 1867 and 1870 the Delaw^arc and Shawnee were 
admitted from Kansas and incorporated into the nation. March 3, 
1906, the Cherokee government came to an end, and in time the lands 
were allotted in severalty, and the Cherokee people soon became 
citizens of the new State of Oklahoma. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there was a 
total Cherokee population of 22,000. In 1715 a rather careful esti- 
mate, yet in all probability too low, gave a total of 11,210 (Lower 
Cherokee 2,100; Middle 6,350; Upper 2,760), including 4,000 warriors 
and distributed among 60 villages. In 1720 two estimates wxre 
made, of 10,000 and 11,500 respectively, but in 1729 the estimate 
jumps to 20,000, with 6,000 warriors, distributed in 64 towns. In 
1755 a North Carolina estimate gives 5 divisions of the tribe iind a 
total of 2,590 men. In 1760 we find a flat figure of 2,000; in 1761, 
about 3,000. Even before this time the Cherokee are supposed to 
have lost heavily from smallpox, intoxicants, and wars with the 
colonists, but at the time of their forced removal to the west in 1838 
those in their old country had increased to 16,542. Those already in 
the w^est were estimated at about 6,000. The Civil War interfered 
with their growth but in 1885 they numbered 19,000, about 17,000 
being in the west. In 1902 there were officially reported in the west 
28,016 persons of Cherokee blood, including all degrees of admixture, 
but this includes several thousand persons repudiated by the tribal 
courts. The Census of 1910 returned 31,489 Cherokee, 29,610 of 
whom were in Oklahoma, 1,406 in North Carolina, and the rest 
scattered in 23 other States. In 1923 the report of the United States 
Indian OflSce gave 36,432 Cherokee "by blood" in Oklahoma, and 2,515 
in North Carolina: total 38,947. In 1930, 45,238 were returned: 
40,904 in Oklahoma, 1,963 in North Carolina, and the rest in more 
than 36 other States. In 1937 the number of eastern Cherokee was 
given as 3,327. 



224 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Cherokee tribe is 
one of the most famous in all North America, (1) on account of its 
size and strength and the prominent part it played in the history of 
our country, (2) from the fact that the invention of the Cherokee 
alphabet by Sequoya was the only case of the adoption of a system 
of writing without immediate White prompting in the annals of our 
Indians, (3) from the perpetuation of numerous place names from 
Cherokee sources and of the name itself in counties in Alabama, 
Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Oldahoma, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
and Texas, and places in some of these States and California, Ken- 
tucky, and Arkansas; in Colbdrt County, Ala.; Cherokee County, 
Iowa; Crawford County, Kans.; Lawrence County, Ky.; and the name 
of stations in Louisville, Ky.; Swain County, N. C; Alfalfa County, 
Okla.; and San Saba County, Tex. There is a Cherokee City in 
Benton County, Ark.; Cherokee Dam at Jefferson City, Tenn.; and 
Cherokee Falls in Cherokee County, S. C. Several prominent Ameri- 
cans were descended from this tribe, including Senator Robert Owen 
and Will Rogers. 

Chiaha. A part of this tribe was encountered by De Soto in 1540, in 
the territory now forming this State, probably, as shown by Mr. 
J. Y. Brame, on what is now Burns Island. They are also men- 
tioned in connection with the explorations of Juan Pardo in 
1567. (See Georgia.) 

Chickasaw. In historic times the Chickasaw claimed the greater 
part of western Tennessee, and twice drove Shawnee Indians from 
the Cumberland Valley, the first time with the assistance of the 
Cherokee, according to the claim of the latter. At an early date 
they had a settlement on the lower Tennessee River but it is doubt- 
ful whether this was in Temiessee or Kentucky. (See Mississippi.) 

Kaskinampo. Meaning unknown, though -nampo may be the 
Koasati word for "many." 

Connections. — The Kaskinampo were probably closely related to 
the Koasati, and through them to the Alabama, Choctaw, and other 
Muskhogean people. 

Location. — Their best-known historic location was on the lower end 
of an island in the Tennessee River, probably the one now called 
Pine Island. (See also Arkansas.) 

History. — There is every reason to believe that this tribe constituted 
the Casqui, Icasqui, or Casquin "province" which De Soto entered 
immediately after crossing the Mississippi River, and it was probably 
in what is now Phillips County, Ark. We hear of the Kaskinampo 
next in connection with the expeditions of Marquette and Joliet but 
do not learn of their exact location until 1701, when they seem to 



SWANTOr,-] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 225 

have been on the lower end of the present Pine Island. . We are 
informed, however, by one of the French explorers that they had 
previously lived upon Cumberland River, and there is evidence that, 
when they first moved to the Tennessee, they may have settled for 
a short time near its mouth. Both the Cumberland and the Tennessee 
were Icnown bj'- their name, and it stuck persistently to the latter 
stream until well along in the eighteenth century. After the early 
years of the eighteenth century we hear little more of them, but 
there is reason to believe that they united with the Koasati. 

Population. — Our only clue to the population of the Kaskinampo 
is in an unpublished report of Bienville, who estimates 150 men, or 
a total population of about 500. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Kaskinampo are 
distinguished only for the prominent part they played in the De Soto 
narratives and for the application of their name for a time to Tennessee 
River. 

Mosopelia. This tribe probably established themselves on Cumber- 
land River and at one or two points on the Tennessee shore of the 
Alississippi on their way from Ohio to Mississippi. (See Ofo under 
Mississippi and Ohio.) 

Muskogee. Although we do not have records of any settlement in 
Tennessee by the true Muskogee, it is probable that some of them 
occupied part of its territory in prehistoric times, and at a later 
date their war parties constantly visited it. (See Alabama.) 

Natchez. After being driven from Mississippi and Louisiana, one 
band of Natchez lived among the Cherokee. (See Mississippi.) 

Ofo, see Mosopelia. 

Shawnee. Meaning "southerners," the best-known variants of the 
name being the French form Chaouanons, and that which appears 
in the name of Savannah River. Also called: 

Ani'-SawUnu'gl, by the Cherokee. 

Ontwagana, "one who stutters," "one whose speech is unintelligible," 

applied by the Iroquois to this tribe and many others. 
Oshawanoag, by the Ottawa. 
Shawala, by the Teton Dakota. 

Connections. — The Shawnee belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock, their closest relatives being the Fox, Sauk, and Kickapoo. 

Location. — There was scarcely a tribe that divided so often or moved 
so much as the Shawnee, but one of the earliest historic seats of the 
people as a whole was on Cumberland River. (See also Alabama, 
Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South 
Carolina, Texas, Virginia.) 



226 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Subdivisions and Villages 

There were five subdivisions of long standing, Chillicothe, Hathawekela, Kis- 
pokotha, Mequachake, and Piqua. The Hathawekela, Kispokotha, and Piqua 
later formed one body known as Absentee Shawnee. The following names of 
villages have been preserved: 

Bulltown, or Mingo, on Little Kanawha River, W. Va. 

Chillicothe, 3 or 4 towns: (1) on Paint Creek on the site of Oldtown, near Chilli- 
cothe in Ross County, Ohio; (2) on the Little Miami about the site of Oldtown 

in Greene County, Ohio; (3) on the Great Miami River at the present Piqua in 

Miami County; (4) probably the native name of Lowertown (see below). 
Conedogwinit, location unknown. 
Cornstalk's Town, on Scippo Creek opposite Squaw Town, Pickaway County, 

Ohio. 
Girty's^Town, on St. Mary's River, east of Celina Reservoir, Auglaize County, 

Ohio. 
Grenadier Squaw's Town, on Scippo Creek, Pickaway County, Ohio. 
Hog Creek, on a branch of Ottawa River in Allen County, Ohio. 
Kagoughsage, apparently in Ohio or western Pennsylvania. 
Lewistown (and Seneca), near the site of the present Lewistown, Logan County, 

Ohio. 
Lick Town, probably Shawnee, on upper Scioto River, probably near Circleville, 

Ohio. 
Logstown, with Delaware, and later Iroquois, on the right bank of Ohio River 

about 14 miles below Pittsburgh, in Allegheny County, Pa. 
Long Tail's Settlement, in Johnson County, Kans. 
Lowertown, 2 towns; (1) on Ohio River just below the mouth of the Scioto and 

later built on the opposite side of the river about the site of Portsmouth, Ohio; 

(2) in Ross County, also called Chillicothe. 
Mequachake: There were several towns of the name occupied by people of this 

division; they also had villages on the headwaters of Mad River, Logan County, 

Ohio. 
Old Shawnee Town, on Ohio River in Gallia County, Ohio, 3 miles above the 

mouth of the Great Kanawha. 
Peixtan (or Nanticoke), on or near the lower Susquehanna River in Dauphin 

County, Pa., possibly on the site of Paxtonville. 
Pigeon Town, Mequachake division, on Mad River, 3 miles northwest of West 

Liberty, Logan County, Ohio. 
Piqua, 4 towns: (1) Pequea on Susquehanna River at the mouth of Pequea Creek, 

in Lancaster County, Pa.; (2) on the north side of Mad River, about 5 miles 

west of Springfield, Clark County, Ohio; (3) Upper Piqua on Miami River 3 

miles north of the present Piqua in Miami County, Ohio, and (4) Lower Piqua, 

a smaller village on the site of the modern town of that name, Ohio. 
Sawanogi, on the south side of Tallapoosa River in Macon County, Ala. ; but see 

Muskogee in Alabama. 
Scoutash's Town (or Mingo), near Lewistown, Logan County, Ohio. 
Shawneetown, on the west bank of Ohio River about the present Shawneetown, 

Gallatin County, 111. 
Sonnioto, at the mouth of Scioto River, Ohio, perhaps the same as Lowertown. 
Tippecanoe, on the west bank of the Wabash River, just below the mouth of 

Tippecanoe River in Tippecanoe County, Ind. 
Wapakoneta, on the site of the present Wapakoneta, Auglaize County, Ohio. 
V/ill's Town, at the site of Cumberland, Md. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 227 

History. — Tradition and the known linguistic connections of the 
Shawnee indicate that they had migrated to the Cumberland River 
Valley from the north not long previous to the historic period. They 
were on and near the Cumberland when French explorers first heard 
of them, although there are indications that they had been in part on 
the Ohio not long before. Shortly after 1674 the Hatha wekela or 
that part of the Shawnee afterward so called, settled upon Savannah 
River, and in 1681 they proved of great assistance to the new colony 
of South Cai'olina by driving a tribe known as Westo, probably part 
of the Yuchi, from the middle Savannah. Early in the following 
century, or possibly very late in the same centiu-y, some of these 
Hathawekela began to move to Pennsylvania and continued to do so 
at intervals until 1731, Meanwhile, however, immediately after the 
Yamasee War, a part had retired among the Creeks, settling first on 
Chattahoochee River and later on the Tallapoosa, where they remained 
until some years before the removal of the Creeks to the west. Of the 
remaining bands of Shawnee — those which had stayed upon the 
Cumberland — part of the Piqua moved eastward into Pennsylvania 
about 1678, and more in 1694, so that they were able to welcome their 
kinsmen from the south a few years later. A French trader named 
Charleville established himself at Nashville among the rest of the 
tribe, but soon afterward they were forced out of that region by the 
Cherokee and Chickasaw. They stopped for a time at several points 
in Kentucky, and perhaps at Shawneetown, 111., but about 1730, by 
permission of the Wyandot, collected along the north bank of the 
Ohio between the Allegheny and Scioto Rivers. Shortly after the 
middle of the eighteenth century they were joined by their kinsmen 
who had been Uving in Pennsylvania. One Pennsylvania band con- 
tinued on south to the Upper Creeks with whom they Hved for several 
years before returning north. Their return must have occurred soon 
after 1760, and they are said to have settled for a time in the old 
Shawnee country on the Cumberland but were soon ejected by the 
Chickasaw, this time unassisted by the Cherokee. From the beginning 
of the French and Indian War to the treaty of Greenville in 1795 the 
main body of Shawnee were almost constantly fighting with the 
English or the Americans. They were the most active and perti- 
nacious foes of the Whites in that section. Driven from the Scioto, 
they settled upon the headwaters of the Miami, and later many of 
them assisted the Cherokee and Creeks in their wars with the Ameri- 
cans. In 1793, however, one considerable body, on invitation of the 
Spanish Government, occupied a tract of land near Cape Girardeau, 
Mo., along with some Delaware. After the treaty of Greenville, the 
Shawnee were obUged to give up their lands on the Miami, and part 
retired to the headwaters of the Auglaize, while the more hostile 



228 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

element swelled the numbers of those who had gone to Missouri . In 
1798 a part of the Shawnee in Ohio settled on White River, Ind., by 
invitation of the Delaware. Shortly afterward a Shawnee medicine 
man named Tenskwatawa, known to the Whites as "the Shawnee 
prophet," began to preach a new doctrine which exhorted the Indians 
to return to the communal life of their ancestors, abandoning all cus- 
toms derived from the Whites, His followers increased rapidly in 
numbers and established themselves in a village at the mouth of 
Tippecanoe River, Ind. Their hostile attitude toward the Whites soon 
becoming evident, they were attacked here in 1811 by Gen. W. H. 
Harrison and totally defeated. While this war was going on 
Tecumseh, Tenskwatawa's famous brother, was in the south endeavor- 
ing to bring about an uprising among the tribes in that section. In 
the war between the Americans and British which broke out in 1812 
Tecumseh acted as leader of the hostiles and was killed at the battle 
of the Thames in 1814. In 1825 the Shawnee in Missouri, who are 
said to have taken no part in these wars, sold their lands, and most of 
them moved to a reservation in Kansas, but a large part had pre- 
viously gone to Texas, where they remained until expelled by the 
American colonists in 1839. About 1831 the Shawnee still in Ohio 
joined those in Kansas, and about 1845 the Hathawekela, Kispokotha, 
and Piqua moved from Kansas to Oklahoma and estabhshed them- 
selves on Canadian River, becoming known later as the Absentee 
Shawnee. In 1867, a band which had been living with the Seneca 
also moved to what is now Oklahoma and came to be known as Eastern 
Shawnee; and still later the main body became incorporated with the 
Cherokee. One band, known as Black Bob's band, at first refused to 
remove from Kansas, but later joined the rest. All have now become 
citizens of Oklahoma. 

Population. — Owing to the number of separate bodies into which 
this tribe became divided, and their complex history, estimates of 
Shawnee population in early times are difficult. Mooney (1928) 
places their entire number at 3,000 in 1650. Estimates made by 
various writers during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries 
vary between 1,000 and 2,000, 1,500 being the favorite figure. In 
1760 the Abihka and Tallapoosa bands numbered 100 warriors. In 
1909 the Eastern Shawnee numbered 107; the Absentee Shawnee, 481; 
and those incorporated with the Cherokee Nation, about 1,400. The 
census of 1910 returned only 1,338. In 1923, 166 Eastern Shawnee 
were enumerated and 551 Absentee, but no figures were given for that 
part of the tribe in the Cherokee Nation. The census of 1930 gave 
1,161, most of whom were in Oklahoma. There were 916 in Oklahoma 
in 1937. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 229 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Although prominent 
by virtue of its size, the Shawnee tribe is noteworthy rather on 
account of numerous migrations undertaken by its various branches 
and the number of contacts estabhshed by them, involving the 
history of three-quarters of our southern and eastern States. They 
constituted the most formidable opposition to the advance of settle- 
ments through the Ohio Valley, and under Tecumseh and Tenskwa- 
tawa attempted an extensive alhance of native tribes to oppose the 
Whites. The name Shawnee is preserved in various forms in Pennsyl- 
vania, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Kansas, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, 
Missouri, and Illinois, and most conspicuously of all, perhaps, in the 
name of the river Savannah and the city of Savannah, Ga. There 
are places called Shawnee in Park County, Colo.; Johnson County, 
Kans.; Perry County, Ohio; Pottawatomie County, Okla.; and Con- 
verse County, Wyo.; Shawnee-on-Delaware in Monroe County, Pa.; 
Shawanee in Claiborne County, Tenn.; Shawanese in Luzerne County, 
Pa.; Shaw^ano in Shawano County, Wis.; Shawneetown in Gallatin 
County, 111., and Cape Girardeau County, Mo. 

Tali. A tribe met by De Soto near the great bend of the Tennessee 
and found in the same region by the earliest English and French 
explorers, living in what is now northern Alabama and perhaps 
also in Tennessee. It is probable that they were a part of the 
Creeks (q. v.). 

Tuskegee. One band of Tuskegee formed a settlement or settlements 
in the Cherokee Nation. (See Cherokee, and Tuskegee under 
Alabama.) 

Yuchi. The greater part of the Yuchi probably lived at one period 
in and near the mountains of eastern Tennessee though one band of 
them was on the Tennessee River just above Muscle Shoals and 
there is evidence for an early occupation of the Hiwassee Valley. 
Some remained with the Cherokee until a very late date. (See 
Georgia.) 

KENTUCKY 

Cherokee. The Cherokee claimed some land in southeastern Ken- 
tucky and traces of culture of Cherokee type are said to be found 
in archeological remains along the upper course of the Cumberland, 
but no permanent Cherokee settlement is knowm to have existed in 
historic times within this State. (See Tennessee.) 

Chickasaw. The westernmost end of Kentucky w-as claimed by the 
Chickasaw, and at a very early period they had a settlement on the 
lower course of Tennessee River, either in Kentucky or Tennessee. 
(See Mississippi.) 



230 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Mosopelea. This tribe may have hved within the boundaries of 
Kentucky for a brief time, perhaps at the mouth of the Cumberland 
River, when they were on their way from Ohio to the lower Missis- 
sippi. (See Ohio, and see also Ofo under Mississippi.) 

Shawnee. The Shawnee had more to do with Kentucky in early 
times than any other tribe, but maintained few villages in the State 
for a long period. Their more permanent settlements were farther 
south about Nashville. At one Shawnee town, located for a short 
time near Lexington, Ky., the noted Shawnee chief, Blackhoof, was 
born. The tribe crossed and recrossed the State several times in 
its history and used it still more frequently as a hunting ground. 
(See Tennessee.) 

Yuchi. According to some early maps, the Yuchi had a town in this 
State on a river which appears to be identical with Green River. 
(See Georgia.) 
Hunting bands of Illinois, Miami, Iroquois, and Delaware at times 

visited Kentucky, but these tribes can hardly be said to have played 

much of a part in Kentucky history. (See New York, New Jersey, 

Indiana, and Illinois.) 

OHIO 

Chippewa. Representatives of this tribe appear as parties to the 
Treaty of Greenville, 1795, and to treaties concluded in 1807 and 
1817 by which lands in this State were relinquished to the Whites. 
(See Minnesota.) 

Delaware. The Delaware lived in Ohio for a considerable period in 
the course of their migration west under White pressure (See New 
Jersey.) 

Erie. Meaning in Iroquois, "long tail," and referring to the panther, 
from which circumstance they are often referred to as the Cat 
Nation. Also called: 

Ga-qua'-ga-o-no, by L. H. Morgan (1851). 

Connection. — The Erie belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family. 

Location. — All of northern Ohio, except possibly the northwestern 
corner, and in portions of northwestern Pennsylvania and western New 
York, In the southeastern part of the State they perhaps reached 
the Ohio River. (See also Indiana, New York, and Pennsylvania.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The names of but two villages are known, Gentaienton and Riqu6. There are 
supposed to have been several subdivisions, but their names have not been 
preserved. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OP NORTH AMERICA 231 

History. — Little is known of this tribe until the final struggle which 
resulted in its destruction as a nation at the hands of the Iroquois 
and the incorporation of most of the remnants among the conquerors. 
The war lasted from 1653 to 1656 and seems to have been unusually- 
bloody, the victory of the Iroquois having been determined probably 
by the fact that they possessed firearins. Some of the so-called 
Seneca of Oklahoma may be descended from Erie refugees. 

Population. — Hewitt (1907) considers 14,500 a conservative esti- 
mate of Erie population at the time of the last war, but Mooney 
(1928) allows only 4,000. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The historical prom- 
inence of the Erie tribe itself is confined to the war in which it was 
destroyed. Its claim to present remembrance arises from the adoption 
of the name for one of the Great Lakes; for an important city in 
Permsylvania upon its shores; counties in New York, Ohio, and 
Pennsylvania; places in Weld County, Colo.; Whiteside County, 111.; 
Neosho County, Kans.; Monroe County, Mich.; Cass County, 
N. Dak.; Loudon County, Tenn.; Erieside in Lake County, Ohio; and 
Erieville in Madison County, N. Y., and some smaller settlements; 
also an important railroad. 

Honniasont. This tribe occupied parts of the eastern fringe of Ohio 
after it had been incorporated into the Iroquois and perhaps before. 
(See Pennsylvania.) 

Illinois. Representatives of the Illinois were parties to the Treaty of 
Greenville by which lands of the State of Ohio were relinquished to 
the Whites. (See Illinois.) 

Iroquois. After the destruction or dispersal of the Erie and other 
native tribes of Ohio, many Iroquois settlements were made in the 
State, particularly by the westernmost tribe, the Seneca. Some of 
these so-called Iroquois villages were no doubt occupied by people 
of formerly independent nations. (See New York.) 

Kickapoo. Representatives of this tribe were parties to the Treaty 
of Greenville by which Ohio lands were relinquished to the Whites. 
(See Wisconsin.) 

Miami. After the original tribes of Ohio had been cleared away, 
some Miami worked their way into the State, particularly into the 
western and northern parts, and they gave their name to three Oliio 
rivers, the Miami, Little Miami, and Maumee. (See Indiana.) 

Mosopelea. Significance uncertain, though probably from an Algon- 
quian language. Also called: 

Chonque, by Tonti in 1690, probably the Quapaw name. 
Ofo, own name, perhaps an abbreviation of the Mobilian term, Ofogoula, 
though this last may mean simply "Ofo people." Ofogoula may also be 



232 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

interpreted Ofi okla, "Dog People." They were, in fact, known to some 
of the other tribes as "Dog People." 
Ouesperie, Ossipe, Ushpee, names by which they were known to other 
tribes and evidently shortened forms of Mosopelea, which has a variant 
in r. 

Connections. — The Mosopelea spoke a Siouan dialect most closely 
related to Biloxi and Tutelo and secondarily to Dakota. 

Location. — When the French first heard of them, they were in 
southwestern Ohio, but their best-known historical location was on the 
lower Yazoo, close to the Yazoo and Koroa Indians. (See also 
Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee.) 

Villages 

Anciently they had eight villages, but none of the names of these have been 
preserved. 

History. — After abandoning southwestern Ohio some time before 
1673, the Mosopelea appear to have settled on the Cumberland, driven 
thither probably by the Iroquois, and to have given it the name it 
bears in Coxe's map (1741), Ouesperie, a corruption of Mosopelea. 
By 1673 they had descended to the Mississippi and established them- 
selves on its western side below the mouth of the Ohio. Later they 
appear to have stopped for a time among the Quapaw, but before 
1686 at least part of them had sought refuge among the Taensa. 
Their reason for leaving the latter tribe is unknown, but Iberville 
found them in the historic location above given in 1699. He inserts 
their name twice, once in the form Ofogoula and once as "Ouispe," 
probably a corruption of Mosopelea. When their neighbors, the 
Yazoo and Koroa, joined in the Natchez uprising, the Ofo refused 
to side with them and went to live with the Tunica, who were French 
allies. Shortly before 1739 they had settled close to Fort Rosalie, 
where they remained untU after 1758. In 1784 their village was on 
the western bank of the Mississippi 8 miles above Point Couple, but 
nothing more was heard of them until 1908, when I found a single 
survivor living among the Tunica just out of Marksville, La., and 
was able to establish their linguistic connections. 

Population. — In 1700 the Mosopelea are said to have occupied 10-12 
cabins, but some years later Le Page du Pratz (1758) gives 60. In 
1758 they are reported to have had 15 warriors and in 1784, 12. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The most noteworthy 
circumstance connected with this tribe is its romantic history and 
the recovery of the knowledge of the same. 

Neutrals. The Neutral Nation may have occupied a little territory 
in the extreme northwest of Ohio. (See New York.) 

Ofo, see Mosopelea. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 233 

Ottawa. In the eighteenth century, Ottawa worked into the northern 
part of Ohio and estabhshed settlements along the shore of Lake 
Erie. (See Michigan.) 

Potawatomi. Representatives of this tribe were parties to the Treaty 
of Greenville in 1795 and to treaties made in 1805, 1807, and 1817 
by which lands in this State were relinquished to the Whites. 
(See Michigan.) 

Seneca, see Iroquois, under New York. 

Shawnee. It is probable that some Shawnee were in Ohio at very 
early periods. After they had been driven from the Cumberland 
Valley by the Chickasaw and Cherokee shortly after 1714, they 
worked their way north into this State and, as they were joined by 
the former eastern and southern bands, Ohio became the Shawnee 
center for a considerable period, until after the Treaty of Green- 
ville. (See Tennessee.) 

Wyandot. Meaning perhaps "islanders," or "dwellers on a penin- 
sula." Occasionally spelled Guyandot. At an earlier date usually 
known as Huron, a name given by the French from hur^, "rough," 
and the depreciating suffix -on. Also called: 

HatindiaSointen, Huron name of Huron of Lorette. 

Nadowa, a name given to them and many other Iroquoian tribes by 

Algonquians. 
Telamateno", Delaware name, meaning "coming out of a mountain or 

cave." 
Thastchetci', Onondaga name. 

Connection. — The Wyandot belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic 
family. 

Location. — The earliest known location of the Huron proper was 
the St. Lawrence Valley and the territory of the present province of 
Ontario from Lake Ontario across to Georgian Bay, The Tionontati 
were just west of them on Lake Huron. (See also Illinois, Indiana, 
Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

There are said to have been four confederated Huron tribes in the time of 
Champlain. 

Cartier, who first met these people, gives the following town names: 
Araste, on or near St. Lawrence River below the site of Quebec. 
Hagonchenda, on St. Lawrence River not far from the point where it is joined by 

Jacques Cartier River. 
Hochelaga, on Montreal Island. 
Hochelay, probably near Point Platon, Quebec. 
Satadin, location uncertain. 
Stadacona, on the site of the present Quebec. 



234 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Starnatan, just below the site of Quebec. 
Tailla, near Quebec. 
Teguenondahi, location uncertain. 
Tutonaguay, 25 leagues above the site of Quebec. 

The following towns, some under their native names and others under the names 
of the missions established by the French Jesuits, existed in Ontario between Lake 
Simcoe and Georgian Bay in the first half of the seventeenth century: 

Andiata. 

Angoutenc, between the refugee Wenrohronon town and Ossossan^ and about 2 

miles from the latter. 
Anonatea, 1 league from Ihonatiria. 
Arendaonatia. 
Arente. 

Arontaen, near Point Cockburn, on the north shore of Nattawasaga Bay. 
Cahiague, where was the mission of St. John the Baptist. 
Carhagouha, in Tiny Township about 2 miles northwest of Lafontaine. 
Carmaron. 
Ekiodatsaan, 
Endarahy. 
lahenhouton. 

Ihonatiria, where was the mission of the Immaculate Conception. 
Karenhassa. 

Khinonascarant, the name of three small villages. 
Onentisati, in Tiny Township. 
Ossossan^, where was the mission of the Immaculate Conception after it was 

moved from Ihonatiria. 
Ste. Agnes. 
Ste. Anne. 
St. Antoine. 
Ste. Barbe. 
Ste. Catherine. 
Ste. C^cile. 

St. Charles, 2 villages. 
St. Denys. 
St. Etienne. 
St. Frangois Xavier. 
Ste. Genevieve. 
St. Joachim, 
St. Louis. 
Ste. Madeleine. 
St. Martin. 
Ste. Marie, 2 villages. 
Ste. T^r^se. 

Scanonaerat, where was the mission of St. Michel. 
Taenhatentaron, where was the mission of St. Ignace. 

Teanaustaya6, whither the mission of St. Joseph was moved from Ihonatiria (?). 
Teandewiata. 
Tondakhra, on the west side of the northern peninsula of Tiny Township, 4 miles 

northwest of Lafontaine and about 1 mile southeast of Clover Point. 
Touaguainchain, perhaps where the mission of Ste. Madeleine was established. 

After the Huron had been broken up by the Iroquois there was for a time a 
Huron mission on Mackinac Island, called St. Ignace, which was soon moved to 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 235 

Point Ignace on the shore to the northward. A part of the tribe settled succes- 
sively in villages called Ancienne Lorette and Jeune Lorette, 8 miles northwest of 
Quebec. 

The following names of Huron or Wyandot towns are recorded in Ohio after the 
part of the tribe which moved west and south had collected there: 

Cranetown, 2 towns: (1) on the site of the present Royalton, Fairfield County; 

(2) in Crawford County, 8 or 10 miles northeast of the present Upper Sandusky. 
Junquoindundeh, on Sandusky River 24 miles above its mouth. 
Junundat, on a small creek that empties into a little lake below the mouth of 

Sandusky River, Seneca County. 
Sandusky, 2 towns: (1) Lower Sandusky on the site of Sandusky, Erie County; 

(2) Upper Sandusky near the present town of that name in Wyandot County. 

There was a Wyandot village in Wayne County, Mich., called Brownstown, 
occupied by people of this tribe from 1809 to 1818. 

History. — The St. LawreDce territories seem to have been occupied 
by two of the four Huron tribes when Cartier explored the St. Lawrence 
River in 1534-43; at any rate Hurons were in occupancy. When 
Champlain came into the country in 1603, they were all living south 
of Georgian Bay. The French soon entered into amicable relations 
with them and, beginning in 1615, missionaries undertook to convert 
them to Cliristianity. These efforts were crowned with considerable 
success, but were brought to an end when the tribe was attacked and 
disrupted by the Iroquois in 1648-49. Part of the Huron were then 
adopted by their conquerors, while part placed themselves under the 
protection of the French at Quebec, their descendants being known 
today as the Hurons of Lorette, and others fled to the Neutrals, the 
Erie, the Tionontati, and other tribes. In 1649, however, the Tio- 
nontati were attacked in their turn and forced along with their 
Huron guests to take refuge on Christian Island in Lake Huron. 
Then followed a long course of wandering; to Michilimackinac; Mani- 
toulin Island; Green Bay; the Potawatomi; the Illinois; the neigh- 
borhood of the Ottawa on Chequamigon Bay, on the south shore of 
Lake Superior; and again to Michilimackinac. In the latter part of 
the seventeenth century some moved to Sandusky, Ohio, and Detroit, 
Mich. In 1745 a considerable party of Huron under the leadership 
of the war chief Orontony or Nicholas went from Detroit to the 
marshlands of Sandusky Bay, but in 1748, on the failure of a con- 
spiracy Orontony had attempted against the French, he abandoned 
his villages and removed to White River, Ind. After his death the 
Hurons seem to have returned to Detroit and Sandusky and gradually 
extended their claims over Ohio, so that it was by their permission 
that the Shawnee from the south and the Delaware from the east 
settled north of Ohio River. The Wyandot allied themselves with 
the British in the War of 1812. At its close a large tract of land in 



236 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Ohio and Michigan was confirmed to them, but they sold much of it 
in 1819, under treaty provisions, reserving a small portion near Upper 
Sandusky, Ohio, and a smaller area on Huron River, near Detroit, 
until 1842, when these tracts also were sold, and the tribe removed to 
Wyandotte County, Kans. In 1867 they were placed upon a small 
reservation in the northeastern part of the Indian Territory and are 
now citizens of the State of Oldahoma, 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1600 there were 
10,000 Huron and 8,000 Tionontati. French estimates of the first 
half of the seventeenth century range from 20,000 to 30,000, the former 
figure being one that Hewitt (in Hodge, 1907) is inclined to accept. 
After the dispersal, the Hurons of Lorette were estimated at 300 in 
1736 but placed officially at 455 in 1904. The following figures are 
given for the other Huron: 1,000 in 1736; 500 and 850 in 1748; 1,250 
in 1765; 1,500 in 1794-95; 1,000 and 1,250 in 1812. In 1885 the 
Huron in Oklahoma numbered 251; in 1905, 378; and by the census 
of 1910, 353. In 1923 there were 502 in Oklahoma and in 1924, 399 
at Lorette, Canada: total 901. The census of 1930 returned exactly 
the same number in the United States as had the census of 1910. In 
1937, 783 were reported in Oklahoma. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Wyandot tribe is 
famous, (1) from the fact that it was the chief tribe or group of tribes 
encountered by Cartier when he explored the St. Lawrence, (2) for the 
flourishing missions maintained among them by the French Jesuits, 

(3) for the tragic destruction of their confederacy by the Iroquois, 

(4) from the various applications of the names Huron and Wyandot, 
the former including one of the Great Lakes and also rivers and coun- 
ties in Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario ; places in Fresno County, Calif. ; 
Lawrence County, Ind.; Atchison County, Kans.; Erie County, Ohio; 
Beadle County, S. Dak.; Henderson County, Tenn.; and the Huron 
Mountains in Marquette County, Mich. Wyandot was applied in 
the forms Wyandot or Wyandotte to counties in Ohio and Kansas; 
to places in Wyandot County, Ohio; Crawford County, Ind.; Butte 
County, California; Ottawa County, Okla.; and Wayne County, 
Mich.; and a famous cave, Wyandotte Cave, 4 miles northeast of 
Leavenworth, Ind. In the form Guyandotte, the name of the Wyan- 
dot has been given to a river, mountains, and a town in West Virginia. 

INDIANA 

Chippewa. Representatives of this tribe appear as parties to the 
Treaty of Greenville in 1795 and treaties made in 1817 and 1821 
by which lands in Indiana were relinquished to the Whites. (See 
Minnesota.) 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 237 

Delaware. About 1770 the Delaware, most of whom were then living 
in Ohio, received permission from the Miami and Piankashaw to 
occupy that part of Indiana between the Ohio and White Rivers, 
where at one period they had six villages. In course of time, all 
moved west of the Mississippi to Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma. 
(See New Jersey.) 

Erie. Erie tribal territory may once have extended into the north- 
eastern part of the State, but this tribe played but little part in the 
known history of the region covered by it. (See Ohio.) 

Illinois. Representatives of this tribe appear as parties to the Treaty 
of Greenville in 1795, relinquishing land in Indiana to the Whites. 
(See Illinois.) 

Iroquois. The earlier Indian occupants of Indiana were largely 
driven out by the Iroquois, particularly by the westernmost of the 
Iroquois tribes, the Seneca, yet they seem to have had few settle- 
ments in the State. (See New York.) 

Kickapoo. "VMien the Kickapoo were on Vermilion River, lU., they 
undoubtedly occupied some of western Indiana for brief periods. 
(See Wisconsin.) 

Miami. The name is thought to be derived from the Chippewa word 
Omaumeg, signifying "people on the peninsula," but according to 
their own traditions, it came from the word for pigeon. The name 
used by themselves, as recorded and often used by early wTiters, is 
Twightwees, derived from the cry of a crane. Also called: 

Naked Indians, a common appellation used by the colonists, from a con- 
fusion of twa°h, twa''h, the cry of a crane, with tawa, "naked." 

Pkfwi-ldni, by the Shawnee, meaning "dust or ashes people." 

Sa^shkid-a-runil, by the Wyandot, meaning "people dressing finely, or 
fantastically." 

Tawatawas, meaning "naked." (See Naked Indians above.) 

Wa-ya-ta-no'-ke, cited by Morgan (1851). 

Connections. — The Miami belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock, their nearest immediate connections being with the Illinois. 

Location. — For territory occupied in Indiana, see History. (See 
also Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

French writers divided the Miami into the following five bands: Piankashaw, 
Wea, Atchatchakangouen, Kilatika, Mengakonkia, and Pepicokia. The first 
two later became recognized as independent tribes, the last may have been ab- 
sorbed by the Piankashaw but this and the other three divisions are no longer 
recognized. The following villages are mentioned: 



238 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Chicago, on the site of the present city, probably occupied by Wea. 
Chippekawkay (Piankashaw), perhaps containing originally the Pepicokia band, 

on the site of Vincennes, Knox County, Ind. 
Choppatee's Village, on the west bank of St. Joseph River, a few miles from Fort 

Wayne, Allen County, Ind. 
Flat Belly's Village (see Papakeecha). 
Kekionga, on the east bank of St. Joseph River, in Allen County, Ind., opposite 

Fort Wayne. 
Kenapacomaqua, a Wea village on the west bank of Eel River, near its mouth, 

6 miles above Logansport, Cass County, Ind. 
Kokomo, on the site of the present Kokomo, Ind. 
Kowasikka or Thorntown, on Sugar Creek near the present Thornton, Boone 

County, Ind. 
Little Turtle's Village, on Eel River, Ind., about 20 miles northwest of Fort 

Wayne. 
Meshingomesia, on a reservation on the northeastern side of Mississinewa River, 

in Liberty Township, Wabash County, Ind. 
Missinquimeschan, probably Piankashaw, near the site of Washington, Daviess 

County, Ind. 
Mississinewa, on the east side of Mississinewa River at its junction with the 

Wabash in Miami County, Ind. 
Osaga, location uncertain. 
Papakeecha, named from its chief, east of Turkey Lake at the present Indian 

village, Noble County, Ind. 
Piankashaw, occupied by Piankashaw, on Wabash River at the junction of the 

Vermilion. 
Pickawillanee, on Miami River at the site of the present Piqua, Miami County, 

Ohio. 
Saint Francis Xavier, mission for Miami and Mascouten on Fox River, Wis., 

near De Pere, Brown County. 
Seek's Village, on Eel River about 3 miles from Columbia City, in Whitley County, 

Ind. 
Thornton (see Kowasikka). 
White Raccoon's Village, near the present Aboite, Allen County, Ind. 

History. — Miami were living in the neighborhood of Green Bay, 
Wis., when knowledge of the tribe first came to Europeans shortly 
after the middle of the seventeenth centm-y. In 1670 they were at the 
headwaters of Fox River, but soon afterward they formed new settle- 
ments at the southern end of Lake Michigan and on Kalamazoo River, 
Mich. It is quite possible that bands of this tribe had moved from 
Wisconsin at a still earlier period and were in northern Indiana. Their 
first settlements at the lower end of Lake Michigan were at Chicago 
and on St. Joseph River. In 1703 there was a Miami village at De- 
troit, but the greater part of the tribe continued to live on St. Joseph 
River for a considerable period. By 1711 they had reached the Wa- 
bash, and presently they were forced from St. Joseph River by the 
Potawatomi, Kickapoo, and other northern tribes. In consequence 
they moved farther south and also eastward to Miami River, and 
perhaps as far as the Scioto. After the peace of 1763, they abandoned 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 239 

these eastern territories to the Shawnee and retired to Indiana. 
They took a prominent part in all subsequent wars in this section, but 
soon after the War of 1812 began to dispose of their lands and by 1838 
had parted with most of them, the United States Government agreeing 
to provide thorn with new lands west of the Mississippi. In 1840 all 
of their remaining territories were ceded except one tract reserved 
for a part of the tribe called Meshingomesia's band, which had chosen 
to remain in their old country. In 1867 the rest accompanied the 
Illinois to Oklahoma, where they were given a reservation in the 
northeastern corner of the State. Their lands now have been allotted 
in severalty, and they are citizens of the State of Oklahoma. The 
lands of Meshingomesia's band in Indiana were divided among the 
survivors in 1872 and their descendants are citizens of Indiana. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated 4,500 Miami, including the 
Wea and Piankashaw, in the year 1650. An estimate of 1764 
gives them 1,750, but a year later another substracts 500 from this 
figure. In 1825 the Miami, Wea, and Piankashaw, entered as tribes, 
were supposed to total about 1,400, of whom 327 were Wea. In 1885 
only 57 Miami proper were officially recognized in Indian Territory, 
while the W^ea and Piankashaw were enumerated with the Illinois, the 
whole numbering 149. These last had increased to 191 in 1903. In 
1905 the total number of Miami in Indian Territory was 124. In 1900 
the Miami in Indiana, including many White-Indian mLxed-bloods, 
numbered 243. The census of 1910 returned 226 Miami, of whom 123 
were in Oklahoma and 90 in Indiana. The United States Indian 
Office Report of 1923 gave 125 Indians in Indiana, most of whom 
certainly belonged to this tribe. The census of 1930 returned 284 
Miami and Illinois; the 47 reported from Indiana were, of course, all 
Miami. In 1937, 287 were reported from Oklahoma. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Historically the Miami 
were noted as one of those tribes which offered steady resistance to the 
westward movement of White population in the eighteenth century. 
Their name has been given to three Ohio rivers of some importance, the 
Great Miami, Little Miami, and Maumee; counties in Ohio, Indiana, 
and Kansas; and to places in California, Indiana, Oklahoma, Missouri, 
Ohio, Texas, and Manitoba, Canada; also to a creek in Missouri. 
There are places of the name in Gila County, Ariz.; Miami County, 
Ind.; Saline County, Mo.; Colfax County, N. Mex.; Ottawa County, 
Okla. ; Roberts County, Tex. ; Kanawha County, W. Va. Miamisburg 
is in Montgomery County, Miamitown in Hamilton County, and 
Miamiville in Clermont County, all in Ohio; and Miami Station is 
in Carroll County, Mo. The name of Miami, Fla., and the derived 
Miami Beach and Miami Springs, Fla., have a different origin. The 



240 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Miami tribe had a famous chief, Little Turtle, whose name often 
appears in historical narratives. 

Mosopelea. Before this tribe left its former territory north of the 
Ohio, it probably extended into the extreme southeastern part of 
Indiana. (See Ohio.) 

Neutrals. The Neutral Nation may have extended slightly into the 
northeastern portion of this State, though this is uncertain. (See 
New York.) 

Ottawa. Representatives of the Ottawa appear as parties to the 
Treat;^ of Greenville in 1795, relinquishing Indiana land to the 
Whites, and as parties to similar treaties in 1817 and 1821. (See 
Michigan.) 

Potawatomi. The Potawatomi pushed into the northern part of 
Indiana during the eighteenth century and were in occupancy until 
they ceded their lands to the United States Government in the first 
half of the nineteenth century. (See Michigan.) 

Seneca, see Iroquois. 

Shawnee. There was an ancient Shawnee town in Posey County, 
Ind., at the junction of the Wabash and Ohio. At a later period the 
tribe had settlements along the southern and eastern borders, and 
the soil of Indiana was the scene of the activities of the Shawnee 
prophet and his brother Tecumseh until after Gen. Harrison's 
victory at Tippecanoe. (See Tennessee.) 

Wyandot. Representatives of this tribe appear as parties to the 
Treaty of Greenville in 1795, relinquishing land in Indiana to the 
Whites. (See Wisconsin and Ohio.) 

ILLINOIS 

Chippewa. Representatives of this tribe appear in treaties made in 
1795, 1816, 1829, and 1833 relinquishing Illinois land to the Whites. 
(See Minnesota.) 

Delaware. While they were being slowly crowded west by the Whites, 
the Delaware passed across Illinois, and their connection with the 
State was transitory in both senses of the term. (See New Jersey.) 

Foxes. This tribe, together with the Sauk, drove the Illinois Indians 
from the northwestern part of the State of Illinois in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century and took their places, but ceded the 
territory to the United States Government by a treaty signed 
November 3, 1804. (See Wisconsin.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 241 

Illinois. A native word signifying "men," "people." Also called: 

Chicktaghicks, Geghdageghroano, or Kighetawkigh Roanu, by the Iroquois. 
Oudataouatoiiat, applied by the Wyandot to the Ottawa and later to the 

Illinois. 
Witishaxtdnu, the Huron name for the Illinois and Miami, from UshaxtAno, 

"Illinois River." 

Connections. — The Illinois belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
family, and were more closely connected with the Chippewa than 
with any other Algonquian tribe, except the Miami. 

Location. ~ln historic times they lived principally along the Illinois 
and Mississippi Rivers, one division, the Michigamea, being as far 
south as northeastern Arkansas (q. v.). (See also Indiana, Iowa, 
Kansas, Alissouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The Illinois were in reality a group of related tribes, of which the best known 
are the following: 

Cahokia, later home about Cahokia, 111. 
Kaskaskia, before 1700 near the present Utica, La Salle County, later at or near 

Kaskaskia, 111. 
Michigamea, probably on Big Lake, between the St. Francis and Mississippi 

Rivers, Ark. 
Moingwena, in Iowa near the mouth of Des Moines River. 
Peoria, their early location probably in northeastern Iowa, later near the present 

Peoria. 
Tamaroa, on both sides of Mississippi River about the mouths of the Illinois 

and Missouri. 

The following were perhaps minor Illinois tribes: 
Albivi, given by only one writer and it is doubtful whether this was a true Illinois 

band. 
Amonokoa, mentioned by Hennepin, 1680. 

Chepoussa, probably a band from Kaskaskia River connected with the Michi- 
gamea. 
Chinko, mentioned by Allouez and La Salle. 
Coiracoentanon, mentioned by La Salle. 
Espeminkia, mentioned by La Salle. 
Tapouaro, mentioned by La Salle. 

The villages noted in history are: 
Cahokia, near the present Cahokia. 

Immaculate Conception, a mission among the Kaskaskia, near Rockford. 
Kaskaskia, as given above. 

Matchinkoa, 30 leagues from Fort Crevecoeur, near the present Peoria. 
Moingwena, as given above. 
Peoria, as given above, 
Pimitoui, on Illinois River near the mouth of Fox River in La Salle County. 



242 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

History. — In 1667 the French priest Allouez met a party of IlHnois 
Indians who had come to La Pointe on Lake Superior to trade. In 
1673 Marquette, while descending the Mississippi, found the Peoria 
and Moingwena west of the river near the mouth of the Des Moines, 
but before his return they had moved to the neighborhood of the 
present Peoria, and most of the other Illinois tribes, except theMitchi- 
gamea, were then on Illinois River. In 1700 the Kaskaskia moved 
to southern Illinois and settled on Kaskaskia River. About the time 
of La Salle's visit in 1682 the Illinois were at war with a number of 
neighboring peoples, and the Iroquois, who were then just beginning 
raids against them, caused them heavy losses in the succeeding years. 
The murder of Pontiac by a Kaskaskia Indian set the northern tribes 
in motion against the Illinois and in the ensuing wars the latter were 
reduced to a fraction of their former strength and the Sauk, Foxes, 
Kickapoo, and Potawatomi dispossessed them of the greater part of 
their territories. The remnant settled near the French at Kaskaskia, 
where they continued to decline in numbers until, in 1800, only about 
150 were left. In 1832 the survivors sold their lands and removed 
west of the Mississippi, to the present Kansas, whence they removed 
again in 1867 and became consolidated with the Wea and Piankashaw 
in the northeastern corner of the present State of Oklahoma. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the Illinois 
numbered about 8,000. About 1680 Hennepin gives 400 houses and 
1,800 warriors. Rasles estimated 300 cabins of 4 fires each, indicating 
a population of 9,000, which is probably excessive. About the year 
1750 there were supposed to be from 1,500 to 2,000 souls. In 1778 
the Kaskaskia numbered 210 and the Peoria and Michigamea together 
170. In 1800 all these were reduced to 150. In 1885 the mixed-blood 
remnant in Indian territory, including the Wea and Pianliashaw, 
numbered 149, and in 1905, 195. The census of 1910 gave 128, of 
whom 114 were in Oklahoma, and the census of 1930, 284 Illinois and 
Miami. In 1937 there were 370 "Peoria" in Oklahoma. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The chief claim of 
the Illinois to distinction is the adoption of its name for an important 
branch of the Mississippi and more particularly its later adoption as 
the name of the State of Illinois. The name is also given geographical 
application in Arkansas, Texas, Oregon, and Oklahoma. The name 
appears in Illinois Bend, Montague County, Tex. ; Illinois City, Rock 
Island County, 111.; and Illiopolis, Sangamon County, 111. 
Kickapoo. This tribe, after helping destroy the Illinois, settled on 

Vermilion River and extended its territories to Illinois River. It 

ceded this land to the United States Government July 30, 1819. 

(See Wisconsin.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 243 

Miami. In very early times the Miami had a town where now stands 
Chicago, and later their territorial claims covered parts of the eastern 
sections of the State. (See Indiana.) 

Ottawa. Some Ottawa worked down to the northernmost part of the 
State in the eighteenth century. (See Michigan.) 

Potawatomi. This tribe succeeded the Miami in the region of Chicago, 
and, after the destruction of the Illinois, occupied still more territory 
in the northeastern part of the State. (See Michigan.) 

Sauk. The Sauk assisted their relatives the Foxes in expelling the 
Illinois tribes from the Rock River region, and they occupied it 
with them until the lands were ceded to the Whites and they 
moved farther west. (See Wisconsin.) 

Shawnee. There were Shawnee for a while in the southern part of 

Illinois. (See Tennessee.) 
Winnebago. Representatives of this tribe were parties to an Illinois 

land cession m 1829. (See Wisconsin.) 
Wyandot. Some Wyandot were parties to the Greenville Treaty in 

1795 relinquishing land in Illinois to the Whites. (See Ohio.) 

MICHIGAN 

Chippewa. At a very early period, Chippewa lived about the Sault 

St. Marie and on the northern shore of Lake Michigan. (See 

Minnesota.) 
Foxes. Since the Sauk are known to have lived in Michigan at 

an early period, it is probable that the Foxes did also, but this is 

still uncertain. (See Wisconsin.) 

Hurons, see Wyandot. 

Kickapoo. The same probability of an early residence in Michigan 
applies to the Kickapoo as to the Foxes and for a similar reason. 
(See Wisconsin.) 

Menominee. This tribe ceded its claim to a portion of the upper 
peninsula of Michigan in 1836. (See Wisconsin.) 

Miami. The Miami, or a portion of them, at one time occupied the 
valley of St. Joseph River and other parts of the southern Michigan 
border. (See Indiana.) 

Neutrals. Bands of the Neutral Nation extended, in the seventeenth 
century, into what is now southeastern Michigan. (See New York.) 

Noquet. Meaning probably "bear foot," another name for the Bear 
gens in Chippewa. The Bear gens may have been prominent in 
this tribe. 



244 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Connections. — The Noquet are thought to have been related to the 
Menominee of the Algonquian hnguistic family. 

Location. — About Big Bay de Noquet and Little Bay de Noquet 
and extending across the northern peninsula of Michigan to Lake 
Superior. (See also Wisconsin.) 

History. — In 1659 the Noquet was one of the tribes attached to the 
mission of St. Michel. They were never prominent and were prob- 
ably absorbed at a very early date by the Alenominee or Chippewa. 

Population . — Unknown . 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Noquet is 
perpetuated in the two bays above mentioned. 

Ottawa. From a native word signifying "to trade," because they 
were noted as middlemen. It occurs shortened to Tawa. Also 
called: 

Andatahouats, Ondatawawat, Huron name. 

Udawak, Penobscot name. 

Ukua'-yata, Huron name, according to Gatschet (1877). 

Waganha's, Iroquois name, meaning "stammerers". 

Watawawininiwok, Chippewa name, meaning "men of the bulrushes", 

from the many bulrushes in Ottawa River. 
Wdowo, Abnaki name. 

Connections. — The Ottawa belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock and were related most closely ^^^th the Chippewa and Pota- 
watomi. 

Location. — The earliest known home of this tribe was Manitoulin 
Island and neighboring parts of the north shore of Georgian Bay. 
Their connection with Michigan came later. (See also Illinois, 
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and 
Canada.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The following four main divisions are given by early writers: The Kishkakon 
or Bear Gens, the Nassauaketon, or Fork People, the Sable Gens and the Sinago 
or Gray Squirrel Gens, to which a fifth, the Keinouche or Pickerel Gens, is some- 
times added. The Kishkakon, Sinago, and Keinouche were closely associated. 
Villages: 

Aegakotcheising, in Michigan. 

Anamiewatigong, in Emmet County, lower Michigan. 

Apontigoumy, probably in Ontario. 

Machonee, near the mouth of Au Vaseau River which flows into Lake St. 
Clair, in lower Michigan. 

Manistee, in Michigan, perhaps near the village of Weganakisi on Little 
Traverse Bay. 

Menawzhetaunaung, on an island in the Lake of the Woods. 

Meshkemau, on Maumee Bay, Lucas County, Ohio. 

Michilimackinac, on Mackinac Island. 

Middle Village, location unknown. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 245 

Obidgewong, with Chippewa, on the western shore of Lake Wolseley, Mani- 

toulin Island, Ontario. 
Oquanoxa, on the west bank of the Little Auglaize, at its mouth, in Paulding 

County, Ohio. 
Roche de Boeuf, on the northwestern bank of Maumee River, near Waterville, 

Lucas County, Ohio. 
Saint Simon, a mission on Manitoulin Island. 

Shabawywyagun, apparently on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. 
Tushquegan, on the south bank of Maumee River opposite Toledo, Ohio. 
Waganakisi, on the site of Harbor Springs, Emmet County, Mich. 
Walpole Island, on the island of that name, Ontario. 
Waugau, near the mouth of Maumee River, in Lucas County, Ohio. 
Wolf Rapids, on Maumee River, Ohio, about the boundary of Wood and Henry 

Counties. 
Additional bands: 

Maskasinik, position uncertain, mentioned in Jesuit Relation of 1657-58 with 

Nikikouek and Missisauga. 
Nikikouek, position uncertain, associated with Missisauga and dwelling east of 

them on the north shore of Lake Huron. 
Outaouakamigouk, on the northeast coast of Lake Huron in 1648, probably 

Ottawa. 
Sagnitaouigama, in 1640 southeast of Ottawa River, perhaps same as Sinago. 

History. — It is uncertain whether the Ottawa River in Ontario 
received its name because the Ottawa once hved upon it or because the 
Ottawa had obtained a monopoly of the trade passing up and down it. 
When the French actually came among them they were in the region 
above indicated. After the destruction of their allies, the Hurons, in 
1648-49, the Iroquois attacked the Ottawa in turn, who fled to the 
islands at the entrance of Green Bay, part of them later passing to 
Keweenaw Bay, while the rest accompanied the Hurons to an island 
near the entrance of Lake Pepin on the Mississippi. Harassed by the 
Dakota, the Ottawa settled on Chequamegon Bay but in 1670-71 were 
induced by the French to return to Manitoulin Island. By 1680 most 
of them had left Manitoulin Island and joined the Hurons about the 
mission station at Mackinaw. About 1700 the Hurons removed to 
Detroit, and a portion of the Ottawa seem to have obtained a foothold 
on the west shore of Lake Huron between Saginaw Bay and Detroit, 
but they returned to Mackinaw about 1706. Soon afterward the cliief 
seat of a portion of the tribe was fixed at L'Ai'bre Croche in Emmett 
County, whence they spread down the east side of Lake Michigan to 
St. Joseph River, a few finding their way into Wisconsin and north- 
eastern Illinois. At the same time some of them were living in their 
old country on Manitouhn Island and about Georgian Bay, and others 
were scattered along the southern shore of Lake Erie from Detroit to 
the vicinity of Beaver Creek, Pa. They took part successively against 
the English and the American colonists in all wars during the latter 
half of the eighteenth century and the begmning of the nineteenth 



246 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

until the end of the War of 1812. The famous chief Pontiac was an 
Ottawa. The Canadian Ottawa are on Manitouhn and Cockburn 
Islands and the adjacent shores of Lake Huron. In 1831 two bands of 
Ottawa known as the Ottawa of Blanchard's Fork of Great Auglaize 
River and the Ottawa of Roche de Boeuf on Maumee River were 
granted lands on Marais des Cygnes River, Kans., but they re-ceded 
the greater part of these lands in 1846, and in 1862 they agreed to 
allotment in severalty and to the relinquishment of their remaining 
territory. Further treaties regarding the disposal of their lands were 
made in 1867 and 1872. In 1867 they received a plot of land in Okla- 
homa which had been ceded by the Shawnee. A few Ottawa went 
west with the Prairie Potawatomi but were soon fused with them or 
scattered to other places. A few others have continued to occupy 
parts of Kansas down to the present day but after 1868 most of them 
removed to Oklahoma. A still larger body of Ottawa remained in 
Michigan, scattered among a number of small villages. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1600 there were of 
the combined Algonkin and Ottawa about 6,000. The scattered con- 
dition of the tribe during their earlier history prevented theu' contem- 
porary chroniclers from obtaining satisfactory figures. In 1906 the 
Chippewa and Ottawa on Manitoulin and Cockburn Islands numbered 
1,497, of whom about half were Ottawa; there were 197 under the 
Seneca School, Okla.; and in Michigan there were 5,587 in 1900 of 
whom about two-thirds were Ottawa. According to the census of 
1910, there were 2,717 Ottawa in the United States, 2,454 being in 
Michigan, 170 in Oklahoma, and the rest in Wisconsin, Nebraska, 
Kansas, and Pennsylvania. In 1923 there were 274 in Oklahoma 
and a much larger number in Michigan and Canada. The United 
States Census of 1930 gives 1,745, of whom 1,469 were in Michigan, 
167 in Oklahoma, and 84 in Wisconsin. In 1937 there were 422 in 
Oklahoma. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Although a prominent 
tribe in early times, the Ottawa will now be especially remembered 
from the fact that they have given their name to the most important 
branch of the St. Lawrence River and the city on its banks which 
became the capital of the Dominion of Canada. Their name is also 
borne by counties in Kansas, Michigan, and Ohio, and the province 
of Quebec; by important cities in La Salle County, 111., and Franklin 
County, Kans.; and by smaller places and streams in Rockcastle 
County, Ky.; Waukesha County, Wis.; Le Sueur County, Minn.; 
Putnam County, Ohio; Boone County, Wis.; Boone County, Va.; and 
Ottawa Beach in Ottawa County, Mich., and Ottawa Lake in Monroe 
County in the same State. The tribe will be noted furthermore as 
that to which belonged the famous Indian patriot, Pontiac. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 247 

Potawatomi. Meaning "people of the place of the fire," and hence 
sometimes known as the Fire Nation. Also called: 

Atsistarhonon, Huron name. 

Kiinu-hdyanu, Caddo name, meaning "watermelon people." 

NdatonSatendi, Undatomd.tendi, Huron name. 

Peki'neni, Fox name, meaning "grouse people." 

Tcashtaldlgi, Creek name, meaning "watermelon people." 

Wah-ho'-na-hah, Miami name, meaning "fire makers." 

Wdhiu(^axd, Omaha name. 

Wdhiijyaha, Kansa name. 

Woraxa, Iowa, Oto, and Missouri name. 

Wordxg, Winnebago name. 

Connections. — The Potawatomi belonged to the Algonquian lin- 
guistic family, being most closely affiliated with the Chippewa and 
Ottawa. 

Location. — The ancient home of this tribe was evidently in the 
lower peninsula of Michigan. (See also Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kan- 
sas, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

In the course of their later history, the Potawatomi became separated into 
several distinct bands but these do not seem to have corresponded to any old, 
well-determined classification. 
Villages: 

Abercronk, not certainly Potawatomi, in northeastern Porter County, Ind. 
Ashkum's Village, on the north side of Eel River, about Denver, Miami County, 

Ind. 
Assiminehkon, probably Potawatomi, in Lee County, 111. 

Aubbeenaubbee's Village, in Aubbeenaubbee Township in Fulton County, Ind. 
Checkawkose's Village, on the south side of Tippecanoe River, about Harrison 

Township, Kosciusko County, Ind. 
Chekase's Village, on the west side of Tippecanoe River between Warsaw and 

Monoquet, Kosciusko, Ind. 
Chichip6 Outip^, near South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind. 
Chippoy, on Big Shawnee Creek, in Fountain County, Ind. 
Comoza's Village, on Tippecanoe River in Fulton County, Ind. 
Kinkash's Village, on Tippecanoe River, Kosciusko County, Ind. 
Little Rock Village, on the north bank of Kankakee River about the boundary 

of Kankakee and Will Counties, 111. 
Macon, location unknown. 

Macousin, on the west bank of St. Joseph River, Berrien County, Mich. 
Mangachqua, on Peble River in southern Michigan. 

Maquanago, probably Potawatomi, near Waukesha, in southeastern Wisconsin. 
Masac's Village, on the west bank of Tippecanoe River in the northeastern part 

of Fulton County, Ind. 
Matchebenashshewish's Village, on Kalamazoo River probably in Jackson 

County, Mich. 
Maukekose's Village, near the head of Wolf Creek in Marshall County, Ind. 
Menominee's Village, on the north side of Twin Lakes near the site of Plymouth, 

Marshall County, Ind. 



248 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Menoquet's Village, on Cass River, lower Michigan. 

Mesheketeno's Village, on Kankakee River, a short distance above the present 

Kankakee in northeastern Illinois. 
Mesquawbuck's Village, near Oswego, Kosciusko County, Ind. 
Mickkesawbee, at the site of the present Coldwater, Mich. 
Milwaukee, with Foxes and Mascouten, at or near the present Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minemaung's Village, near Grantpark, Kankakee County, 111. 
Mota's Village, just north of Tippecanoe River near Atwood, Kosciusko County, 

Ind. 
Muskwawasepeotan, near Cedarville, Allen County, Ind. 
Natowasepe, on St. Joseph River about the present Mendon, St. Joseph 

County, Mich. 
Nayonsay's Village, probably Potawatomi, in the northeastern part of Kendall 

County, 111. 
Pierrish's Village, on the north bank of Eel River, just above Laketon, Wabash 

County, Ind. 
Pokagon, in Berrien County, near the west bank of St. Joseph River just north 

of the Indiana line. 
Prairie Ronde, about the boundary of Cass and Van Buren Counties, Mich. 
Rock Village in northeastern Illinois. 

Rum's Village, about 4 miles south of South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind. 
Saint Joseph, a mission on St. Joseph River near the south end of Lake Michigan. 
Saint Michael, a mission in southern Wisconsin. 
Sawmehnaug, on Fox River, 111. 

Seginsavin's Village, on Rouge River near Detroit, Mich. 
Shaytee's Village, probably Potawatomi on Fo.x River, 111. 
Shobonier's Village, near the present Shabbona, De Kalb County, 111. 
Soldier's Village, in northern Illinois. 
Tassinong, probably Potawatomi, in Porter County, Ind. 
Toisa's Village, on the west bank of Tippecanoe River, nearly opposite Bloom- 

ingsburg, Fulton County, Ind. 
Tonguish's Village, near Rouge River in the southern part of Oakland County, 

or the northern part of Wayne County, Mich. 
Topenebee's Village, on St. Joseph River opposite Niles, Berrien County, Mich. 
Waisuskuck's Village, in northeastern, Illinois. 
Wanatah, in La Porte County, Ind., a short distance east of the present 

Wanatah. 
Wimego's Village, on the north bank of Indian Creek, in the northern part of 

Cass County, Ind. 
Winamac's Village, near the present Winamac, Pulaski County, Ind. 
Wonongoseak, probably Potawatomi, between the northern and southern 

branches of Elkhart River, apparently in Noble County, Ind. 

History. — Shortly before the Potawatomi were encountered by the 
French they seem to have been Hving in the lower peninsula of Mich- 
igan. According to native traditions, the Ottawa, Chippewa, and 
Potawatomi reached the upper end of Lake Huron in company from 
some region farther east, and the Potawatomi crossed from that point 
into the peninsula. By 1670 they had been driven to the neighborhood 
of Green Bay west of Lake Michigan, whence they slowly moved south 
until by the end of the century they had established themselves on Mil- 
waukee River, at Chicago, and on St. Joseph River. After the con- 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 249 

quest of the Illinois Indians about 1765, they took possession of still 
more of what is now the northern part of the State of Illinois and ex- 
tended their settlements eastward over southern Micliigan as far as 
Lake Erie. After 1795, against the protests of the Miami, they moved 
down the Wabash and advanced their occupancy as far as Pine Creek. 
They sided actively first with the French against the English and then 
with the English against the Americans until a general peace was 
brought about in 1815. As White settlers increased in numbers in their 
neighborhood, the Potawatomi gradually parted with their lands, 
the greatest cessions being made between 1836 and 1841, and most of 
them retired beyond the ^lississippi. Part of the Prairie band of 
Potawatomi returned to Wisconsin, while another band, the Potawa- 
tomi of Huron, are in lower Michigan. A few escaped into Canada and 
are now on Walpole Island in St. Clair County, Part of the Potawa- 
tomi living in Wisconsin sold their lands and received in exchange a 
reservation in southwestern Iowa. These received the name of Prairie 
Potawatomi. In 1846 they also disposed of their Iowa territory and 
in 1847-48 passed over into Kansas and established themselves just 
east of the Potawatomi of the Woods, who had come from Indiana 
in 1840 to occupy a reserve on Osage River, in Kansas. In 1846, 
however, the latter re-ceded this and settled the following year between 
the Shawnee and Delaware Indians in the present Sha^vnee County, 
Kans. The Potawatomi of the Prairie remained in Kansas and re- 
ceived allotments there, but the Potawatomi of the Woods went to a 
new reservation in Oklahoma in 1869-71 near the Kickapoo, A few 
have accompaied the Kickapoo to Mexico. 

Population. — Mooney's (1928) estimate for the Potawatomi, as of 
the year 1650, is 4,000. Estimates made between 1765 and 1843 
vary from 1,200 to 3,400, but it would seem that they must have 
averaged 2,000 to 2,500. In 1908, 2,522 Potawatomi were reported in 
the United States, distributed as follows: Citizen Potawatomi in 
Oklahoma, 1,768; Prairie band in Kansas, 676; and Potawatomi of 
Huron, in Calhoun County, Mich., 78. A few besides these were 
scattered through their ancient territory and at various other points. 
Those in Canada are all in the Province of Ontario and number about 
220, of whom 176 are living with Cliippewa and Ottawa on Walpole 
Island and the remainder, no longer officially reported, are divided 
between Caradoc and Riviere aux Sables, where they reside by per- 
mission of the Chippewa and Munsee. The United States Census of 
1910 returned 2,440, of whom 866 were hving in Oklahoma, 619 in 
Kansas, 461 in Micliigan, and 245 in Wisconsin, while the remainder 
were scattered in 11 other States. The United States and Canadian 
Indian Office Reports of 1923-24 give 2,227 in Oklahoma, 803 in 
Kansas, and 170 on Walpole Island, Ontario, but those in Michigan 



250 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

are not separately entered. The United States Census of 1930 re- 
turned 1,854, of whom 654 were in Kansas, 636 in Oklahoma, 425 in 
Wisconsin, and 89 in Michigan. In 1937 there were 142 in Michigan, 
311 in Wisconsin, 1,013 in Kansas, and 2,667 in Oklahoma: total 4,133. 
Connection in which they have become noted. — In the form Pottawa- 
tomie the name of this tribe is used as a designation of counties in 
Kansas and Oklahoma and a post township of Coffey County, Kans., 
and in the form Pottawattamie as the designation of a county in Iowa. 

Sauk. At some time shortly before European contact the Sauk lived 
about Saginaw Bay and the present name of the bay is derived from 
them. They were probably driven beyond Lake Michigan by the 
Ottawa allied with the Neutral Nation. (See Wisconsin.) 

Wyandot. After the disruption of their nation by the Iroquois these 
people lived for limited periods at several different points in the 
territory now included in the State of Michigan. They were 
temporarily at Michilimackinac, Detroit, and other places. (See 
Ohio.) 

WISCONSIN 

Chippewa. This tribe pushed its way west in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century as far as the territory lying within the present 
State of Wisconsin, and the trading post established by the French 
at La Pointe became an important Chippewa base. Early in the 
eighteenth century they are said to have driven the Foxes out of 
northern Wisconsin, and they have continued to occupy that part 
of the State until the present time, having two reservations there. 
(See Minnesota.) 

Dakota. In very early times the Dakota occupied a little of the 
northwestern margin of Wisconsin. (See South Dakota.) 

Foxes. A name thought to have been derived from that of the Fox 
clan and to have been applied to the tribe through a misunderstand- 
ing. Also called: 

Beshde'ke, Dakota name. 

Mfishkwa kihQg', own name signifying "red earth people," from the kind 

of earth from which they are supposed to have been created. 
0-dug-am-eeg, Chippewa name, meaning "those who live on the opposite 

side." 
Skaxshurunu, Wyandot name, meaning "fox people." 
Skuakfsagi, Shawnee name. 
To-che-wah-coo, probably the Arikara name. 
Wakush^g, Potawatomi name, meaning "foxes." 

Connections. — The Foxes belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
family and in one group with the Sauk and Kickapoo. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 251 

Location. — In the vicinity of Lake Winnebago or along Fox River. 
(See also Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, 
Nebraska, and Oklahoma.) 

History. — Since the closely related Sauk Indians came to Wisconsin 
from Saginaw Bay, Mich., it is probable that the Foxes once lived in 
that region as well, but it is uncertain. There is also a tradition that 
they were in northern Wisconsin and were driven south by the Chip- 
pewa. The French missionaries heard of them as early as 1640, and in 
1670 found them in the location above given, where they remained for 
a long period. They were constantly at war with the Chippewa, and 
though they received aid from the Dakota, obtained little advantage 
in these contests. It was on account of assistance rendered the 
Chippewa by the French that the Foxes came to assume a hostile 
attitude toward the latter and finally went to war with them. In 
1712 they planned an attack on the French fort at Detroit which 
nearly succeeded. Between 1729 and 1733 occurred a bitter war with 
the French in which the Foxes, though assisted by some Sauk, lost 
heavily. Before 1746 they were in the habit of exactmg a toll from all 
white traders passing up Fox River, and for this reason they were 
attacked by a band of French, defeated, and driven down Wisconsin 
River, settling on the north bank of that stream about 20 miles from 
its mouth. In 1780, in alliance with the Dakota, they attacked the 
Chippewa at St. Croix Falls and were defeated. Shortly before this 
they had assisted the Sauk in driving the Illinois tribes from the 
northwestern part of the Rock River country, and they occupied 
these territories, but early in the nineteenth century they drew away 
from the Sauk and settled in Iowa. In 1842 the Foxes and the Sauk, 
who had taken refuge with them after the Black Hawk War, sold their 
lands in Iowa and were given in exchange a tract across the Missom-i 
in Kansas. About 1857-59 the Foxes became angered at the Sauk for 
entering into an agreement for the disposition of the lands of the two 
tribes during the absence of the former, and they returned to Iowa 
where a few of their people had always remained. There they bought 
land near Tama City on Iowa River, which they increased by purchase 
until they had more than 3,000 acres. They have remained on this 
reservation down to the present day. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 there must 
have been about 3,000 Foxes, but this figure seems to be somewhat too 
high. In 1728 Guignes stated that they had 200 warriors, probably 
an underestimate, but most of the figures before 1850 fall between 
1,500 and 2,500. Michelson (1919) says that the most rehable early 
estimate is that of Lewis and Clark in 1805, which gives 1,200. Since 
that date they have usually been enumerated with the Sauk. In 



252 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

1885 the Indians at Tama, most of whom were Foxes, numbered 380. 
In 1909 the United States Indian Office gives 352 (nearly all Foxes) 
in Iowa, besides the bands in Oklahoma and Kansas, most of whom 
were Sauk. The United States Census of 1910 gives only 257 in 
Iowa, but the Indian Office Report of 1923 raises this again to 354. 
In 1930 there were 887 Sauk and Fox, and it is assumed that the 344 
returned from Iowa were nearly all Fox. In 1937, 441 were returned 
from Iowa. (See Sauk.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Historically this tribe 
is remarkable (1) as having been almost the only Algonquian tribe of 
consequence to imdertake a serious war with the French, and (2) from 
its connection with the Sauk at the time of the uprising of the latter 
under Black Hawk. It has given its name to Fox River, Wis., and to 
a second Fox River, also called Pishtaka, which rises in Wisconsin 
and flows through Illinois, into the lUinois River. Some small places 
have also been named from it. 

Housatonic, see Stockbridges. 

Illinois. At one time Illinois Indians probably occupied some of the 
southern and southwestern sections of Wisconsin. (See Illinois.) 

Iowa. A rather pronounced tradition points to the Winnebago as the 
mother tribe of the Iowa, Oto, and Missouri, and the latter are 
supposed to have stopped at certain places within the State of 
Wisconsin during their migration to the southwest. (See Iowa.) 

Iroquois. The Iroquois anciently played an important part in the 
aboriginal history of the Indian tribes of Wisconsin, usually as 
enemies. In very late times the Oneida were given a reservation 
here where their descendants still live. (See New York.) 

Eickapoo. From Kiwggapaw', "he stands about," "he moves about, 
standing now here, now there." Also called: 

A'-uya,, Tonkawa name, meaning "deer eaters." 
Hfgabu, Omaha and Ponca name. 
I'-ka-dti', Osage name. 
Shake-kah-quah, Wichita name. 
Shfgapo, Shikapu, Apache name. 
Sik'-a-pu, Comanche name. 
T^kapu, Huron name. 

Yu°tara'ye-ru'nu, a second Huron name, meaning "tribe living around 
the lakes." 

Connections. — The Kickapoo belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock, and in a special group with the Foxes and Sauk. 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The villages were: Etnataek (shared with the Foxes), rather a fortification 
than a village, near the Kickapoo village on Sangamon River, 111., and Kicka- 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 253 

pougowi, on the Wabash River iu Crawford County, 111., about opposite the 
mouth of Turman Creek. 

Location. — For territory occupied in Wisconsin, see History. (See 
also Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, ^Missouri, Ohio, and 
Oklahoma.) 

History. — As suggested in the case of the Foxes, the Kickapoo may 
once have lived near the Sauk in the lower peninsula of Michigan 
but such a residence cannot be proven. If the name Outitchakouk 
used by the Jesuit missionary Druillettes refers to this tribe, as seems 
probable, knowledge of them was brought to Europeans in 1658. At 
any rate they were visited by Allouez about 1667-70 and were then 
near the portage between Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, perhaps about 
Alloa, Columbia County, Wis. Early in the eighteenth century a 
part of them settled somewhere near Milwaukee River, and after the 
destruction of the Illinois about 1765, they moved still farther south 
and lived about Peoria. One portion then pushed down to the 
Sangamon, while another worked east to the Wabash, and made their 
headquarters on Vermilion River. The former became known as 
the Prairie band and the latter as the Vermilion band. They took 
part against the colonists in the War of 1812 and the Black Hawk War, 
but in 1837 a hundred of them were engaged to assist the United 
States Government against the Seminole. In 1809 and 1819 they 
ceded their lands in Illinois and soon removed to Alissouri and thence 
to Kansas. About 1852 a large party of Kickapoo, along wdth some 
Potawatomi, went to Texas and thence to Mexico, where they became 
known as ''Mexican Kickapoo." In 1863 another dissatisfied band 
joined them, and though in 1873 part were induced to return to 
Indian Territory, and others afterward followed, nearly half the 
tribe remained and were granted a reservation in the Santa Rosa 
Mountains of eastern Chihuahua. The remainder are divided between 
Oklahoma and Kansas. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were 2,000 
Kickapoo. In 1759 they were estimated at 3,000; in 1817, at 2,000; 
and in 1825, at 2,200. In 1875 those in the United States were officially 
estimated at 706 and there were supposed to be about 100 more in 
Mexico. In 1885 those in the United States were estimated at 500 
and those in Mexico at 200. In 1905, 247 were reported in Oklahoma 
and 185 in Kansas, a total of 432, and almost as many more were 
thought to be in Mexico. The census of 1910 returned 348 in the 
United States, of whom 211 w^ere in Kansas and 135 in Oklahoma. 
In 1923 the United States Indian Office gave 277 in Kansas and 200 
in Oklahoma, total 477. In 1930 there were 523, half in Kansas and 
half in Oklahoma. In 1937, 332 were returned from Kansas and 260 
from Oklahoma. 



254 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Kickapoo have 
given theu" name to a river in Wisconsin, creeks in Illinois and Texas, 
and some small places in these States and Kansas. 

Mahican, see Stockbridges. 

Mascouten. A name applied at times to the Prairie band of the 
Potawatomi, but more often to the Peoria band of Illinois who, in 
early days, lived with or near the Kickapoo. 

Menominee. Meaning "WUd Rice Men," because they lived largely 
upon the wild rice of the lakes in and near their country. Hence 
the French "Nation de la Folle Avoine," and English "Wild Rice 
Men." Also called: 

Addle-Heads, a misinterpretation of Folles Avoines. 

Omanomini, Chippewa name. 

White Indians, so given by Long (in Keating, 1824). 

Connections. — The Menominee belonged to the Algonquian lin- 
quistic family and to the same section as the Cree and Foxes. 

Location. — On and near the Menominee River, Wis. (See also 
Michigan.) 

Subdivisions 

(As given by Skinner, 1921) 

Kaka'pa'kato' Wini'niwAk, "Barricade Falls people," at Keshena Falls of Wolf 

River. 
Kaka'nikone Tusi'-niniwAg, "Portage people," at Portage, Wis. 
Kipisa"kia Wini'wiwtlk, "River Mouth people," at Prairie du Chien. 
Mani'towAk Tusi'niniwAg, "Manitou Place people," at Manitowoc, Wis. 
M&tc Sua'mako Tusi'nini", "Great Sand Bar people," on the sand dunes at what 

is now called Big Suamico, on Green Bay. 
Minika'ni Wini'niwuk, "Village people," at the mouth of Menominee River. 
Misi'nimak Kimiko Wini'niwtlk, "Michilimackinac People," near the old fort at 

Mackinac, Mich. 
Muhwa'o Se'peo Wini'niwdk, "Wolf River people," on the upper stretches of 

Wolf River. 
Nama'o Wikito' Tusi'ni", "Sturgeon Bay people," at Sturgeon Bay. 
Noma'kokon Se'peo Tusi'niniwOg, "Beaver River people," near Winneconne, 

Fond du Lac, and Oshkosh. 
Oka'to Wini'niwAk, "Pike Place people," at the mouth of the Oconto River. 
Pa'sa'tiko Wini'niw6k, "Peshtigo River people," at the mouth of Peshtigo River. 
Powahe'kune Tusi'niniwAg, "Rice-gathering-place people," on Lake Poygan. 
Sua'makosa Tusi'nini", "Little Sand Dune people," on the sandhills of Little 

Suamico. 
Wi'skos Se'peo Wini'niw^ik, "Wisconsin River people" — the name Wisconsin 

being derived from wi'skos or wi'sko°s, "muskrat" — on the Mississippi near 

Wisconsin River. 

There were other settlements of Menominee at Milwaukee and at Fort Howard 
in the present city of Green Bay. 



Sw ANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 265 

About the time of the arrival of the Whites the old bands were broken up or 
renamed after their chiefs, and the following bands of this kind are recorded by 
Hoffman: 

Aia'miqta. Osh'kosh. 

Aqkd'mot. Pgsh'tiko, evidently one of the old local 

Keshok, or Ke'so. groups. 

Le Motte. Piwa'qtinet. 

Ma'nabft'sho Sha'kitOk. 

O'hope'sha. Shu'nu' ni'tl or Shu'nien. 

History. — Tradition says that the Menominee were driven into the 
region later identified with them, from the neighborhood of MichiH- 
mackinac, but when they were first known to white men they were 
ah-eady there, and they remained there until 1854, though their villages 
sometimes extended to Fox River and their later claims reached to the 
mouth of Milwaukee River on Lake Michigan and on the west side 
of Green Bay to the headwaters of Menominee and Fox Rivers. 
Westward they claimed the height of land between Green Bay and 
Lake Superior. In 1854 they ceded all their lands except a reserve 
on Wolf River, where they have continued to the present day. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,000 
Menominee in 1650. The most conservative estimates made during 
the nineteenth century range from 1,600 to 1,900. In the first decade 
of the twentieth century their numbers were placed at 1,600, of whom 
1,370 were under the Green Bay School superintendency, Wisconsin. 
The census of 1910 returned 1,422; 1,350 in Wisconsin and the rest 
scattered over 8 States. The United States Indian Ofiice Report for 
1923 gave 1,838. The census of 1930 returned 1,969, and the United 
States Indian Office Report of 1937, 2,221. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Menominee 
has become applied to a county in Michigan and a city of some size 
in the same State, also to a small place in Illinois. In the form Meno- 
monee, it is given to a considerable river of Wisconsin which flows 
into Green Bay, and to various other places in Wisconsin. A city in 
the same State, capital of Dunn County, bears the name Menomonie. 
Menomonee Falls are in Waukesha County, Wis. There is a place 
called Menominee in Menominee County, Mich. 

Miami. This tribe, or at least portions of it, lived in southern Wis- 
consin when it was first known to French explorers and missionaries 
but later it moved south entirely out of the State. (See Indiana.) 

Missouri. (See Iowa.) 

Munsee. Some Munsee moved into Wisconsin with the Stockbridges 
(q. v.). 



256 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Noquet. This tribe may have been related to the Menominee or the 
Chippewa. At times it probably overlapped the northeastern 
border of Wisconsin. (See Michigan.) 

Oneida, see Iroquois. 

Oto. (See Iowa.) 

Ottawa. Some Ottawa lived in Wisconsin temporarily after they 
had been driven from their old homes by the Iroquois. They 
settled first on the islands at the mouth of Green Bay, and a part 
of them lived later upon Black River and at Chequamegon Bay 
before returning to their old country. (See Michigan.) 

Potawatomi. When first encountered by the French the Potawatomi 
were on the islands at the mouth of Green Bay. Later they pushed 
down the coast of Lake Michigan to Milwaukee River and thence 
to Chicago after which they drew further south into Illinois, Indiana, 
and southern Michigan. (See Michigan.) 

Sauk. From Osa'kiwiig, meaning "people of the outlet," or "people 
of the yellow earth." Also called: 

Hotl'nestako"', Onondaga name. 
Satoeronnou, Huron name. 
Quatokeronon, Huron name. 
Za'-ke, Santee and Yankton Dakota name. 

Connections. — The Sauk belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock 
and the same subdivision as that embracing the Foxes and Kickapoo. 

Location. — On the upper part of Green Bay and lower course of 
Fox River. (See also Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, 
Missouri, and Oklahoma.) 

History. — The earliest known home of the Sauk was about Saginaw 
Bay, Mich., which still bears their name. Shortly before the appear- 
ance of the Whites they were expelled from this country by the Ottawa 
and the Neutral Nation, and settled in the region above indicated 
where they remained for a considerable period. In 1766 Carver 
(1796) found their chief villages on Wisconsin River. After the de- 
struction of the lUinois they extended their territories over the Rock 
River district of northwestern Illinois. In 1804 a band of Sauk winter- 
ing near St. Louis were induced to enter into a treaty ceding to the 
United States Government the Sauk territories in Illinois and Wis- 
consin, but this transaction created so much indignation among the 
rest of the tribe when it became known that the band who made the 
treaty never returned to the rest and they have received independent 
recognition as the Missouri River Sauk. As the rest of the Sauk 
refused to move, other negotiations were entered into which were 
broken off in 1832 by the Indian outbreak known as the Black Hawk 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 257 

War. As a result of this struggle, the Sauk abandoned their country 
east of the Mississippi and sought refuge with the Foxes, already 
established in Iowa. In 1842 the Sauk, with the Foxes, ceded their 
lands in Iowa also in exchange for a tract in Kansas. About 1857-59, 
in the absence of the Foxes, the Sauk agreed to take up land in severalty 
and cede the remainder of this Kansas territory, and the Foxes, when 
they learned of this, returned to Iowa. In 1867 the Sauk ceded their 
lands in Kansas and removed to the Indian territory, and in 1889 they 
took up land in severalty and sold their surplus temtories to the 
government. 

Population. — Mooncy (1928) estimates that there were 3,500 Sauk 
in 1650. The principal early estimates of the Sauk are: in 1736, 
750 persons; in 1759, 1,000; in 1766, 2,000; in 1783, 2,250; in 1810, 
2,850; in 1825, 4,800; in 1834, 2,500. Alichelson (1919) states, how- 
ever, that the best was that of Lewis and Clark, whicli would make 
them about 2,000 m 1805. In 1885 there were 457 in Indian Terri- 
tory, including a few Foxes, and 87 in southeastern Nebraska. The 
Indian Office Report for 1909 gives 536 (chiefl}^ Sauk) in Oklahoma, 
and 87 (chiefly Sauk) in Kansas. The census of 1910 gives 347 in 
Oklahoma and 69 in Kansas, Sauk and Fox not being discriminated. 
It also records a number of individuals of both tribes scattered over 
nine other States. In 1923 the United States Report on Indian Afi'airs 
gave 673 in Oklahoma, and 93 in Kansas; total 766. The census of 
1930 returned 887 Sauk and Fox, rather more than two-thirds being 
Sauk. In 1937 the United States Indian Office reported 126 "Sac 
and Fox" in Kansas and 861 in Oklahoma, principally Sauk. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — 'Wliatever prominence 
the Sauk have attained they owed almost entirely to the war which, 
under Black Hawk, they sustained against the WTiites. Their name 
is perpetuated in Sauk River, Minn.; Sauk County, Wis.; and places 
in these two States. In the form Sac, it has been applied to a county 
and its capital in Iowa, a river in Missouri, and a small place in 
Tennessee. There is a post village called Sauk in Skagit County, 
Wash.; a Sauk City in Sauk County, Wis.; a Saukville in Ozaukee 
County in the same State; Sauk Rapids in Benton County, Minn.; 
and in the same State but in Stearns Count}', Sauk Centre which has 
a reputation all its own. 

Stockbridges. This name was given to a body of Indians most of 
whom belonged to the Housatonic and other tribes of the Mahican 
group, who in 1833 were placed upon a reserve in the neighborhood 
of Green Bay, along with the Oneida Indians and some Munsee. 
In 1856 all but a few who desired to become citizens removed to 



258 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

a reservation west of Shawano, Shawano County, Wis., where 
they still live. (See New York.) 

Tionontati. Kemnants of this tribe were in Wisconsin as part of the 
Wyandot (q. v.). 

Winnebago. Signifying in the Fox and the Sauk languages "people of 
the filthy water," for which reason they were sometimes known to the 
French as Puants and to the English as Stinkards, Also called: 

Aweatsiwaenhronon, a form of the Huron name (see below). 

Banabeouiks, a shortened form of Winnebago. 

Bay Indians, so called by Lapham, Blossom, and Dousman (1870). 

Hati'hshi'rA'nii, Huron name, meaning "afraid of sticking in the mire." 

Hotanka, Dakota name. 

Hotcangara, own name, signifying "(people of the) big or real speech," 

but, through a confusion of words, often misinterpreted "fish eaters." 
Nipegon, so called by Long (in James (1823)). 

Connections. — The Wiimebago belong to the Siouan linguistic fam- 
ily, and to a subdivision comprising also the group called by J. O. 
Dorsey (1897) Chiwere, which includes also the Iowa, Oto, and 
Missouri. 

Location. — The most ancient known habitat of this tribe was on 
the south side of Green Bay extending inland as far as Lake Winne- 
bago. (See also Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and South Dakota.) 

Villages 

Those that are known by name are: 
Prairie la Crosse, in southeastern Wisconsin. 

Sarrochau, on the site of Taycheeday, Fond du Lac County, Wis. 
Spotted Arm's Village, near Exeter, Green County, Wis. 
Village du Puant, on Wildcat Creek about a mile above its junction with the 

Wabash, above Lafayette, in Tippecanoe County, Ind. 
Wuckan, on Lake Poygan, Winnebago County, Wis. 
Yellow Thunder, at Yellow Banks, Green Lake County, Wis. 

History. — The Winnebago were occupants of the territory above 
mentioned from the earliest times of which we have any record. Dur- 
ing the eighteenth century they spread up Fox River and still later 
extended their villages to Wisconsin and Rock Rivers. It is reported 
that they were nearlj^ destroyed by the Illinois some time before 
1671 but, if so, they soon recovered entirely from this shock. They 
managed to remain on better terms with the surrounding tribes than 
most of their neighbors. By treaties made in 1825 and 1832 they 
ceded all of their lands south of Wisconsin and Fox Rivers to the 
United States Government in return for a reservation on the west 
side of the Mississippi above upper Iowa River. In 1836 they suffered 
severely from the smaUpox. In 1837 they relinquished the title to 
their old country east of the Mississippi, and in 1840 they removed 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 259 

to the Neutral Ground in the territory of Iowa. Many, however, 
remained in their old lands. In 1846 the rest surrendered their 
reservation for one in Minnesota north of Minnesota River, and in 
1848 removed to Long Prairie Reservation, bounded by Crow Wing, 
Watab, Mississippi, and Long Prairie Reservations, Minn. In 1853 
they removed to Crow River and in 1856 to Blue Earth, Minn., where 
they remained until the Dakota outbreak of 1862, when the WTiites 
in the section demanded their removal. In consequence they were 
taken to Crow Creek Reservation, S. Dak., but suffered so much from 
sickness, and in other ways, that they escaped to the Omaha for pro- 
tection. There a new reservation was assigned to them on the 
Omaha lands, where they have since been allotted land in severalty. 
Some however, remained in Minnesota when the tribe was removed 
from that State and a larger number did not leave Wisconsin. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,800 
individuals belonging to the Winnebago tribe in 1650. The following 
jBgures have been given from time to time: In 1806, 1,750; in 1820, 
5,800; in 1837 and 1843, 4,500; in 1867, 1,750 in Nebraska and 700 in 
Wisconsin. In 1876 there were 1,463 on the Nebraska Reservation 
and 860 in Wisconsin, but 204 of the latter removed to Nebraska in 
1877. In 1886 there were 1,222 in Nebraska and 930 in Wisconsin. 
In 1910 the L^nited States Indian Office gave 1,063 in Nebraska and 
1,270 in Wisconsin, but the United States Census of the same date 
gave a total Winnebago population of 1,820, of whom 1,007 were in 
Nebraska, 735 in Wisconsin, and the remainder scattered among 10 
other States. In 1923 the Report of the United States Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs gave 1,096 in Nebraska. In 1930 the figure was 
1,446, of whom 937 were in Wisconsin and 423 in Nebraska. In 1937 
the United States Indian Office reported 1,456 in Wisconsin, and 
1,212 in Nebraska: total, 2,668. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Winnebago tribe is 
noted for the unique position it occupied, as a Siouan tribe surrounded 
by Algonquian peoples, probably having been left behind in the 
general Siouan movement west, and its reputation as one of the 
mother tribes of the Siouan stock. Its name is perpetuated in that 
of Winnebago Lake, Wis.; the names of counties in Iowa, IlHnois, and 
Wisconsin; and places in Winnebago County, lU.; Faribault County, 
Minn.; Winnebago County, Wis.; and Thurston County, Nebr. 

Wyandot. After being driven out of Ontario by the Iroquois, part of 
the Wyandot, along with some Ottawa, went to Michilimackinac and 
from there to Green Bay, after which they lived successively at 
several different points within the boundaries of the present State 
of Wisconsin until they finally removed to Detroit. (See Ohio.) 



260 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

MINNESOTA 

Arapaho. There are traditions that they once lived along Red River, 
in the present North Dakota and Minnesota, (See Wyoming.) 

Cheyenne. The earliest known home of this tribe was in that part of 
Minnesota bounded roughly by the Mississippi, Minnesota, and 
upper Red Rivers. From here they moved to the Sheyenne branch 
of Red River, North Dakota. (See South Dakota.) 

Chippewa or Ojibwa. Traditional significance of name in their owti 
language, "to roast until puckered up," referring to the puckered 
seam in their moccasins. Also called: 

An-ish-in-aub-ag, another native term meaning "spontaneous men." 

Axshissay^-riinu, Wyandot name. 

Bawichtigouek, name in Jesuit Relations. 

Bedzaqetcha, Tsattine name, meaning "long hairs." 

Bedzietcho, Kawchodinne name. 

Bungees, so called by Hudson Bay traders. 

Cabellos realzados, the Spanish translation of French Cheveux-relev6s. 

De-w3,-ka-nha', Mohawk name. 

Dshipowe-hdga, Caughnawaga name. 

Dwa-ka-ng", Onondaga name. 

Eskiaeronnon, Huron name, meaning "people of the falls." 

Hahatonwan, Dakota name. 

iiahatonway, Hidatsa name, meaning "leapers." 

Jumpers, incorrect rendering of Saulteurs. 

Kiitaki, Fox name. 

Leapers, same as Jumpers. 

Nd-a-ya-og, Cree name, meaning "those speaking the same language." 

Ne-gd-tcg, Winnebago name. 

Nwa'-ka, Tuscarora name. 

Ostiagahoroones, Iroquois name. 

Paouichtigouin, name in Jesuit Relations. 

Saulteurs, or Saulteaux, given to part of the tribe from the falls at Sault 

Sainte Marie. 
Sotoes, Anglicization of above. 
Wah-kah-towah, Assiniboin name, according to Tanner. 

Connections. — The Chippewa are the type tribe of one of the two 
largest divisions of the Algonquian linguistic stock. 

Location. — The earliest accounts of the Chippewa associate them 
particularly with the region of Sault Sainte Marie, but they came 
in time to extend over the entire northern shore of Lake Huron and 
both shores of Lake Superior, besides well into the northern interior 
and as far west as the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota. (See also 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Montana, North Dakota, 
Ohio, Wisconsin, and Canada.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OP NORTH AMERICA 261 

Subdivisions 

There were a number of major and numerous minor divisions of this tribe. 
According to Warren, there were 10 major divisions, as follows: 
Betonukeengainubejig, in northern Wisconsin. 
Kechegummewininewug, on the south shore of Lake Superior, 
Kechesebewininewug, on the upper Mississippi in Minnesota. 
Kojejewininewug, on Rainy Lake and River, about the northern boundary 

of Minnesota. 
Mukmeduawininewug, or Pillagers, on Leech Lake, Minn. 
Munominikasheenhug, at the headwaters of St. Croix River in Wisconsin and 

Minnesota. 
Ottawa Lake Men, on Lac Courte Oreilles, Wis. 
Sugwaundugahwiuinewug, north of Lake Superior. 
Wahsuahgunewininewug, at the head of Wisconsin River. 
Wazhush, on the northwest side of Lake Superior at the Canadian border. 

Villages and Small Bands 

Amikwa, on the north shore of Lake Huron, opposite Maoitoulin Island. 

Angwassag, near St. Charles, Saginaw County, Mich. 

Anibiminanisibiwininiwak, a band, on Pembina River in the extreme northern 
part of Minnesota and the adjacent part of Manitoba. 

Bagoache, a band, about the northern shore of Lake Superior. 

Bay du Noc, perhaps Chippewa, probably on Noquet Bay in upper Michigan. 

Beaver Island Indians, on the Beaver Islands of Lake Michigan, at the outlet. 

Big Rock, the location of a reservation in lower Michigan. 

Blackbird, on Tittibawassee River, Saginaw County, Mich. 

Burnt Woods, Chippewa, on Bois Brul6 River near the west end of Lake Superior, 
northern Wisconsin. 

Chetac Lake, on the lake of the same name in Sawyer County, Wis. 

Crow Wing River, at the mouth of Crow Wing River in north central Minnesota. 

Doki's Band, at the head of French River where it leaves Lake Nipissing, Ont. 

Epinette, on the north shore of Lake Superior, east of Michipicoton River, Ont. 

Flying Post, about the post of that name in Ontario. 

Fond du Lac, on St. Louis River near Fond du Lac, Minn. 

Gamiskwakokawininiwak, about Cass Lake, near the head of the Mississippi, 
in Minn. 

Gasakaskuatchimmekak, location uncertain. 

Gatagetegauning, on Lac (Vieux) Desert or Gatagetegauning on the Michigan- 
Wisconsin State line. 

Gawababiganikak, about White Earth Lake, Minn. 

Grand Portage, at Grand Portage on the northern shore of Lake Superior in Minn. 

Gull Lake Band, on Gull Lake on the upper Mississippi, in Cass County, Minn. 

Kahmetahwungaguma, on Sandy Lake, Cass County, Minn. 

Kawkawling, location uncertain. 

Kechepukwaiwah, on the lake of the same name near Chippewa River, Wis. 

Ketchewaundaugenink, on Shiawassee River on the trail between Detroit and 
Saginaw Bay, Mich. 

Kishkawbawee, on Flint River in lower Michigan. 

Knife Lake, location uncertain. 

Lac Courte Oreilles, on the lake of the same name at the headwaters of Chippewa 
River, in Sawyer County, Wis. 



262 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bulu 145 

Little Forks, a reservation on Tittibawassee River, in lower Michigan. 

Long Lake, on Long Lake north of Lake Superior, between Nipigon and Pic 

River, Ont. 
Matawachkirini, Matachewan, about Fort Matachewan, Ont. 
Mattagami, about Mattagami Lake. 
Mekadewagamitigweyawininiwak, on Black River, Mich. 
Menitegow, on the east bank of Saginaw River in lower Michigan. 
Menoquet's Village, on Cass River, lower Michigan. 
Michilimackinac, on Mackinac Island, Mich. 
Michipicoten, a band on Michipicoten River, Ont. 

Midinakwadshiwininiwak, a band in the Turtle Mountain region, N. Dak. 
Misisagaikaniwininiwak, a band on Mille Lacs, Minn. 
Miskwagamiwisagaigan, a band about Red Lake River, Minn. 
Nabobish, at the mouth of Saginaw River, Mich. 
Nagonabe, in lower Michigan. 
Nameuilni, a band northwest of Lake Superior, between Rainy Lake and Lake 

Nipigon in Algoma, Ont. 
Nibowisibiwininiwak, in Saskatchewan north of Lake Winnipeg. 
Nipissing, about Lake Nipissing. 
Obidgewong, with Ottawa, on the west shore of Lake Wolseley, Manitoulin 

Island, Ont. 
Ommunise, or Ottawa, on Carp River, Mich. 
Onepowesepewenenewak, in Minnesota. 
Ontonagon, a band on Ontonagon River in upper Michigan. 
Oschekkamegawenenewak, 2 bands: (1) near Rainy Lake (1753); (2) east of Mille 

Lacs. 
Ouasouarini, on Georgian Bay, Ont. 

Oueschekgagamiouilimy, the Caribou gens of Rainy River, Minn. 
Outchougai, on the east side of Georgian Bay and probably south of French River, 

connected with the Amikwa. 
Otusson, on upper Huron River in Sanilac County, Mich, 
Pawating, at Sault Ste. Marie, on the south bank of St. Mary's River, Chippewa 

County, Mich. 
Pic River, at the mouth of Pic River on the north shore of Lake Superior, Ont. 
Pokegama, on Pokegama Lake, Pine County, Minn. 
Portage du Prairie, in Manitoba. 

Rabbit Lake Chippewa, a band on Rabbit Lake, Minn. 
Reaum's Village, in Flint River, Mich., about the boundary of Genesee and 

Saginaw Counties. 
Red Cedar Lake, on Red Cedar Lake, Barron County, Wis. 
Red ChflF, near the west end of Lake Superior, in Wisconsin or Minnesota. 
Rice Lake Band, on Rice Lake, Barron County, Wis. 
Saginaw, with Ottawa, near Saginaw, Mich. 

Saint Francis Xavier, a mission, on Mille Lacs, Aitkin County, Minn. 
Shabwasing, a band, probably in lower Michigan. 

Shaugawaumikong, on Long Island, on the west coast of Lake Superior, in Ash- 
land County, Wis. 
Sukaauguning, on Pelican Lake, Oneida County, Wis. 
Thunder Bay, Chippewa or Ottawa, a band on Thunder Bay, Alpena County, 

Mich. 
Timagimi, about Lake Timagimi. 
Trout Lake, location uncertain. 
Turtle Portage, in Wisconsin. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 263 

Wabasemowenenewak, near a white rock perhaps in Minnesota. 

Walpole Island, with other tribes, Ontario. 

Wanamakewajejenik, near the Lake of the Woods. 

Wapisiwisibiwininiwak, a band, on Swan Creek, near Lake St. Clair, Mich. 

Wauswagiming, on Lac du Flambeau, Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin. 

Wequadong, near L'Anse at the head of Keweenaw Bay, Baraga County, Mich. 

Whitefish, on Sturgeon River. 

Wiaquahhechegumeeng, at the head of Lake Superior in Douglass County, Wis. 

Winnebegoshishiwininewak, a band on Lake Winnibigashish, Minn. 

Yellow Lake, on Yellow Lake, Burnett County, Wis. 

History. — According to tradition, the Chippewa were part of a 
large body of Indians which came from the east — how much east of 
their later homes is uncertain — and after reaching Mackinaw sep- 
arated into the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi. The Chippewa 
afterward pushed their way west along both shores of Lake Superior, 
and in the eighteenth century, assisted by the adoption of firearms, 
drove the Dakota from Mille Lacs, and spread over the northern part 
of Minnesota and southern Manitoba as far as the Turtle Mountains. 
They also flowed back around Lake Huron. During the nineteenth 
century they were gradually gathered into reservations on both sides 
of the International Boundary, but none were ever removed from their 
original country except two small bands and some scattered families 
which went to Kansas early in 1839, and in 1866 agreed to settle among 
the Cherokee in Oklahoma. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) considered that there were 35,000 
Chippewa in 1650. The tribe was so large and has so many rami- 
fications that few early estimates are very close to the truth. The 
principal are: In 1764, about 25,000; in 1783 and 1794, about 15,000; 
in 1843, about 30,000; in 1851, about 28,000. In 1884 there were in 
Dakota 914; in Minnesota, 5,885; in Wisconsin, 3,656; in Michigan, 
3,500 returned separately and 6,000 combined Chippewa and Ottawa, 
of whom perhaps one-third were Chippewa; in Kansas, 76 Chippewa 
and Munsee. In Canada the Chippewa of Ontario, including the 
Nipissing, numbered at the same time about 9,000, while in Manitoba 
and the Northwest Territories there were 17,129 Chippewa and Cree 
on reservations under the same agencies. The census of 1910 gave 
20,214 in the United States, of whom 8,234 were in Minnesota, 4,299 in 
Wisconsin, 3,725 in Michigan, 2,966 in North Dakota, and the balance 
scattered among 18 States. The United States Indian Office Report 
for 1923 gave 22,599. In Canada there were probably somewhat less 
than 25,000, giving a total for the tribe of about 45,000. It must, 
however, be remembered that the present population of Chippewa 
includes thousands of mixed-bloods, partly representing mixtures with 
other tribes and partly mixtures with Whites, The United States 
Census of 1930 gives 21,549, including 9,495 in Minnesota, 4,437 in 



264 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Wisconsin, 3,827 in North Dakota, 1,865 in Michigan, and 1,549 in 
Montana. In 1937, 15,160 were returned from Minnesota, 4,303 
from Wisconsin, 6,513 from North Dakota, and 481 from Montana; a 
total in the United States of 26,457. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — From early times the 
Chippewa were one of those tribes most prominent in the minds of 
writers on American Indians. This fact they owed in the first place 
to their numbers and the extent of country covered by their bands; 
secondly, to their central position and the many White men who became 
acquainted with them; and, thirdly, to the popularization given them 
by Henry M. Schoolcraft (1851-57), and the still wider popularity 
which they and their myths attained through the use of Schoolcraft's 
material by Longfellow in his famous poem of Hiawatha, for while the 
name Hiawatha is drawn from Iroquois sources, the stories are nearly 
all Chippewa. The name is preserved by streams in Wisconsin, Ohio, 
Michigan, Minnesota, and Ontario; by counties in Michigan, Wis- 
consin, and Minnesota; by various places in Pennsylvania, New York, 
Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario; and by Chippewa Bay, St. 
Lawrence County, N. Y.; Chippewa Falls, Chippewa County, Wis.; 
Chippewa Lake, Mecosta County, Mich.; Chippewa Lake, Medina 
County, Ohio; and Ojibwa in Sawyer County, Wis. 

Dakota. When first known to Europeans the Dakota were mainly 
in southern Minnesota. They gradually moved westward but 
did not cede aU of their lands in Minnesota until 1863, and even 
then retained rights to the famous Red Pipestone Quarry. (See 
South Dakota.) 

Foxes. In 1830 representatives of this tribe were a party to a treaty 
ceding Minnesota lands to the Whites. (See Wisconsin.) 

Iowa. According to tradition, this tribe lived for a time near the 
famous Red Pipestone Quarry in southwestern Minnesota, and were 
at the mouth of Minnesota River when the Dakota reached that 
country. They appear to have been near the mouth of Blue Earth 
River just before Le Sueur arrived there in 1701. Dakota informed 
him that Blue Earth River belonged to the Dakota of the West, the 
Iowa, and the Oto. (See Iowa.) 

Missouri. Representatives of this tribe were a party to the treaty of 
1830, ceding Minnesota lands to the Whites. (See Missouri.) 

Omaha. At one time the Omaha lived about the Red Pipestone 
Quarry in Minnesota. (See Nebraska.) 

Oto. As noted above (under Iowa), the Oto are reported to have 
shared at one time the ownership of Blue Earth River with the 
Iowa and the Western Dakota. (See Nebraska.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 265 

Ottawa. A band of Ottawa, in company with some Wyandot, once 
wintered on Lake Pepin. (See Michigan.) 

Ponca. This tribe was probably in southwestern Minnesota at the 
same time as the Omaha. (See Nebraska.) 

Sauk. In 1830 Sauk representatives were a party to a treaty ceding 
Minnesota lands to the Whites. (See Wisconsin.) 

Winnebago. A part of the Winnebago lived in Minnesota from 1848 
to 1862 after surrendering their reservation in Iowa Territory. 
(See Wisconsin.) 

Wyandot. This tribe visited the borders of Minnesota for a short 
period in company with the Ottawa. (See Ottawa, above, and 
Ohio.) 

IOWA 

Chippewa. Part of the Chippewa, together with the Potawatomi 
and Ottawa, ceded lands in this State in 1846. (See Minnesota.) 

Dakota. After the Iowa Indians moved from the northern part of the 
present State of Iowa, the Dakota occupied much of the territory 
they had abandoned until the Sauk and Fox settled in their 
neighborhood shortly before and immediately after the Black Hawk 
War of 1832 and harassed them so constantly that they withdrew, 
(See South Dakota.) 

Foxes. This tribe began moving into Iowa sometime after 1804 and 
by the end of the Black Hawk War all were gathered there. In 
1842 they parted with their Iowa lands and most of them removed 
to Kansas with the Sauk, but shortly after the middle of the nine- 
teenth century some began to return to the State and by 1859 
nearly all had come back. They bought a tract of land near Tama 
City to which they added from time to time and where they have 
lived ever since. (See Wisconsin.) 

Illinois. Franquelin (1688) seems to locate the Peoria on the upper 
Iowa River, but Marquette, on his descent of the Mississippi in 
1673, found that tribe and the Moingwena near the mouth of the 
Des Moines. When he returned he found that they had moved 
to the neighborhood of Peoria, 111. The name Des Moines is 
derived from that of the Moingwena. (See Illinois.) 

Iowa. Apparently borrowed by the French from Ayuhwa, the 
Dakota term applied to them, which, according to Riggs, signifies 
"sleepy ones." Skinner (1926) states that Iowa is their own name, 
but I feel sure that it has been borrowed in later years. Also called: 

Nadouessioux Maskoutens, Algonkin name meaning "Dakota of the Prairies." 
Nez Perc6s, a traders' nickname. 



266 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bulu 145 

Pahodja, own name, meaning "dusty noses." Skinner (1926) gives a different 

translation, but I am inclined to accept that furnished by J. 0. Dorsey. 
Pash6han, Pawnee name. 
Pierced Noses, traders' name. 
Wa-otc', Winnebago name. 

Connections. — The Iowa were a tribe of the Siouan hnguistic stock 
and of the Chiwere subdivision, which included also the Oto, and 
Missouri. 

Location. — The Iowa moved about a great deal but mainly within 
the boundaries of the State which bears their name. (See also Kansas, 
Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The only subdivisions mentioned are those of the moieties and gentes. But 
one village, the Wolf village, appears in the historical narratives. 

History. — In the eariiest historical period the Iowa were Hving on 
a western affluent of the Mississippi conjectured by Mott (1938) to 
have been the Upper Iowa. Later they moved into the northwestern 
part of the present State of Iowa about the Okoboji Lakes and prob- 
ably extended into southwestern Minnesota to the neighborhood of 
the Red Pipestone Quarry and to the Big Sioux River. In the latter 
part of the eighteenth century they passed over to the Missouri and 
settled south of the spot where Council Bluffs now stands and on the 
east side of the river. About 1760 they moved east and came to Hve 
along the Mississippi between the Iowa and Des Moines Rivers. 
Their principal town was on the Des Moines River and for a long 
time at a spot in the northwestern part of Van Buren County. Early 
in the nineteenth century part of them seem to have moved farther 
up the Des Moines while others established themselves on Grand and 
Platte Rivers, Mo. At this time they seem to have come into contact 
with the Dakota and to have suffered considerably in consequence. 
There is a tradition that they were defeated by Black Hawk in 1821. 
In 1814 they were allotted lands in what was known as "the Platte 
Purchase" extending from the Platte River of Missouri through 
western Iowa even to the Dakota country. By treaties signed 
August 4, 1824, July 15, 1830, September 17, 1836, and November 
23, 1837, they ceded all of their claims to lands in Missouri and Iowa, 
and by that of Prairie du Chien, signed August 19, 1825, they sur- 
rendered all claims to land in Minnesota. The treaty of 1836 assigned 
part of them a reservation along Great Nemaha River, in the present 
Richardson County, Nebr., and Brown County, Kans., but it was 
considerably reduced by treaties of May 17, 1854, and March 6, 1861. 
Later part removed to Oklahoma to find homes in the present Lincoln 
and Noble Counties. 



SWANXON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 267 

Tradition assigns to this tribe a single origin with the Winnebago, 
Oto, and Missouri, and it is borne out by the close linguistic relation- 
ship between them. Rather specific migration legends have been 
preserved giving an account of the movements of this tribal complex 
and the time and circumstances of the separation. If we are to be- 
lieve these traditions, after separation from the Winnebago, the 
lowa-Oto-Missouri mother tribe moved first to Rock River, 111., near 
its junction with the Mississippi, and thence to the Des Moines River 
some distance above its mouth, after separating at the Iowa River into 
two bands, the one which became the Iowa moving to the northwest 
while the Oto-Missouri went on to the mouth of Grand River, where 
part remained becoming the Missouri while the rest, the Oto, went 
on westward up the Missouri. The historical documents do not 
bring the Iowa so far south and they also seem to hnk the Oto and Iowa 
closely together. We should, therefore, be inclined to dismiss the 
native traditions altogether were it not that we have to account for 
the Missouri who are not mentioned in early times in close conjunc- 
tion with the other two but had reached the mouth of Grand River 
as early as 1687. It is, of course, possible that the Missouri separated 
from the lowa-Oto or Iowa at Upper Iowa River instead of Iowa 
River, but it is also possible that the entire tribal complex moved 
somewhat farther south before their separation. The later stages of 
Iowa history given in the tradition already noted conform sufficiently 
well with the known historical facts to give us some confidence regard- 
ing the rest of the story though it varies in details. According to 
this, the Iowa went from the neighborhood of the Red Pipestone 
Quarry to the mouth of the Platte, and then in succession to the 
headwaters of the Little Platte River, Mo., to the west bank of the 
Mississippi slightly above the mouth of the Des Moines, to a point a 
little higher up on the same side of the Mississippi, southwestwardly 
to Salt River and up it to its extreme headwaters, to the upper part 
of Chariton River, to Grand River, and thence to Missouri River 
opposite Fort Leavenworth, where they lived in 1848 at the time 
when this narrative was related and the map accompanying it drawn. 

By agreement, the Oklahoma tract held by the Iowa was granted 
to its occupants in severalty. 

Population. — In 1702 Iberville estimated that the war power of the 
Iowa was about 300 "good men." In 1736 Chauvignerie placed it as 
low as 80. An estimate made in 1760 gives the total population as 
1,100 souls. In 1777 Cruzat reported that there were 250 warriors, 
and Lewis and Clark, in 1804, 200 warriors and a total population of 
800. In 1829 we find an estimate of 1,000, and in 1832 Catlin gives 
one of the highest, 1,400. In 1836, however, an attempted census 



268 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

returned 992 but only 7 years later the United States Indian OflBce 
reported only 470. In 1885 there were 138 in Kansas, and 88 in 
Oklahoma. In 1905 the figures were 225 and 89 respectively. The 
census of 1910 returned 244 of whom 124 were in Kansas, 79 in Okla- 
homa, and 38 in Nebraska. The United States Indian Ofiice Report 
of 1923 gave 338 in Kansas and 82 in Oklahoma, a total of 420. The 
census of 1930 returned 10 in Brown County, Kans.; 83 in Richardson 
County, Nebr.; 32 in Lincoln County, Okla.; 24 in Noble County, 
Okla.; and 5 in other States, or a total of 154. In 1937 there were 
112 in Oklahoma. Although we have estimates of Iowa population 
higher than any above given, in one case as high as 8,000, it is evident 
that the figure suggested by Mooney (1928) as giving the probable 
population in 1780, i. e., 1,200, is nearer the truth — too high if 
anything. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Iowa were rela- 
tively inconspicuous in the early days, but their name will always be 
prominent because it was adopted as that of one of the great agricul- 
tural States of the Middle West. Iowa City, two rivers, a county, 
and several smaller places in the same State bear the name. There 
is also a coimty so designated in Wisconsin and villages in Kansas 
and California. 

There is a place of the name in Calcasieu Parish, La. ; Iowa FaUs in 
Hardin County, Iowa; Iowa Colony in Brazoria County, Tex.; Iowa 
Park in Wichita County in the same State, and Iowa Hill in Placer 
County, Calif. 

Missouri. This tribe is said to have had the same origin as the Iowa 
and to have moved with them and the Oto to Iowa River, where 
the Iowa remained while the others continued on to the Missouri. 
(See Missouri.) 

Moingwena. (See Illinois above.) 

Omaha. While the Omaha usually lived west of the Missouri, they 
wandered for a time in western Iowa before moving over into 
Nebraska. (See Nebraska.) 

Oto, see Missouri above, and Missouri, page 269.) 

Ottawa. Representatives of this tribe were a party to a treaty made 
in 1846, ceding Iowa lands to the Whites. (See Michigan.) 

Peoria. (See Illinois above.) 

Ponca. The Ponca accompanied the Omaha while they were in 
western Iowa. (See Nebraska.) 

Potawatomi. The Prairie Potawatomi settled in western Iowa before 
removing to Kansas. They ceded their lands in 1846. (See 
Michigan.) 



8 WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 269 

Sauk. The Sauk moved into Iowa after the Black Hawk War and 
from there to Kansas in 1842. (See Wisconsin.) 

Winnebago. In 1840 this tribe went to the Neutral Ground in Iowa 
assigned to them by treaty of September 15, 1832, whence they 
removed in 1848 to Minnesota. (See Wisconsin.) 

MISSOURI 

Caddo. Within historic times no Caddoan tribe is knowTi to have 
hved within the limits of the present State of Missouri, but occu- 
pancy by Caddo is indicated by certain archeological remains ia 
the extreme southwestern section. (See Texas.) 

Dakota. Representatives of this tribe were a party to a treaty made 
in 1830, relinquishing lands in Missouri to the Whites. (See South 
Dakota.) 

Delaware. In 1818 a grant of land in southern Missouri was made to 
some of the Delaware Indians but it was re-ceded by them in 1829. 
(See New Jersey.) 

Foxes. Representatives of this tribe were a party to treaties with the 
United States Government concerning Missouri lands made in 1804 
and 1830. (See Wisconsin.) 

Illinois. Some of the tribes of the Illinois group at one time lived close 
to, and probably for a short' time within, the eastern boundaries of 
Missouri. (See Illinois.) 

Iowa. The Iowa perhaps lived for a time in that part of Missouri 
north of Missouri River. (See Iowa.) 

Kickapoo. The Kickapoo lived in Missouri for awhile after they 
had sold theu' lands in Illinois but soon passed on to Kansas. (See 
Wisconsin.) 

Missouri. Meaning either "(people having) dugout canoes," or 
"(people having) wooden canoes," which amounts to the same thing. 
Through a misunderstanding, the name has been supposed to apply 
to the river which now bears the name, and it has been interpreted 
as meaning "big muddy." They were also called: 

Niiitachi, their own name. 
Wagux^a, by the Osage. 
Wa-ju'-xd^&, by the Quapaw. 

Location. — The best-known historical location of the Missouri was 
on the river which bears their name on the south bank near the mouth 
of Grand River. Berry and Chapman (1938) have recently sought to 
identify this site, and probably correctly, with what they call the Utz 
site at a place called The Pinnacles in Saline County, Mo., a few 



270 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bulu 146 

miles above the mouth of the Grand. (See also Iowa, Kansas, 
Minnesota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) 

Connection. — The Missouri belonged to the Chiwere division of the 
Siouan linguistic family, the other tribes under this head being the 
Iowa and Oto. 

According to tradition, the Missouri, Iowa, and Oto separated from 
the Winnebago at some indefinite period in the past and moved south- 
west to Iowa River where the Iowa remained, the others continuing 
to the Missouri, which they reached at the mouth of Grand River. 
Here, in consequence of a dispute between two chiefs, the tribe spUt 
again, the Missouri remaining where they were, while the Oto con- 
tinued on up the Missouri River. From what we know of the rela- 
tionship between the tribes in question, such successive fissions are 
not inherently improbable, though they may not have occurred at 
the places indicated. No doubt, events that happened gradually have 
been represented as occurring abruptly within limited periods. (For 
a further discussion of the Chiwere migration legends, see Iowa under 
Iowa and Oto under Nebraska.) Whatever their earlier history Mar- 
quette (1698) reported their presence on the Missouri River in 1673, 
and they were probably at the point above indicated, though his map 
is too inaccurate to place this beyond question. Here, or in the imme- 
diate neighborhood, they remained until 1798, when they suflFered a 
terrible defeat at the hands of the Sauk and Fox Indians and scattered 
to live for a time among the Osage, Kansa, and Oto. By 1805 they 
had recovered to some extent, and Lewis and Clark found them in 
villages south of the River Platte. As a result of another unfortunate 
war, however, this time with the Osage, part joined the Iowa but the 
greater part went to the Oto to live, and followed their fortunes, par- 
ticipating with them in all treaties from 1830 onward. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,000 Mis- 
souri in 1780. In 1702 there were supposed to be 200 families. In 
1805 Lewis and Clark placed the entire population of the tribe at 
300 souls, but in 1829, when they were with the Oto, they counted 
but 80. Only 13 Indians of the Missouri tribe were returned by the 
census of 1910, and in 1930 they were not separated from the Oto 
(q.v.). 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Historically the Mis- 
souri tribe itself is remembered particularly for the tragic manner in 
which it was almost destroyed, but, as in many other cases, its name 
has attained a distinction out of all proportion to the aboriginal 
standing of the people. It is associated with that of the largest 
branch of the largest river of North America and to one of the great 
States of the American Union. There is a post town in Clay County, 
Mo., called Missomi City; another Missouri City in Fort Bend 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 271 

County, Tex. ; and a city in Harrison County, Iowa, known as Missouri 
Valley, besides a Missouri Branch in Wayne County, W. Va, 

Omaha. Representatives of this tribe were party to a treaty made 
in 1830 relinquishing lands in Missouri to the United Slates Gov- 
ernment. (See Nebraska.) 

Osage. A corruption of their own name Wazhazhe, which in turn is 
probably an extension of the name of one of the three bands of 
which the tribe is composed. Also called: 

Anahou, a name used by the French, perhaps the Caddo name. 
Bone Indians, given by Schoolcraft. 

Connections. — The Osage were the most important tribe of the 
division of the Siouan linguistic stock called by J. O. Dorsey (1897) 
Dhegiha, which included also the Omaha, Ponka, Kansa, and Quapaw. 

Location. — The greater part of this tribe was anciently on Osage 
River, Mo., but from a very early period a smaller division known as 
Little Osage was on the Missouri River near the village of the Mis- 
souri Indians (q. v.). (See also Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The two principal local divisions were the Great and Little Osages, mentioned 
above. About 1802 a third division, the "Arkansas Band," was created by the 
migration of nearly half of the Big Osage to Arkansas River under a chief known 
aa Big- Track. The names of the following Osage villages, some of them having 
the names of their chiefs, have been recorded: 

Big Chief, 4 miles from the Mission in Indian Territory in 1850. 

Black Dog, 60 miles from the Mission in Indian Territory in 1850. 

Heakdhetanwan, on Spring Creek, a branch of Neosho River, Indian Territory. 

Intapupshe, on upper Osage River about the mouth of Sac River, Mo. 

Khdhasiukdhin, on Neosho River, Kans. 

Little Osage Village, on Osage Reservation, Okla., on the west bank of Neosho 

River. 
Manhukdhintanwan, on a branch of Neosho River, Kans. 
Nanzewaspe, In Neosho valley, southeastern Kansas. 
Nikhdhitanwan, at the junction of the Sac and Osage Rivers, Mo. 
Paghuukdhinpe, on the east side of Verdigris River, Okla. 
Pasukdhin, an ancient village name and also name of a late village on Verdigris 

River, Okla. 
Santsepasu, location uncertain. 
Santsukhdhin, native name of the Arkansas band, the village being located on 

Verdigris River, Okla., 60 miles above its mouth. 
Takdheskautsiupshe, unidentified. 

Tanwakanwakaghe, at the junction of Grand and Osage rivers. Mo. 
Tanwanshinka, on Neosho River, Okla. 
Wakhakukdhin, on Neosho River, Okla. 
White Hair's Village, on the east side of Little Osage River in the northern part 

of the present Vernon County, Mo. 



272 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

History. — Tradition indicates a prehistoric seat of the Osage on the 
Ohio River, but the first historical notice of them appears to be on 
Marquette's autograph map of 1673, where they are located in the 
region with which they are usually associated. They continued there 
until the separation of the Arkansas band already mentioned. By 
that time the Little Osage had moved from the Missouri to a position 
Avithin 6 miles of the Great Osage. During the eighteenth century 
and the first part of the nmeteenth, the Osage were at war with 
practically all the other tribes of the Plains and a large number of 
those of the woodlands, to many of which their name was a synonym 
for enemy. On November 10, 1808, the Osage signed a treaty ceding 
all their territorial claims in the present States of Missouri and Arkan- 
sas to the United States. The remainder was further curtailed by 
treaties signed in 1825, 1839, and 1865, and the limits of their later 
reservation were established by act of Congress of July 15, 1870. 
They have since been allotted land in severalty and are now citizens 
of Oklahoma. 

Population. — Mooney's (1928) estimate of Osage population as of 
the year 1780 is 6,200. In 1804 Lewis and Clark estimated 500 
warriors in the Great Osage band, nearly half as many Little Osages, 
and 600 in the Ai'kansas band. Sibley (1832), about the same time, 
gave 1,250 warriors. ]Morse (1822) estimated that there was an 
Osage population of 5,200; in 1829 Porter gave 5,000; in 1843 the 
United States Indian Oflace enumerated 4,102; Schoolcraft (1851-57) 
records 3,758 exclusive of an important division known as Black Dgg's 
band; in 1877 the United States Indian OflSce had 3,001; in 1884, 
1,547; in 1886, 1,582; and in 1906, 1,994. The census of 1910 gives 
1,373, all but 28 in Oklahoma, but the United States Indian Office 
Report for 1923 has 2,099. In 1930, 2,344 were reported, and in 1937, 
3,649. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — As above stated, the 
Osage attained a high reputation as fighters among all the tribes of 
the southern Plains and many of those of the Gulf region. They are 
also remarkable for then social organization as set forth in the reports 
of Dr. Francis La Flesche (1921, 1925, 1928). The name became 
affixed to the Osage River, a considerable branch of the Missouri, 
which rises in Kansas but flows principally through the State of 
Missouri; also to counties in Kansas and Alissouri; a fork of the 
Gasconade River, Mo.; a creek in Arkansas; and to places in Carroll 
County, Ark.; Frankhn County, 111.; Mitchell County, Iowa; 
Becker County, Minn. ; Osage County, Okla. ; Coryell County, Tex. ; 
Monongalia County, W. Va. ; Weston County, Wyo. ; Osage Beach in 
Camden County, Mo.; Osage City in Cole County, Mo.; and Osage 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OP' NORTH AMERICA 273 

City in Kansas. Indirectly they have also furnished one of the popular 
names of the bois d'arc, Osage orange, the favorite wood for making 
bows among the tribes of the southern Plains between the lower 
Mississippi and the Pueblo country. 

Oto. As stated in treating of the Missouri (q. v.), the Oto accom- 
panied that tribe into this State, left them when they were both on 
the Missouri River near Grand River, and moved northeast into 
Kansas. (See Nebraska.) 

Sauk. Representatives of this tribe were parties to the treaties 
involving Missouri land cessions made in 1804 and 1830. (See 
Wisconsin.) 

Shawnee. A part of the Shawnee Indians settled about Cape Girar- 
deau in southeastern Missouri early in the nineteenth century. 
They ceded their lands to the U. S. Government in 1825. (See 
Tennessee.) 

NORTH DAKOTA 

Arapaho. Certain traditions indicate that the Arapaho at one time 
lived in the Red River Valley in what is now Minnesota and North 
Dakota, but they had left before the historic period. (See Wyo- 
ming.) 

Ankara. Signifying "horns," or "elk," and having reference to their 
ancient manner of wearing the hair with two pieces of bone stand- 
ing up, one on each side of the crest; -ra is the plural suffix. Also 
called: 

A. da ka' da ho, Hidatsa name. 

Ah-pen-ope-say, or A-pan-to'-pse, Crow name. 

Corn eaters, given as their own name. 

Ka'-nan-in, Arapaho name, meaning "people whose jaws break in pieces." 

O-no'-ni-o, Cheyenne name. 

Padani, Pani, applied to them by various tribes. 

Ree, abbreviation of Ankara. 

Sanish, "person," their own name, according to Gilmore (1927). 

S'qQIes'tslii, Salish name. 

Stfir-rah-he' [tstarahi], their own name, according to Lewis and Clark 

(1904-05). 
Tanish, their own name, meaning "the people," according to Hayden (1862). 

Perhaps a misprint of Sanish. 
\Va-zi'-ya-ta Pa-da'-niu, Yankton name, meaning "northern Pawnee." 

Connections. — The Arikara belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock 
and were a comparatively recent offshoot of the Skidi Pawnee. 

Location. — In historic times they have occupied various points on 
the Missouri River between Cheyenne River, South Dakota, and Fort 
Berthold, North Dakota. (See also Montana and Nebraska.) 



274 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bpix. 145 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The Arikara are sometimes spoken of as a confederacy of smaller tribes each 
occupying its own village, and one account mentions 10 of these, while Gilmore 
(1927) furnishes the names of 12, including 4 of major importance under which 
the others were grouped. These were as follows: 

Awahu, associated with which were Hokat and Scirihauk. 
Hukawirat, with which were associated Warihka and Nakarik. 
Tukatuk, with which were associated Tsininatak and Witauk. 
Tukstanu, with which were associated Nakanusts and Nisapst. 

Earlier sources give other names which do not agree with these: 
Hachepiriinu. 
Hia. 

Hosukhaunu, properly the name of a dance society. 
Hosukhaunukarerihu, properly the name of a dance society. 
Kaka. 

Lohoocat, the name of a town in the time of Lewis and Clark. 
Okos. 
Paushuk. 
Sukhutit. 

History. — After parting from the Skidi in wliat is now Nebraska, 
the Arikara gradually pushed north to the Missouri River and on up 
that stream. 

In 1770 when French traders opened relations with them they were 
a little below Cheyenne River. Lesser and Weltfish (1932) suggest 
that they may have been the Harahey or Arahey of whom Coronado 
was told rather than the Pawnee (q. v.) . Lewis and Clark found them, 
reduced considerably in numbers, between Grand and Cannonbali 
Rivers. In 1823 they attacked the boats of an American trader, 
killing 13 men and wounding others, and in consequence of this 
trouble they abandoned their country and went to live with the 
Skidi on Loup River. Two years later they returned to the Missouri, 
and by 1851 they had pushed as far north as Heart River. Meantime 
wars with the Dakota and the smallpox had reduced them so much 
that they were glad to open friendly relations with two other tribes, 
similarly reduced, the Hidatsa and Mandan. In 1862 they moved to 
Fort Berthold. In 1880 the Fort Berthold Reservation was created 
for the three tribes, and the Arikara have ever since lived upon it, 
though they are now allotted land in severalty, and on the approval 
of the allotments, July 10, 1900, they became citizens of the United 
States. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were 
about 3,000 Arikara. In 1804 Lewis and Clark gave 2,600. In 1871 
they numbered 1,650; m 1888 only 500; and in 1904, 380. The census 
of 1910 returned 444 of whom 425 were in North Dakota. In 1923 
the United States Indian OflSce gave 426. The census of 1930 re- 
turned 420, and the United States Indian OflBce in 1937, 616. 



SWASTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 275 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Arikara are noted 
merely as the most northerly of the Caddoan tribes and from their 
probable influence in introducing a knowledge of agriculture to the 
people of the upper Alissouri. Arickaree in Washington County, 
Colo., perpetuates the name. 

Assiniboin. In early days the Assiniboin were constantly coming 
across from Canada to fight and trade with the tribes of the upper 
Missouri, but they did not settle within the limits of North Dakota 
for any considerable period. (See Montana, and also Dakota under 
South Dakota.) 

Cheyenne. When they left Minnesota the Cheyenne settled for a 
while on the Sheyenne fork of Red River after which they moved 
beyond the limits of the State of North Dakota. (See South 
Dakota.) 

Chippewa. After they had obtained guns the Chippewa pushed 
westward as far as the Turtle Mountains which gave their name to 
a Chippewa band. There were 2,966 Chippewa in North Dakota 
in 1910. (See Minnesota.) 

Dakota. TMiile working their way west from Minnesota, bands of 
Dakota occupied at various times parts of the eastern, southern, 
and southwestern margins of North Dakota and a part of the 
Standing Rock Agency is within the limits of the State. In 1910 
1,190 Dakota were making their homes on its soil. (See South 
Dakota.) 

Hidatsa. Derived from the name of a former village and said, on 
somewhat doubtful authority, to signify "willows." Also called: 

A-gutch-a-ninne-wug, Chippewa name, meaning "the settled people." 
A-me-she', Crow name, meaning "people who live in earth houses." 
Gi-aucth-iu-in-e-wug, Chippewa name, meaning "men of the olden time." 
Gros Ventres of the Missouri, traders' name, probably derived from the 

sign for them in the sign language. 
Hewaktokto, Dakota name. 
Minitari, meaning "they crossed the water," said to have been given to 

them by the Mandan, from the tradition of their fir.it encounter with 

the tribe on the Missouri. 
Wa-nuk'-e-ye'-ua, Arapaho name, meaning "lodges planted together." 
Wetitsadn, Arikara name. 

Connections. — The Hidatsa belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, 
their closest relations within it being the Crow. 

Location. — They lived at v.arious points on the Missouri between 
the Heart and Little Missouri Rivers. (See also Montana and 
Canada.) 



276 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Villages 
Lewis and Clark (1804-5) give the following three names: 

Amahami or Mahaha, on the south bank of Knife River, formerly an independent 

but closely related tribe. 
Amatiha, on the south bank of Knife River. 
Hidatsa, on the north bank of Knife River. 

The band names given by Morgan are rather those of social divisions. 

History. — According to tradition, the Hidatsa formerly lived by a 
lake northeast of their later country, one sometimes identified with 
Devil's Lake. They moved from there to the mouth of Heart River, 
where they met and allied themselves with the Mandan, and from 
them they learned agriculture. As we have seen, Lewis and Clark 
found them on Knife River. In 1837 a terrible smallpox epidemic 
wasted them so completely that the survivors consolidated into one 
village which was moved in 1845 to the neighborhood of Fort Berthold, 
where the tribe has ever since continued to reside. They have now 
been allotted lands in severalty and are citizens of the United States. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the Hidatsa and Amahami 
together as numbering 2,500 in 1780. Lewis and Clark give 600 
warriors, or about 2,100 people. In 1905 they totaled 471, and the 
census of 1910 gives 547, a figure repeated by the United States 
Indian Office in 1923. In 1930, 528 were returned and in 1937, 731. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Hidatsa appear 
most prominently, along with the Mandan, in connection with the 
ascent of the Missouri by Lewis and Clark and later expeditions into 
the same region. The name of Minatare, Scotts Bluff County, 
Nebr., probably refers to this tribe. 

Mandan. Probably a corruption of the Dakota word applied to 
them, Mawatani. .^Vlso called: 

A-rach-bo-cu, Hidatsa name (Long, 1791). 

As-a-ka-shi, Us-suc-car-shay, Crow name. 

How-mox-tox-sow-es, Hidatsa name (?). 

Kanit', Arikara name. 

Kwowahtewug, Ottawa name, 

M^tutahanke, own name since 1837, after their old village. 

Mo-no'-ni-o, Cheyenne name. 

Numakaki, own name prior to 1837, meaning "men," "people." 

U-ka'-she, Crow name, meaning "earth houses." 

Connections. — The Mandan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock. 
Their connections are with the Tutelo and Winnebago rather than 
the nearer Siouan tribes. 

Location. — When known to the Whites, the ^Mandan were on the 
same part of the Missouri River as the Hidatsa, between Heart and 
Little Missouri Rivers. (See also South Dakota.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 277 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The division names given by Morgan (1851) appear to have been those of their 
former villages and are as follows: Horatamumake, Matonumake, Seepoosha, 
Tanatsuka, Kitanemake, Estapa, and Net^ahke. In 1804 Lewis and Clark found 
two villages in existence, Metutahanke ajid Ruptari, about 4 miles below the 
mouth of Knife River. 

They were divided socially into two moieties named like those of the Hidatsa, 
the Four- Clan ^toiety and Three-Clan Moiety, and many of the clans constituting 
these bear village names. One of Dr. Lowie's (1917) informants gave the Prairie- 
chicken people, Young white-headed Eagle, People all in a bunch, and Crow 
people, as clans of the first Moiety; and the Maxi"kina, Tami'sik, and Nu'pta as 
clans of the second. Another informant gave the following clans altogether: 
Si'pucka, Xtaxta'nu'm'k', Village above, Maxdhe, Tami'sik, Seven-different- 
kinds, Hilltop village, Scattered village, White-bellied mouse people, and Nuptare. 
Curtis (1907-9) and Maximilian (1843) give a Badger clan; Curtis, Red Butte and 
Charcoal clans; Maximilian, Bear and Cactus villages, perhaps intended for 
clans; and Morgan, Wolf, Good Knife, Eagle, and Flathead clans. Some of 
Lowie's informants substituted other names for Nu'pta, which latter is also the 
name of a village. 

History. — When first visited by the Whites, the Mandan had distinct 
traditions of an eastern origin, and they may have come from the 
neighborhood of tlie Winnebago or from the Ohio country. Tradition 
also affirms that they first reached the Missouri at the mouth of White 
River, South Dakota, whence they moved to Morcau River and thence 
to Heart River, where the WTiites found them. The first recorded 
visit to them was by Varendrye in 1738. The nine villages which 
they had in 1750 were merged into two by 1776 which were about 4 
miles below the mouth of Knife River when Lewis and Clark visited 
them in 1804. In 1837 they were almost destroyed by smallpox, 
only 31 souls being left out of 1,600, according to one account. In 
1845 some Mandan accompanied the Hidatsa to Fort Berthold, 
others followed at intervals, and the tribe has continued to reside 
there down to the present time, though lands are now allotted to them 
in severalty and they are citizens of the United States. 

Population. — Mooney's (1928) estimate of Mandan population for 
1780 is 3,600. In 1804 Lewis and Clark estimated there were 1,250, 
and in 1837, just before the great smallpox epidemic, there were 
supposed to be 1,600. In 1850 the total number was said to be 150, 
but in 1852 it had apparently increased to 385. In 1871 there were 
450; in 1877, 420; in 1885, 410; and 1905, 249; while the census of 
1910 retiu-ned 209, and the United States Indian Office Report of 
1923, 273. The census of 1930 gives 271, and the Indian Office Report 
for 1937, 345. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Mandan attained 
wide notoriety among the Whites (1) from their intimate dealings 
with the early Wliite explorers and tradei-s in the upper Missouri 



278 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY {Buvu 146 

region; (2) from the fact that their customs and ceremonies were made 
particular matters of record by Maximilian (1843), Catlin (1844), and 
other White visitors; (3) from the reputation these Indians acquired 
of an unusually light skin color and theories of Welsh or, at least 
European, origin based upon these characters; and (4) from the tragic 
decimation of the tribe by smallpox as above mentioned. The name 
has been adopted as that of a city in North Dakota, the capital of 
Morton County. 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Arapaho. According to tradition, the Arapaho at one time lived in 
the neighborhood of the Black Hills and warriors of the tribe often 
traversed the western parts of this State. (See Wyoming.) 

Arikara. The Arikara lived at various points on the Missouri River in 
South Dakota during their migration northward after separating 
from the Skidi Pawnee. (See North Dakota.) 

Cheyenne. From a Dakota term applied to them meaning "people 
of alien speech," literally, "red talkers." Also called: 

A-was-she-tan-qua, Hidatsa name (Long, 1791). 

Bdhakosin, Caddo name, meaning "striped arrows." 

Dog Indians, so called sometimes owing to a confusion of the name with 

the French word chien. 
DzTtsi'stas, own name. 
Gatsalghi, Kiowa Apache name. 

Hitasi'na or It&si'na. Arapaho name, meaning "scarred people." 
I-86nsh'-pu-she, Crow name. 

Itah-Ischipahji, Hidatsa name (Maximilian, 1843). 
I-ta-su-pu-zi, Hidatsa name, meaning "spotted arrow quills." 
Ka'neaheawastslk, Cree name, meaning "people with a language somewhat 

like Cree." 
Nanonlks-karS'nlki, Kichai name. 
Niere'rikwats-k<ini'ki, Wichita name. 

PagSnavo, Shoshoni and Comanche name, meaning "striped arrows." 
Sak'o'ta, Kiowa name. 

Scarred Arms, from a misinterpretation of the tribal sign. 
Sha-ho, Pawnee name. 

Connections. — Cheyenne was one of the three most aberrant 
languages of the Algonquian linguistic family, and was shared by no 
other tribe except the Sutaio, whose speech differed only in minor 
points. 

Location. — This tribe moved frequently; in South Dakota they were 
associated with the Cheyenne River and the Black Hills. (See also 
Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, 
Oklahoma, and Wyoming.) 



BWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 279 

Subdivisions 

Following are the bands which had a well-recognized place in the camp circle, 
as given by Mooney (1928); Hevlqs'-nr'pahls, M6Is6yu, WQ'tapIu, H6vhaita'nio, 
Ol'vimdna, Hlsfometa'nio, Stitdio (formerly a distinct tribe; see below), Oqt6gtini, 
H6'nowa, Masr'kotfi, O'ml'sls. Other band names not commonly recognized 
as divisional names, are these: MoqtdvhaitS'niu, Nd'kuim^na, Anakdwinis, 
Pl'ntitgtl', Mdhoyum, W6opotsI't, Totoimana (on Tongue River), Black Lodges 
(near Lame Deer), Ree Band, Yellow Wolf Band, Half-breed Band. 

History. — Before 1700 the Cheyenne lived in what is now the State 
of Minnesota. There are very definite traditions of a time when they 
were on Minnesota River, from which region the Cheyenne who 
visited La SaUe's fort in Illinois in 1680 probably came. A little 
later they seem to have moved to the neighborhood of Lake Traverse 
and still later part of them occupied a stockaded town on the Sheyenne 
River of North Dakota near the present Lisbon, N. Dak. Some years 
before 1799, perhaps in the decade 1780 to 1790, this town was sur- 
prised by Chippewa Indians and destroyed while most of the men 
were off hunting. The Cheyenne who escaped first settled along the 
Missouri where other bands of Cheyenne seem to have preceded them. 
There were a number of villages belonging to the tribe along the 
Missouri near the point where the boundary line between North and 
South Dakota crosses it until just before the time of Lewis and Clark, 
or, as Grinnell (1923) believes, for a number of years after the date 
of their expedition (1804-1806). However, they accustomed them- 
selves more and more to a nomadic life and moved on toward the 
Black HiUs whither they had been preceded by a cognate tribe known 
as the Sutaio. It is very probable that the Cheyenne had met the 
Sutaio east of the Missouri. At first the attitude of the two people 
toward each other is said to have been hostile, but presently they 
became friendly and finally united. On leaving the Missom-i, the 
Cheyenne seem to have given up raising corn and making pottery. 
During the early part of the nineteenth century they moved to the 
headwaters of the Platte. When Bent's Fort was built on the upper 
Arkansas in 1832 a large part decided to establish themselves near it 
but the rest continued to rove about the headwaters of the North 
Platte and the Yellowstone. This separation in the tribe was made 
permanent by the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1851, the two sections 
being known respectively as Southern Cheyenne and Northern Chey- 
enne. In the meantime they had met and formed an alliance with 
the Arapaho, though there is no memory of the date or the circum- 
stances. 

They were at war with the Kiowa from the time of their settlement 
on the upper Arkansas until 1840, but afterward acted with them 



280 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

against other tribes and the Whites. In 1849 they suffered severely 
in the cholera epidemic, and later between 1860 and 1878, in wars 
with the Whites. The southern division took a leading part in the 
general outbreak of 1874-75, and the Northern Cheyenne joined the 
hostile Dakota in 1876 and shared in the Custer massacre. Finally, 
the Northern Cheyenne were assigned a reservation in Montana. 
The Southern Cheyenne were similarly assigned to a reservation in 
the present Oklahoma in 1867 but could not be induced to remain 
upon it until after the general surrender of 1875. In 1901-02 the 
lands of the Southern Cheyenne were allotted in severalty. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) places the number of Cheyenne and 
Sutaio at 3,500 in 1780. In 1904 the number of Southern Cheyenne 
was given as 1,903, and the Northern Cheyenne as 1,409, a total of 
3,312. The census of 1910 returned 3,055, of whom 1,522 were in 
Oklahoma and 1,346 in Montana, but the United States Indian Office 
Report of 1923 gives 3,248, composed of 1,831 Southern Cheyenne, 
and 1,417 Northern Cheyenne. The census of 1930 returned 2,695, 
the Northern Cheyenne being slightly more numerous then the 
Southern division. In 1937 there were 1,561 Northern Cheyenne 
and 2,836 Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho together. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — This Cheyenne tribe 
was one of the most famous of the Plains, and was conspicuous on 
account of the frequent wars which it waged against other tribes, as 
well as against the Whites. It is also noted on account of its romantic 
history, having originally been a corn-raising tribe in southern Min- 
nesota and later having become thoroughly adjusted to Plains life. 
The name is preserved by the State Capital of Wyoming; by a river 
in South Dakota; by counties in Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas; 
by the Cheyenne Mountains and Canons in Colorado; by a river of 
North Dakota (spelled Sheyenne); and by Cheyenne WeUs in Colo- 
rado, and Sheyenne in Eddy County, N. Dak. There is also a place 
of the name in Roger Mills County, Okla.; and another in WinJder 
County, Tex. 

Dakota. Signifying "allies" in the Santee or eastern dialect; in 
Yankton and in Assiniboin it is Nakota; in Teton, Lakota. They 
are more often known as Sioux, an abbreviation of Nadouessioux, 
the name appMed to them by the Chippewa, as transmitted through 
French; it signifies "adders," and by derivation "enemies." Also 
called : 

Ab-boin-ug, Boinug or Obwahnug, Wanak, Chippewa name, meaning 

"roasters" from their custom of torturing foes. 
Ba-akush', Caddo name. 
Ba-ra-shup'-gi-o, Crow name. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 281 

Chah'-ra-rat, Pawnee name. 

Coupe-gorges, French rendering of a name given them in the sign language. 

Cut-throats, English equivalent of same. 

Hand Cutters, translation of Ute name. 

Ita ha'tski, Hidatsa name, meaning "long arrows." 

Kaispa, Sarsi name. 

K'odalpa-Kinago, Kiowa name, meaning "necklace people." 

Mar-au-sho-bish-ko, Crow name, meaning "cutthroats." 

Minishupsko, Crow name of opprobrious meaning. 

Nadouessioux, general Algonquian name received through the French. 

Natni or Natnihina, Arapaho, meaning "cutthroats." 

Na'-to-wo-na, Cheyenne name for easternmost bands of Sioux. 

Nuktusem or Nktusem, Salish name. 

Ocheti shakowin, own name, meaning "the seven council fires." 

O-o'-ho-mo-i'-o, Cheyenne name, meaning "those on the outside." 

Oshahak, Fox name. 

Pambizimina, Shoshoni name, meaning "beheaders." 

Pdmpe Chyimina, Ute name, meaning "Hand Cutters." 

Papitsinima, Comanche name, meaning "beheaders." 

Pfshakulk, Yakima name, meaning "beheaders." 

Poualak or Pouanak, name given in early French records, for Ab-boin-ug. 

Sdhagi, Shawnee name. 

Shahan, Osage, Kansa, and Oto name. 

Shdnana, Kiowa Apache name. 

Tsaba'kosh, or Ba-akush', Caddo name, meaning "cutthroats." 

Tiiygtchlskg, Comanche name, meaning "cutthroats." 

Wa-sa-sa-o-no, Iroquois name. 

Yu°ssdha, Wyandot name, meaning "birds." 

Connections. — The Dakota belonged to the Siouan hnguistic family, 
their closest relations being the Hidatsa. 

Location. — The earliest known home of this tribe was on and near 
the Mississippi in southern Minnesota, northwestern Wisconsin, and 
neighboring parts of Iowa. In 1825, after they had spread somewhat 
farther west, Long (1791) gives their boundaries thus: They were 
bounded by a curved line extending east of north from Prairie du Chien 
on the Mississippi, so as to include all the eastern tributaries of the 
Mississippi, to the first branch of Chippewa River; thence by a line 
running west of north to Spirit Lake; thence westwardly to Crow 
Wing River, Minn., and up that stream to its head; thence westwardly 
to Red River and down that stream to Pembina; thence south west- 
wardly to the eastern bank of the Missouri near the Mandan villages; 
thence down the Missouri to a point probably not far from Soldiers 
River; thence east of north to P*rairie du Chien. At a later time 
they occupied less territory toward the east but extended much fai-ther 
westward between the Yellowstone and Platte Rivers. (See also 
Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, 
Wisconsin, Wyoming, and Canada.) 



282 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 146 

Subdivisions 

Early explorers usually distinguished an Eastern or Forest and a Western or 
Prairie division, but the following is a more accurate classification: (1) Mdewkan- 
ton, (2) Wahpeton, (3) Wahpekute, (4) Sisseton, (5) Yankton, (6> Yanktonai, in- 
cluding (a) Upper Yanktonai, and (b) Lower Yantonai or Hunkpatina, from 
whom also the Assiniboin are said to have separated, and (7) Teton, including 
(a) the Brul6 (Upper and Lower), (6) Hunkpapa, (c) Miniconjou, {d) Oglala, (c) 
Oohenonpa or Two Kettle, (/) San Arcs, (g) Sihasapa or Blackfoot. Numbers 1 
to 4 constituted the Santee or Eastern division. 

Minor Bands, Villages, Etc. 

Black Tiger, near Fort Peck Agency. 

Broken Arrows, possibly the Cazazhita. 

Casarba, 35 leagues up St. Peters River in 1804. 

Cazazhita, probably Tetons and perhaps the same as the Wannawega. 

Chansuushka, unidentified. 

Chasmuna, unidentified. 

Cheokhba, a band of the Hunkpapa Teton. 

Congewichacha, a Dakota division, perhaps Teton. 

Farmers Band, probably a band of the Mdewakanton, below Lake Traverse, 
Minn. 

Fire Lodge, below Lake Traverse. 

Flandreau Indians, a part of the Santee who settled at Flandreau, S. Dak. 

Grey Eagle Band, below Lake Traverse, Minn. 

Lake Comedu, unidentified. 

Lean Bear, below Lake Traverse, Minn. 

Long Sioux, near Fort Peck. 

Magayuteshni, a Mdewakanton division. 

Menostamenton, unidentified. 

Micacoupsiba, on the upper St. Peters, Minn. 

Minisha, an Oglala band. 

Neecoweegee, unidentified, possibly Minneconjou. 

Nehogatawouahs, near St. Croix River in Minnesota or Wisconsin. 

Newastarton, an unidentified band on the Mississippi above the St. Peters (Minne- 
sota) River; probably the Mdewakanton. 

Ocatameneton, an eastern Dakota band. 

Ohanhanska, a band of the Magayuteshni division of the Mdewakanton on 
Minnesota River. 

Oughetgeodatons, a village or subdivision of one of the western bands. 

Oujatespouitons, west of the Mississippi. 

Peshlaptechela, an Oglala Teton band. 

Pineshow, a band of Wahpeton, on Minnesota River, 15 miles from its mouth. 

Psinchaton, belonging to the Western Dakota in Minnesota. 

Psinoumanitons, a division of the Eastern Dakota, probably in Wisconsin. 

Psinoutanhinhintous, a band of Western Dakota in Minnesota. 

Rattling Moccasin Band, a band of Mdewakanton Dakota on Minnesota River 
below Lake Traverse, Minn. 

Red Leg's Band, a Wahpekute band in Minnesota. 

Redwood, location uncertain. 

Star Band, a band of Mdewakanton. 

Takini, an Upper Yanktonai band. 

Talonapin, a Hunkpapa band. 



SWANTONJ INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 283 

Tashunkeota, a Sihasapa band. 

Tateibombu's Band, location uncertain, 

Touchouasintons, a band of the Western Dakota, perhaps the Wazikute. 

Traverse de Sioux, a part of the Sisseton formerly on Minnesota River, Minn. 

Waktonila, unidentified. 

Wazikute, a band of Upper Yanktonai. 

White Cap Indians, on the south Saskatchewan River, in Assiniboia, Canada. 

White Eagle Band, location unknown. 

Wiattacbechah, an unidentified village. 

History. — The first historical mention of the Dakota is in the Jesuit 
Relation for 1640 when they were probably in the eastern part of the 
territory indicated above. Rev. A. L. Riggs, for many years a 
missionary among them, claims that their traditions pointed to the 
northeast as the place of their origin and that they once lived about 
the Lake of the Woods. There are, however, strong grounds for believ- 
ing that they pushed their way up into the present Minnesota from 
the southeast, though there is no doubt that the Chippewa forced 
them back in later times from some of the most easternmost lands 
they occupied and their expulsion from Mille Lacs is an historical 
event. It is thought that few Dakota crossed the Missouri before 
1750, yet it is claimed that some of them reached the Black Hills by 
1765. In 1862 the Eastern Dakota under Little Crow rose upon the 
Whites and in the war which followed 700 settlers and 100 soldiers 
were killed, while the hostile bands lost all of the rest of their lands in 
Minnesota and were forced to move to Dakota and Nebraska. On the 
discovery of gold in the Black Hills the rush of miners to that region 
became the occasion for a war with the Western Dakota rendered 
famous by the cutting off of General Custer and five companies of 
cavalry on the Little Bighorn, June 25, 1876. An incipient rising at 
Wounded Knee Creek, resulting from the spread of the Ghost Dance 
religion, was the last scene of the struggles between the Dakota and 
the Whites, and the tribe is now allotted lands in severalty, principally 
in South Dakota, but in part in North Dakota and Nebraska. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 
25,000 Dakota of all divisions, exclusive of the Assiniboin (q. v. under 
Montana). In 1904 their distribution on agencies and their numbers 
were as follows: Cheyenne River (Minniconjou, Sans Arcs, and Oohe- 
nonpa), 2,477; Crow Creek (Lower Yanktonai), 1,025; Fort Totten 
School (Sisseton, Wahpeton, and Yanktonai), 1,013; Riggs Institute 
(Santee), 279; Fort Peck (Yankton), 1,116; Lower Brul6 (Lower 
Brul6), 470; Pine Ridge (Oglala), 6,690; Rosebud (Brul6, Waglukhe, 
Lower Brul6, Northern, Oohenonpa, and Wazhazha), 4,977; Santee 
(Santee), 1,075; Sisseton (Sisseton and Wahpeton), 1,908; Standing 
Rock (Sihasapa, Hunkpapa, and Yanktonai), 3,514; Yankton (Yank- 



284 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 14S 

ton), 1,702; under no agency (Mdewakanton in Minnesota) 929; 
total, 27,175. The census of 1930 returned 25,934, of whom 20,918 
were in South Dakota, 2,307 in North Dakota, 1,251 in Montana, 
690 in Nebraska, and the remainder in more than 22 other States. 
The Report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 
gave 33,625, including 27,733 in South Dakota, 2,797 in North 
Dakota, 1,292 in Nebraska, 1,242 in Minnesota, and 561 in Montana. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — The Dakota are one 
of the most famous tribes of North America, thanks to their numbers 
and prowess, their various wars with the Whites and the spectacular 
character of one of the last encounters with them, the celebrated 
"Custer massacre," not to mention the conspicuous nature of their con- 
nection with the Ghost Dance cult and the tragic affray at Wounded 
Knee Creek which grew out of it. The name is preserved in two of 
the States of our Union, North and South Dakota; by a river which 
flows through them; by counties in Minnesota and Nebraska; and by 
places in Stephenson County, lU.; Winona County, Minn.; in Wis- 
consin and Nebraska; and as Dakota City in Humboldt Coimty, Iowa, 
and Dakota County, Nebr. The other popular name for this tribe, 
Sioux, has been given to Sioux City, Iowa, and Sioux Falls, S. Dak.; to 
counties in Iowa and Nebraska; and small places in Nebraska, Iowa, 
and Minnesota; as Sioux in Yancey County, N. C; Sioux Center in 
Sioux County, Iowa; Sioux Rapids in Buena Vista County, Iowa; and 
Sioux Pass in Richland County, Mont. It appears as Lacota (the 
Teton form of the name) in Marion County, Fla., and Van Buren 
County, Mich., and wdth the spelhng Lakota in Kossuth County, 
Iowa; Nelson County, N. Dak.; and Culpeper County, Va. 
Kiowa. The Kiowa hved in and about the Black Hills for a time 

before they were succeeded by the Sutaio and Cheyenne. (See 

Oklahoma.) 

Mandan. According to tradition, this tribe reached the Missouri 
River near the mouth of White River, and settled at several places 
along the former within the borders of this State before passing out 
of it into North Dakota. (See North Dakota.) 

Omaha. After having been driven from the region of the Pipestone 
Quarry in Minnesota, the Omaha settled on the Missouri in the 
territory of South Dakota and later moved downstream under 
pressure from the Dakota to their later seats in Nebraska. (See 
Nebraska.) 

Ponca. This tribe was with the Omaha when it left the region of the 
Pipestone Quarry, but separated from it on the Missouri and went 
into the Black Hills for a time, after which it retired to the Missouri 
and settled in the present Nebraska. (See Nebraska.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OP NORTH AMERICA 285 

Sutaio. Significance uncertain. A Cheyenne informant of Grinnell 
(1923) believed it was derived from issuhf, "ridge." 
Connection. — The Sutaio belonged to the Algonquian linguistic 
stock, their nearest relatives being the Cheyenne. 

Location. — When first brought distinctly to the knowledge of Whites, 
this tribe was west of Missouri River, between it and the Black Hills. 
History. — The Sutaio may have been the "Chousa" band of Chey- 
enne of whom Perrin du Lac (1805) heard. At any rate they were 
probably not far distant from the Cheyenne during their migrations 
from Minnesota to the Alissouri River and beyond, though whether 
in front of them, or to one side, it is impossible to tell. According 
to Cheyenne tradition as reported by Grinnell (1923), the two tribes 
met three different times. At any rate we know that they lived side 
by side in the region eastward of the Black Hills for some time and 
that they finally united there into one body, the Sutaio taking their 
place as one band in the Cheyenne tribal camping circle. 
Population. — Unknown. (See Cheyenne.) 

Winnebago. After leaving Minnesota in 1862 and before they took 
refuge with the Omaha, part of this tribe lived for a while on the 
Crow Creek Reservation. (See Wisconsin.) 

NEBRASKA 

Arapaho. The Arapaho ranged for a considerable period over the 
western part of this State. (See Wyoming.) 

Arikara. This tribe lived in the territory now included in Nebraska 
with the Skidi Pawnee at some prehistoric period, and after 1823 
they returned to the same tribe for 2 years. (See North Dakota.) 

Cheyenne. Like the Arapaho, the Cheyenne ranged to some extent 
over the western territories of the State. (See South Dakota.) 

Comanche. At an early day the Comanche must have lived in or 
near the western part of Nebraska, before moving south. (See 
Texas.) 

Dakota. The Dakota had few settlements of any permanency in the 
territory of Nebraska but they were constantly raiding into and 
across it from the north. (See South Dakota.) 

Foxes. The Foxes were parties to a land cession made in 1830. (See 
Wisconsin.) 

Iowa. When the Omaha lived about the Pipestone Quarry in Minne- 
sota, they were accompanied by the Iowa, who afterward went 
with them to South Dakota and thence to Nebraska. They, 
however, continued southeast into the territory of the present 
State of Iowa (q. v.). 



286 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 14B 

Kansas. They were parties to a cession of Nebraska land made in 

1825. (See Kansas.) 
Kiowa. The Kiowa were at one time on the western margin of 

Nebraska and later followed the Comanche south. (See Oklahoma.) 
Missouri. After they had been driven from Missouri by the Sauk 

and Fox, the remnant of this tribe lived for a while in villages south 

of Platte River. (See IVfissouri.) 

Omaha. Meaning "those going against the wind or current"; some- 
times shortened to Maha. Also called: 

Ho'-m&"-ha», Winnebago name. 

Hu-Amdi, Cheyenne name. 

Onl'h&o, Cheyenne name, meaning "drum beaters" (7). 

Piik-tis, Pawnee name. 

U'-aha, Pawnee name. 

Connections. — The Omaha belonged to that section of the Siouan 
linguistic stock which included also the Ponca, Kansa, Osage, and 
Quapaw, and which was called by J. O. Dorsey (1897) Dhegiha. 

Location. — Their principal home in historic times was in north- 
eastern Nebraska, on the Missouri River. (See also Iowa, Minnesota, 
Missouri, and South Dakota.) 

History. — According to strong and circumstantial traditions, the 
Omaha and others belonging to the same group formeriy hved on the 
Ohio and Wabash Rivers. It is usually said that the Quapaw sepa- 
rated from the general body first, going down the Mississippi, but it is 
more likely that they were left behind by the others and later moved 
out upon the great river. The Osage remained on Osage River, and 
the Kansa continued on up the Missouri, but the Omaha, still including 
the Ponca, passed north inland as far as the Pipestone Quarry in 
Minnesota, and were afterward forced west by the Dakota, into what 
is now the State of South Dakota. There the Ponca separated from 
them and the Omaha settled on Bow Creek, in the present Nebraska. 
They continued from that time forward in the same general region, 
the west side of the Missouri River between the Platte and the Nio- 
brara, but in 1855 made their last movement of consequence to the 
present Dakota County. In 1854 they sold all of their lands except 
a portion kept for a reserve, and they gave up the northern part of this 
in 1865 to the Winnebago. (See Wisconsin.) In 1882, through the 
efforts of Miss Alice C. Fletcher, they were granted lands in severalty 
with prospects of citizenship, and Miss Fletcher was given charge of 
the ensuing allotment. Citizenship has now been granted them. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were about 
2,800 Omaha in 1780. In 1802 they were reduced by smallpox to 
about 300. In 1804 the estimated number was 600; in 1829, 1,900; 



8WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 287 

in 1843, 1,600. Schoolcraft (1851-57) gives 1,349 in 1851; Burrows, 
1,200 in 1857; and the same number appears in the census returns for 
1880. In 1906 the United States Indian Office returned 1,228, and 
the census of 1910 gave 1,105, The Report of the United States In- 
dian Office for 1923 showed an increase to 1,440. The census of 1930 
gave 1,103, principally in Nebraska. The United States Indian 
Office reported 1,684 in 1932. 

Connection in winch they have become noted. — The Omaha will be 
remembered particularly from the fact that its name has been adopted 
by the City of Omaha, Nebr. It has also been given to small places 
in Boone County, Ark.; Stewart County, Ga.; Gallatin County, 111.; 
Morris County, Tex.; Knott County, Ky.; and Dickenson County, 
Va. 

It will be remembered furthermore as the scene of the humanitarian 
labors of Miss Alice C. Fletcher and the ethnological studies of Miss 
Fletcher and Dr. Francis La Flesche. 

Oto. From Wat'ota, meaning "lechers." It often appears in a 
lengthened form such as Hoctatas or Octoctatas. Also called: 

Che-wae-rae, own name. 
Matokatagi, Shawnee name. 
Motdtatak, Fox name. 
Wacutada, Omaha and Ponca name. 
Wad6tata, Kansa name. 
Watohtata, Dakota name. 
Watiitata, Osage name. 

Connections. — The Oto formed, with the Iowa and Missouri, the 
Chi were group of the Siouan linguistic family and were closely con- 
nected with the Winnebago. 

Location. — The Oto moved many times, but their usual location in 
the historic period was on the lower course of the Platte or the neigh- 
boring banks of the Missouri. (See also Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, 
Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) 

History. — From the maps of the Marquette expedition it would 
seem that at the time when they were drawn, 1673, the Oto were some 
distance up Des Moines River. Their name was often coupled with 
that of the related Iowa who lived north of them, but they always 
seem to have occupied a distinct area. Shortly after this time they 
moved over to the Missouri and by 1804 had established their town 
on the south side of the Platte River not far from its mouth. Accord- 
ing to native traditions, this tribe, the Iowa, and the Missouri were 
anciently one people with the Winnebago, but moved southwest from 
them, and then separated from the Iowa at the mouth of Iowa River 
and from the Missouri at the mouth of Grand River. Their language 
proves that they were closely related to these tribes whether or not 



288 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

the separations occurred in the manner and at the places indicated. 
Their spHt with the Missouri is said to have been brought about by a 
quarrel between two chiefs arising from the seduction of the daughter 
of one by the son of the other, and from this circumstance the Oto are 
supposed to have derived their name. In 1700 they were, according 
to Le Sueur, on Blue Earth River near the Iowa, and it is probable 
that they moved into the neighborhood of the Iowa or Missouri at 
several different times, but their usual position was clearly inter- 
mediate along a north-south line. In 1680 two Oto chiefs came to 
visit La Salle in Illinois and reported that they had traveled far 
enough west to fight with people using horses, w^ho were evidently 
the Spaniards, a fact which proves their early westward range. 

By treaties signed July 15, 1830, and October 15, 1836, they and 
the Missouri ceded all claims to land in Missouri and Iowa, and by 
another signed September 21, 1833, the two ceded all claims to land 
south of the Little Nemaha River. By a treaty signed March 15, 
1854, they gave up all their lands except a strip 10 miles wide and 25 
miles long on the waters of Big Blue River, but when it was found that 
there was no timber on this tract it was exchanged on December 9 for 
another tract taken from the Kansas Indians. In a treaty signed 
August 15, 1876, and amended March 3, 1879, they agreed to sell 
120,000 acres off the western end of their reserve. And finally, a 
treaty signed on March 3, 1881, provided, the consent of the tribe 
being obtained, for the sale of all of the remainder of their land in 
Kansas and Nebraska, and the selection of a new reservation. Consent 
to the treaty was recorded May 4 following, and the tribe removed the 
following year to the new reservation w^hich was in the present 
Oklahoma southwest of Arkansas River on Red Rock and Black Bear 
Creeks, west of the present Pa\Miee. The first removal to Oklahoma 
is said to have been due to a fission in the tribe resulting in the forma- 
tion of two bands, a conservative band called Coyotes and the 
Quakers, who w^ere progressives. The Coyotes moved m 1880 and 
the Quakers joined them 2 years later. 

Population.— Moone J (1928) estimated that in 1780 the Oto 
numbered about 900. In 1805 Lewis and Clark estimated 500 then 
living, but Catlin in 1833 raised this to 1,300, a figure which includes 
the Missouri. Burrows in 1849 gives 900, and the United States 
Indian Ofiice in 1843, 931. This and all later enumerations include 
both the Oto and the Missouri. In 1862 they numbered 708; in 
1867, 511; in 1877, 457; in 1886, 334; in 1906, 390; and by the census 
of 1910, 332. The census of 1930, however, showed a marked increase 
to a total of 627, all but 13 of whom were in Oklahoma, 376 in Noble 
County, 170 in Pa\\Tiee, 34 in Kay, and 17 in Osage. There were 7 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 289 

in California, 1 in Kansas, and 1 in Nebraska. In 1937, 756 were 
reported in Oklahoma. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Oto has been 
applied to some small settlements in Woodbury County, Iowa, and in 
Missouri, and in the form Otoe to a county and post village in 
Nebraska. 

Pawnee. The name is derived by some from the native word pariki, 
"a horn," a term said to be used to designate their peculiar manner 
of dressing the scalp lock; but Lesser and Weltfish (1932) consider 
it more likely that it is from parisu, "hunter," as claimed by 
themselves. They were also called Padani and Panana by various 
tribes. Also known as: 

Ahihinin, Arapaho name, meaning "wolf people." 

Awahi, Caddo and Wichita name. 

Awahu, Arikara name. 

Aw6, Tonkawa name, originally used by the Wichita. 

Chahiksichahiks, meaning "men of men," applied to themselves but also 

to all other tribes whom they considered civilized. 
Ddrazhazh, Kiowa Apache name. 
Harahey, Coronado documents (somewhat uncertain). 
Ho-ni'-i-tahi-o, Cheyenne name, meaning "little wolf people." 
Kuitare-i, Comanche name, meaning "wolf people." 
Paoneneheo, early Cheyenne name, meaning "the ones with projecting front 

teeth." 
Pdyi", Kansa form of the name. 

Pi-ta'-da, name given to southern tribes (Grinnell, 1923). 
Tse-sa do hpa ka, Hidatsa name meaning "wolf people." 
W6hesh, W^ichita name. 
Xaratenumanke, Mandan name. 

Connections. — The Pawnee were one of the principal tribes of the 
Caddoan linguistic stock. The Arikara (q. v.) were an offshoot, and 
the Wichita were more closely related to them than were the Caddo. 

Location. — On the middle course of Platte River and the Republican 
fork of Kansas River. (See also Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming.) 

Subdivisions 

The Pawnee consisted in reality of four tribes, or four known in historic times, 
viz: The Chaui or Grand Pa^vmee, the Kitkehahki or Republican Pawnee, the 
Pitahauerat or Tapage Pawnee, and the Skidi or Skiri Pawnee, the first three 
speaking the same dialect and being otherwise more closely connected with one 
another than with the last. The Kitkehahki embraced two divisions, the Kitke- 
hahki proper and the Little Kitkehahki. Murie gives two others, the Black Heads 
and Karikisu, but Lesser and Weltfish (1932) state that the first was a society and 
the second the name of the women's dance or ceremony before corn planting. 
The Pitahauerat consisted of the Pitahauerat proper and the Kawarakis, some- 
times said to be villages. 



290 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

History. — Some of the Pawnee trace their origin to the southwest, 
some to the east, and some claim always to have lived m the coimtry 
with which later history associates them. The first White men to 
meet any members of these tribes were the Spaniards imder Coronado 
in 1541. French explorers heard of them again eariy in the eighteenth 
centm-y and French traders were estabhshed among them before the 
middle of it. The Spaniards of New Mexico became acquainted with 
them at about the same time on account of the raids which they con- 
ducted in search of horses. They lay somewhat out of the track of 
the first explorers from the east, and in consequence suffered less 
diminution in numbers through White influences than did many of 
their neighbors, but they were considerably reduced through wars 
with the surrounding tribes, particularly with the Dakota. Although 
some of the early traders and trappers were treated harshly by them, 
their relations with the United States Government were friendly from 
the first, and they uniformly furnished scouts for the frontier armies. 
By treaties negotiated in 1833, 1848, and 1857, they ceded all of 
their lands in Nebraska except one reservation and in 1876 this tract 
was also surrendered and the entire tribe given new lands in Okla- 
homa, where they still live. The land has been allotted to them in 
severalty and they are now citizens of the United States. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates 10,000 Pawnee in 1780. In 
1702 Iberville estimated 2,000 families. In 1838 they numbered 
about 10,000 according to an estimate of Dunbar and Allis (1880-82), 
and one authority places the figure as high as 12,500. In 1849, after 
the cholera epidemic, they were reported at 4,500; in 1856, 4,686 
were returned, but in 1861, only 3,416. In 1879, after suffering 
severely in consequence of the removal to Indian Territory, they had 
dropped to 1,440, and by 1906 they had fallen to 649. The census 
of 1910 returned 633, but according to the Report of the United States 
Indian Office for 1923, they had then increased to 773. The census 
of 1930 gave 730. In 1937, 959 were reported. 

Connection in vMch they have become noted. — The Pawnee tribe is 
distinguished (1) for its peculiar language and culture; (2) because of 
its numbers and warfike prowess, its constant hostility to the Dakota, 
and consistent assistance to the American forces operating upon the 
Plains; and (3) as having given its name to a city in Oklahoma; to 
counties in Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska; to streams in Colorado 
and Kansas; and to places in Morgan County, Colo.; Sangamon 
County, 111.; Montgomery County, Ind.; Pawnee City in Pawnee 
County, Nebr.; Pawnee Rock in Barton County, Kans.; Pawnee 
Station in Bourbon Coimty, Kans.; and a creek and buttes in north- 
eastern Colorado. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 291 

Ponca. Own name, meaning unknown. Also called: 

Dibit, Li-hit' or Rfhit, Pawnee name. 
Kan'ka°, Winnebago name. 
Tchidxsokush, Caddo name. 

Connections. — The Ponca spoke practically the same language as 
the Omaha and formed with them, the Osage, Kansa, and Quapaw, 
the Dhegiha group of the Siouan linguistic family. 

Location. — On the right bank of the Missouri at the mouth of the 
Niobrara. (See also Iowa, Minnesota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota.) 

History. — The early hfe of the Ponca seems to have run parallel 
with that of the Omaha (q. v.). They are said to have separated from 
the latter at the mouth of White River, S. Dak., and to have moved 
west into the Black Hills but to have rejoined the Omaha a little later. 
These two tribes and the Iowa then descended the Missouri together 
as far as the mouth of the Niobrara, where the Ponca remained while 
the Omaha estabhshed themselves below on Bow Creek. They 
remained in approximately the same situation until 1877 when the 
larger part of them were forcibly removed to Indian Territory. This 
action was the occasion for a special investigation, as a result of which 
about three-quarters continued in the Territory while the remainder 
preferred to remain in their old country. Their lands have now been 
allotted to them in severalty. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) gives 800, as the probable size of the 
Ponca tribe in 1780. In 1804 Lewis and Clark estimate only 200 but 
they had been greatly reduced just before by smallpox. In 1829 they 
had increased to 600 and in 1842 to about 800. In 1871 they num- 
bered 747. In 1906 the Ponca in Oklahoma numbered 570 and those 
in Nebraska 263; total, 833. The census of 1910 gave 875 in all, 
including 619 in Oklahoma and 193 in Kansas. The Report of the 
United States Indian Office for 1923 was 1,381, evidently including 
other tribes. The census of 1930 returned 939. In 1937 the United 
States Indian Office gave 825 in Oklahoma and 397 in Nebraska. 

Connection in wkUh they have become noted. — The name Ponca is 
preserved by a river in South Dakota, Ponca City in Kay County, 
Okla., and places in Newton County, Ark., and Dixon County, Nebr. 

Sauk. Like the Foxes, they were parties to the land cession of 1830 
involving territories in this State. (See Wisconsin.) 

Winnebago. Part of the Winnebago settled close to the Omaha 
after they had been driven from Minnesota following the Dakota 
outbreak of 1862. A reservation was later assigned them there 
and in course of time they were allotted land in severalty upon it. 
(See Wisconsin.) 



292 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

KANSAS 

Apache, see Jicarilla. 

Arapaho. The Arapaho ranged at one time over much of the western 
part of this State. (See Wyoming.) 

Cherokee. By the terms of the Treaty of New Echota, the Cherokee 
obtained title to lands in southeastern Kansas, part in one block 
known as the "Neutral land," and the rest in a strip along the 
southern boundary of the State. These were re-ceded to the United 
States Government in 1866. (See Tennessee.) 

Cheyenne. Like the Arapaho they at one time ranged over the 
western part of the State. (See South Dakota.) 

Chippewa. In 1836 two bands of Chippewa living in Michigan and 
known as the Swan Creek and Black River bands were given a tract 
of territory on Osage River, Kans. They arrived in 1839. In 
1866 they agreed to remove to the Cherokee country in what is now 
Oklahoma and to unite with that tribe. A small number of families 
of Chippewa living west of Lake Michigan accompanied the Prairie 
Potawatomi to southwestern Iowa, but they were either absorbed 
by the Potawatomi or subsequently separated from them. (See 
Minnesota.) 

Comanche. They ranged over the western part of the State. (See 
Texas.) 

Delaware. A strip of land in northeastern Kansas was granted to 
the Delaware in 1829 and was again surrendered by treaties made 
in 1854, 1860, and 1886. In 1867 they agreed to take up their 
residence with the Cherokee in Oklahoma. Four sections of land 
were, however, confirmed to a body of Munsee ("Christian Indians"), 
who in turn sold it in 1857. This sale was confirmed by the United 
States Government in 1858, and a new home was found for these 
Indians among the Swan Creek and Black River Chippewa whom 
they accompanied to the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma in 1866. 
Nevertheless, a few Munsee have remained in the State. (See 
New Jersey.) 

Foxes. The Foxes lived for a time on a reservation in eastern Kansas 
but about 1859 returned to Iowa. (See Wisconsin.) 

Illinois. The remnants of these people were assigned a reservation 
about the present Paola in 1832. In 1867 they removed to the 
northeastern corner of the present Oklahoma, where they received 
lands which had formerly belonged to the Quapaw. (See Illinois.) 

Iowa. This tribe was placed on a reservation in northeastern Kansas 
in 1836, and part of them continued in this State and were allotted 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 293 

land here in severalty, while the rest went to Oklahoma. (See 
Iowa.) 

Iroquois. Lands were set aside in Kansas in 1838 for some Iroquois, 
part of the Munsee, and remnants of Mahican and southern New 
England Indians but only a few of the Indians involved moved to 
them. They were later declared forfeited, and the rights of 32 bona 
fide Indian settlers were purchased in 1873. (See Seneca and also 
New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.) 

Jicarilla. This was one of the so-called Apache tribes. They lived 
in Colorado and New Mexico and ranged over parts of Texas, 
Oklahoma, and Kansas. (See Colorado.) 

Kansa. Name derived from that of one of the major subdivisions; a 
shortened form Kaw is abouL equally current. Also called: 

Alah6, Kiowa name. 

Guaes, in Coronado narratives, thought to be this tribe. 
Hdtauga, own name. 

M6htawas, Comanche name, meaning "without a lock of hair on the fore- 
head." 
t5^kase, Fox name. 

Connections. — The Kansa belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock 
and constituted, with the Osage, Quapaw, Omaha, and Ponca a 
distinct subgroup called by Dr. J. O. Dorsey (1897) Dhegiha. 

Location. — They were usually on some part of the Kansas River, 
which derives its name from them. (See also Nebraska and Okla- 
homa.) 

Villages 

Bahekhube, near a mountain south of Kansas River, Kans. 

CheghuUn, 2 villages; (1) on the south side of Kansas River, and (2) on a tributary 

of Kansas River, on the north side east of Blue River. 
Djestyedje, on Kansas River near Lawrence. 
Gakhulin, location uncertain. 

Gakhulinulinbe, near the head of a southern tributary of Kansas River. 
Igamansabe, on Big Blue River. 
Inchi, on Kansas River. 
Ishtakhechiduba, on Kansas River. 
Manhazitanman, on Kansas River near Lawrence. 
Manhazulin, on Kansas River. 
Manhazulintanman, on Kansas River. 
Manyinkatuhuudje, at the mouth of Big Blue River. 
Neblazhetama, on the west bank of the Mississippi River a few miles above the 

mouth of Missouri River, in the present Missouri. 
Niudje, on Kansas River, about 4 miles above the site of Kansas City, Mo. 
Padjegadjin, on Kansas River. 
Pasulin, on Kansas River. 
Tanmangile, on Big Blue River. 
Waheheyingetseyabe, location uncertain. 
Wazhazhepa, location uncertain. 



294 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Yuzhemakancheubukhpaye, location uncertain. 
Zandjezhinga, location uncertain. 

Zandzhulin, at Kaw Agency, Indian Territory, in 1882. 
Zhanichi, on Kansas River. 

History. — According to tradition, the Kansa and the others of the 
same group originated on Ohio River, the Kansa separating from the 
main body at the mouth of Kansas River. If the Guaes of Coronado 
were the Kansa, the tribe was first heard of by white men in 1541. 
During at least a part of the eighteenth century, they were on Mis- 
souri River above the mouth of the Kansas, but Lewis and Clark 
met them on the latter stream. They occupied several villages in 
succession along Kansas River until they settled at Council Grove, 
on Neosho River, in the present Morris County, where a reservation 
was set aside for them by the United States Government in 1846, 
when they ceded the rest of their lands. They remained on this 
reservation until 1873 when it was sold and another reserve purchased 
for them in Oklahoma next to the Osages. Their lands have now 
been allotted to them in severalty. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates a Kansa population of 3,000 
in 1780. In 1702 Iberville estimated 1,500 families. Lewis and Clark 
(1804) give 300 men. In 1815 there were supposed to be about 1,500 
in all, and m 1822, 1,850. In 1829 Porter estimated 1,200, but the 
population as given by the United States Indian Office for 1843 was 
1,588. After this time, however, the tribe lost heavily through 
epidemics and in 1905 was returned at only 209. The census of 1910 
gave 238, but the United States Indian Office Report of 1923 gave 
420. The census of 1930 returned 318. In 1937 the number was 
given as 515. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Kansa will be 
remembered particularly from the fact that they have given their 
name to Kansas River and the State of Kansas, and secondarily to 
Kansas City, Mo., and Kansas City, Kans. It is also appHed to 
places in Walker County, Ala.; Edgar County, lU.; Seneca County 
Ohio; Seneca and Delaware Comities, Okla.; and in the form Kaw, 
to a village in Kay County, Okla., and a station out of the Kansas 
City, Mo., P. O. Kansasville is in Racine County, Wis. 

Eickapoo. A reservation was granted this tribe in southeastern 
Kansas in 1832, and though it was progressively reduced in area, 
part of them have continued to live there down to the present time. 
(See Wisconsin.) 

Kiowa. Signifying (in their own language) "principal people." Also 

called: 

Be'shfltchS, Kiowa Apache name. 

Dattimpa'ta, Hidatsa name, perhaps a form of Wi'tapaha'tu below. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 295 

Gahe'wa, Wichita and Kichai name. 

Ko'mpabi'anta, Kiowa name, meaning "large tipl flaps." 

KwQ'da, old name for themselves, meaning "going out." 

Manrhoat, mentioned by La Salle, perhaps this tribe. 

Na'la'ni, Navaho name, including southern plains tribes generally, but par- 
ticularly the Comanche and Kiowa. 

Nl'chihing'na, Arapaho name, meaning "river man." 

Quichuan, given by La Harpe (1831) and probably this tribe. 

Te'pda', ancient name for themselves, meaning "coming out." 

Tepki'nago, own name, meaning "people coming out." 

Tideing Indians, Lewis and Clark (1904-5). 

Vi'tapatdi, name used by the Sutaio. 

Wi'tapahatu, Dakota name, meaning "island butte people." (The Chey- 
enne name was similar.) 

Connections. — Though long considered a separate linguistic stock, 
the researches of J. P. Harrington make it evident that the Kiowa 
were connected with the Tanoan stock as the Kiowa-Tanoan stock 
and probably with the Shoshonean stock also. 

Location. — The best-known historic location of these people was a 
plot of territory including contiguous parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, 
Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. (See also Montana, Nebraska, 
South Dakota, and Wyoming.) 

Subdivisions 

The bands constituting their camp circle, beginning on the east and passing 
round by the south were: Kata, Kogui, Kaigwu, Kingep, Semat (i. e., Apache), 
and Kongtalyui. 

History. — According to tradition, the Kiowa at one time lived at the 
head of Missouri River near the present Virginia City. Later they 
moved down from the mountains and formed an aUiance with the 
Crows but were gradualy forced south by the Arapaho and Cheyenne, 
while the Dakota claim to have driven them from the Black Hills. 
They made peace with the Arapaho and Cheyenne in 1840 and after- 
ward acted with them. When they reached the Arkansas, they found 
the land south of it claimed by the Comanche. These people were at 
first hostile, but after a time peace was made between the two tribes, 
the Kiowa passed on toward the south, and the two ever after acted as 
allies. Together they constantly raided Mexican territory, advancing 
as far south as Durango. The Kiowa were among the most bitter 
enemies of the Americans. They were placed on a reservation in 
southwestern Oklahoma in 1868 along with the Commanche and 
Kjowa Apache and have now been allotted lands in severalty. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 2,000 in 
1780. In 1905 their population was 1,165; the census of 1910 gave it 
as 1,126, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923, 1,679, 
including the Kiowa Apache. The census of 1930 returned 1,050, but 
in 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 2,263. 



296 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY IBcll. 145 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Kiowa were one 
of the leading tribes on the southern Plains and were surpassed only 
by the Comanche and Apache in the raids which they undertook into 
Mexico. The name has become affixed to counties in Colorado and 
Kansas, a creek in Colorado; and small places in Barber County, 
Kans.; Pittsburg County, Okla.; and Elbert County, Colo. 

Kiowa Apache. The name is derived from that of the Kiowa and from 
the circumstance that they spoke a dialect related to those of the 
better-known Apache tribes, though they had no other connection 
with them. Also called: 

Bad-hearts, by Long (1823). (See Kaskaias.) 

Cancey or Kantsi, meaning "liars," applied by the Caddo to all Apache of 

the Plains, but oftenest to the Lipan. 
Essequeta, a name given by the Kiowa and Comanche to the Mescalero 

Apache, sometimes, but improperly, applied to this tribe. 
Gd.ta'ka, Pawnee name. 
Gina's, Wichita name. 
Gli'ta'k, Omaha and Ponca name. 
K'd-patop, Kiowa name, meaning "knife whetters." 
Kaskaias, possibly intended for this tribe, translated "bad hearts." 
Kislnahls, Kichai name. 

MfitsfanS-taniu, Cheyenne name, meaning "whetstone people." 
Nadfisha-d6na, own name, meaning "our people." 
Pacer band of Apache, H. R. Doc. 
Prairie Apaches, common name. 

S!idals6mte-k'fago, Kiowa name, meaning "weasel people." 
Tfi'gugdla, Jemez name for Apache tribes including Kiowa Apache. 
Tagdi, an old Kiowa name. 
Tdgukerish, Pecos name for all Apache. 
Tashin, Comanche name for all Apache. 
Tha'kd-hinS'na, Arapaho name, meaning "saw-fiddle man." 
Yabipais Natag^, Garc^s Diary (1776). 

Connections. — The Kiowa Apache belonged to the Athapascan 
linguistic family, their nearest relatives being the Jicarilla and Lipan 
(Hoijer). 

Location. — 'They have been associated with the Kiowa from the 
earliest traditional period. (See also Colorado, New Mexico, Okla- 
homa, and Wyoming.) 

History. — The first historical mention of the Kiowa Apache is by 
La Salle in 1681 or 1682, who calls them Gattacka, the term by which 
they are known 1o the Pawnee. As intimated above, their history 
was in later times the same as that of the Kiowa, and they occupied 
a definite place in the Kiowa camp circle. For 2 years only, 1865-67, 
they were at their own request detached from the Kiowa and adjoined 
to the Cheyenne and Arapaho, on account of the unfriendly attitude 
of the Kiowa toward the Whites. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 297 

Population. — Mooney (1928) gives an estimate of 300 Kiowa 
Apache as of 1780, adopting the estimate made by Lewis and Clark in 
1805. In 1891 their population was 325, but like the associated 
tribes they suffered heavily from measles in 1892 and in 1905 there 
were only 155 left. The census of 1910 returned 139, that of 1930, 
184, and in 1937 they appear to have increased to 340 but other 
Apache may be included. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Kiowa Apache 
are remarkable merely as an example of a tribe incorporated into the 
social organism of another tribe of entirely alien speech and origin. 

Miami. In 1832 the Miami subdivisions known as Piankashaw and 
Wea were assigned lands along with the Illinois in Eastern Kansas. 
In 1840 the rest of the Miami were granted lands in the immediate 
neighborhood but just south, and all but one band removed there 
from Indiana. In 1854 they ceded part of this territory and in 
1867 accompanied the Illinois to the present Oklahoma. (See 
Indiana.) 

Missouri. The remnant of this tribe accompanied the Oto when 
they lived in this State. (See Missouri.) 

Munsee. A band of Munsee or "Christian Indians" owned land in 
Kansas between 1854 and 1859. (See Delaware in New Jersey, 
etc.) 

Osage. The southeastern part of Kansas was claimed by the Osage 
and was ceded by them to the United States Government in 
treaties made in 1825, 1865, and 1870. (See Missouri.) 

Oto. The Oto were on the eastern border of Kansas several times dur- 
ing their later history. (See Nebraska.) 

Ottawa. In 1831 two bands of Ottawa were granted lands on Marais 
des Cygnes or Osage River. They relinquished these in 1846 and 
in 1862 agreed to allotment of land in severalty, giving up their 
remaining lands. Further treaties regarding these were made in 
1867 and 1872. A few families of Ottawa accompanied the Prairie 
Potawatomi when they removed from Wisconsin to Iowa, but they 
were soon absorbed or else scattered. Ottawa bands called Ottawa 
of Blanchard's Fork and Ottawa of Roche de Boeuf occupied lands 
in Kansas between 1832 and 1865 when they moved to Oklahoma. 
(See Michigan.) 

Pawnee. A part of the Paw^nee occupied the valley of the Republican 
Fork of Kansas River. (See Nebraska.) 

Potawatomi. In 1837 the United States Government entered into a 
treaty with five bands of Potawatomi living in the State of Indiana 



298 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bm-u 145 

by which it was agreed to convey to them by patent a tract of coun- 
try on Osage River, southwest of the Missouri, in the present State 
of Kansas. This was set apart the same year and the Indians, the 
Potawatomi of the Woods, moved into it in 1840, but they ceded 
it back in 1846 and were given a reserve between the Shawnee and 
the Delaware, in the present Shawnee County, which they occupied 
in 1847. By a series of treaties, culminating in the Treaty of 
Chicago, 1833, the Potawatomi west of Lake Michigan surrendered 
their lands and received a large tract in southwestern Iowa. They 
were accompanied by a few Chippewa and Ottawa. In 1846 this 
reserve was re-ceded to the United States Government and in 
1847-48 the Indians, now known as the Prairie Potawatomi, 
moved to lands in Kansas just east of the lands of the Potawatomi 
of the Woods. Michigan Potawatomi did not come to this place 
until 1850. About the end of the Civil War some of the Prairie 
band moved back to Wisconsin but the greater part of them re- 
mained and accepted lands in severalty. In 1869 the Potawatomi 
of the Woods began a movement to secure lands in Oklahoma, and 
by 1871 most of them had gone thither. (See Michigan.) 

Quapaw. Between 1833 and 1867 lands in the southeastern tip of 
Kansas belonged to their reserve in Indian Territory (Oklahoma), 
but in the latter year they ceded this back to the Government. 
(See Arkansas.) 

Sauk. After leaving Iowa, the Sauk and Fox Indians occupied a 
reserve in the eastern part of Kansas, but about 1859 the Foxes 
returned to Iowa, and in 1867 the Sauk ceded their Kansas terri- 
tories and moved to Oklahoma. (See Wisconsin.) 

Seneca. Seneca Indians were joint owners with other tribes of land 
in the extreme southwestern part of Kansas. They ceded this to 
the United States Government in 1867. (See New York.) 

Shawnee. In 1825 the Shawnee residing in Missouri received a grant 
of land along the south side of Kansas River, west of the boimdary 
of Missouri. In 1831 they were joined by another body of Shawnee 
who had formerly lived at Wapaghkonnetta and on Hog Creek, 
Ohio, In 1854 nearly all of this land was re-ceded to the United 
States Government and the tribe moved to Indian Territory, the 
present Oklahoma. (See Tennessee.) 

Wyandot. The Wyandot purchased land in eastern Kansas on Mis- 
souri River from the Delaware in 1843 and parted with it again in 
1850. A few Wyandot also held title to land along with other 
tribes on the border of Oklahoma and re-ceded it along with them 
in 1867. (See Ohio.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 299 

OKLAHOMA 

Alabama. This was one of the tribes of the Creek Confederacy, part 
of which accompanied the Creeks to Oklahoma early in the nine- 
teenth century and settled near Weleetka, where a small station 
on the Frisco Railway bears their name. (See Alabama.) 

Apache. The name was given to a tribe or rather a group of tribes. 
(See Jicarilla under Colorado; Kiowa Apache, under Kansas; 
Lipan under Texas; also Apache under New Mexico.) 

Apalachee. A few individuals of this tribe removed to Oklahoma 
from Alabama or Louisiana. Dr. Gatschet learned the names of 
two or three individuals about 1884. (See Florida.) 

Arapaho. In early times the Arapaho ranged to some extent over the 
western sections of Oklahoma, and part of them (the Southern 
Arapaho) were finaUy given a reservation and later allotted land 
in severalty in the west central part along with the Southern 
Cheyenne. (See Wyoming.) 

Biloxi. A few Biloxi reached Oklahoma and settled with the Choctaw 
and Creeks. (See Mississippi.) 

Caddo. The Caddo moved to Oklahoma in 1859 and were given a 
reservation in the southwestern part about Anadarko, where they 
were allotted land in severalty. (See Texas.) 

Cherokee. The Cherokee were moved to a large reservation in the 
northeastern part of Oklahoma in the winter of 1838-39. After 
nearly 70 years of existence under their own tribal government they 
were allotted land in severalty and became citizens of the United 
States. (See Tennessee.) 

Cheyenne. The history of the Southern Cheyenne parallels that of 
the Southern Arapaho as given above. (See South Dakota.) 

Chickasaw. The Chickasaw moved to the present Oklahoma between 
1822 and 1840. They had their own government for many years 
but are now citizens. (See Mississippi.) 

Choctaw. This tribe moved to Oklahoma about the same time as the 
Chickasaw though several thousand remained in their old country. 
Like the Chickasaw they had their own national government for a 
long time but are now citizens at large of Oklahoma. (See 
Mississippi.) 

Comanche. The western part of Oklahoma was occupied by the 
Comanche during their later history, and they were finally given 
a reservation in the southwestern part of it, where they were al- 



300 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

lotted land in severalty and given the privileges of citizenship. 
(See Texas.) 
Creeks. The tribes constituting the Creek Confederacy came to 
Oklahoma between 1836 and 1841 and were given a reservation in 
the northeastern part, where they maintained a national govern- 
ment until early in the present century when their lands were 
allotted in severalty, and they became citizens. (See Alabama, 
Florida, and Georgia.) 

Delaware. In 1867 a part of the Delaware were removed from 
Kansas to the northeastern part of what is now Oklahoma and 
incorporated with the Cherokee Nation, Another band of Dela- 
ware is with the Caddo and Wichita in southwestern Oklahoma. 
(See New Jersey.) 

Foxes. A few Fox Indians accompanied the Sauk (q. v.) to Oklahoma 
in 1867. (See Wisconsin.) 

Hitchiti. This is a sub tribe of the Creek Confederacy. (See Georgia; 
also Creeks and Creek Confederacy above and under Alabama, 
Florida, and Georgia.) 

Illinois. In 1868 the surviving Illinois Indians, principally Peoria 
and Kaskaskia, previously united with the Miami bands, Wea and 
Piankashaw, moved to Oklahoma and occupied a reserve in the 
northeastern part of the State under the name Peoria. (See 
Illinois.) 

Iowa. Part of the Iowa were moved from Kansas to a reserve in 
central Oklahoma set apart in 1883; they were allotted land in 
severalty in 1890. (See Iowa.) 

Iroquois. Some Iroquois Indians, together with the Tuscarora, some 
Wyandot, and probably Indians of the former Erie Nation, all under 
the name of Seneca Indians, were given a reservation in northeastern 
Oklahoma, where their descendants still hve, now as citizens of the 
United States. (See New York and Ohio.) 

Jicarilla. This was one of those Athapascan tribes known as Apache. 
In early times they ranged over parts of western Oklahoma. (See 
Colorado.) 

Kansa. In 1873 the Kansa were moved to Oklahoma and given a 
reservation in the northeastern part of the State. (See Kansas.) 

Eichai. In very early times this tribe lived on, or perhaps north of. 
Red River, but later they worked their way south to the head- 
waters of the Trinity. In 1859 they returned to the north side of 
the river in haste in fear of attack by the Texans and have since 
lived with the Wichita in the neighborhood of Anadarko. (See 
Texas.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 301 

Kickapoo. In 1873 some Kickapoo were brought back from Mexico 
and settled in the central part of Oklahoma, where all but a certain 
portion of the Mexican band were afterward gathered. (See 
Wisconsin.) 

Kiowa and Kiowa Apache. These tribes formerly ranged over much 
of the western part of this State. (See Kansas.) 

Koasati. The Koasati were one of the tribes of the Creek Confederacy. 
They removed to northeastern Oklahoma with the rest of the 
Creeks and settled in the western part of the Creek territory. (See 
Alabama and Louisiana.) 

Lipan. The Lipan were the easternmost band of Apache; some of 
them are with the Tonkawa. (See Texas.) 

Miami. Part of the Miami were brought from Indiana and given a 
reservation in the extreme northeastern part of Oklahoma along 
with the Illinois (q. v.). (See Indiana.) 

Mikasuki. Some of these Indians accompanied the Seminole to 
Oldahoma and as late as 1914 had a Square Ground of their own. 
(See Florida.) 

Missouri. The remnant of the Missouri came to Oklahoma with the 
Oto in 1882 and shared their reservation. (See Missouri.) 

Modoc. In 1873, at the end of the Modoc War, a part of the defeated 
tribe was sent to Oklahoma and placed on the Quapaw Reservation 
where a few yet remain. (See Oregon.) 

Muklasa. A small Creek division said to have kept its identity in 
Oklahoma. (See Alabama.) 

Munsee. A few Munsee accompanied the Delaware proper to 
Oklahoma and 21 were reported there in 1910. (See New Jersey.) 

Muskogee. This was the name of the principal tribe or group of 
tribes of the Creeks (q. v.). 

Natchez. A small band of Natchez accompanied the Creeks to Okla- 
homa and settled near Eufaula, where they later became merged in 
the rest of the Creek population. Another band of Natchez settled 
in the Cherokee Nation, near Illinois River, and a very few still 
preserve something of their identity. (See Mississippi.) 

Nez Perce. Chief Joseph's band of Nez Perc6 were sent to Oklahoma 
in 1878, but they suffered so much from the change of climate that 
they were transferred to Colville Reservation in 1885. (See Idaho.) 

Okmulgee. A Creek tribe and town belonging to the Hitchiti division 
of the Nation. Its name is perpetuated in the city of Okmulgee, 
former capital of the Creek Nation in Oklahoma. (See Georgia.) 



302 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Osage. The Osage formerly owned most of northern Oklahoma and 
after they had sold the greater part of it still retained a large reser- 
vation in the northeast, which they continue to occupy, though they 
have now been allotted land in severalty. (See Missouri.) 

Oto. In 1880 a part of the Oto moved to the lands of the Sauk and 
Fox Indians in Oklahoma and in 1882 the rest followed. (See 
Nebraska.) 

Ottawa. When they surrendered their lands in Michigan and Ohio, 
some Ottawa bands including those of Blanchard's Fork and Koche 
de Boeuf migrated to Kansas, and about 1868, to Oklahoma, settling 
in the northeastern part of the State. (See Michigan.) 

Pawnee. The Pawnee moved to Oklahoma in 1876 and were given 
a reservation in the north central part of the State, where they have 
now been allotted land in severalty. (See Nebraska.) 

Peoria. (See Illinois.) 

Piankashaw, see Miami. 

Ponca. In 1877 the Ponca were moved by force to Oklahoma and, 
though some individuals were finally allotted land in severalty in 
their old country, the greater part settled permanently near the 
Osage in northeastern Oklahoma. 

Potawatomi. The Potawatomi of the Woods were moved from Kansas 
to Oklahoma in 1867-81 and given a reservation in the central part 
of the State. (See Michigan.) 

Quapaw. Lands were granted to the Quapaw in the extreme south- 
eastern part of Kansas and the extreme northeastern part of Okla- 
homa in 1833. In 1867, they ceded all their lands in Kansas and 
have since confined themselves within the limits of Oklahoma, though 
a large part have removed to the reservation of the Osage. (See 
Arkansas.) 

Sauk. In 1867 the Sauk ceded their lands in Kansas in exchange for 
a tract in the central part of Oklahoma, where they have continued 
to live down to the present time. (See Wisconsin.) 

Seminole. The greater part of the Seminole were removed to Okla- 
homa after the Seminole War in Florida. (See Florida.) 

Seneca, see Iroquois. 

Shawnee. The Absentee Shawnee moved from Kansas to what is 
now central Oklahoma about 1845; in 1867 a second band, which had 
been living with the Seneca in Kansas, also moved to Oklahoma but 
settled in the extreme northeastern part of the State; and in 1869 



SWAifTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 303 

the third and largest section removed to the lands of the Cherokee 
by agreement with that tribe. (See Tennessee.) 

Tawakoni. Said to refer to "a river bend among red hills," or "neck 
of land in the water." The synonyms should not be confounded 
with those of the Tonkawa. Also called: 

Three Canes, an English form resulting from a mistaken attempt to trans- 
late the French spelling of their name, Troiscannes. 

Connections. — The Tawakoni belonged to the Caddoan linguistic 
stock and were most closely connected with the Wichita, the two 
languages differing but slightly. 

Location. — They were on the Canadian River about north of the 
upper Washita. (See also Texas.) 

Villages 

Flechazos, on the west side of Brazos River near the present Waco. 

History. — The Tawakoni were first met in the above location in 
company with the Wichita and other related tribes. Within the next 
50 years, probably as a result of pressure on the part of more northerly 
peoples, they moved south and in 1772 they were settled in two groups 
on Brazos and Trinity Rivers, about Waco and above Palestine. By 
1779 the group on the Trinity had rejoined those on the Brazos. In 
1824 part of the Tawakoni were again back on Trinity River. In 
1855 they were established on a reservation near Fort Belknap on the 
Brazos, but in 1859 were forced, by the hostility of the Texans, to move 
north into southwestern Oklahoma, where they were officially incor- 
porated with the Wichita. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) includes the Tawakoni among the 
Wichita (q. v.). In 1772 M^zieres reported 36 houses and 120 
warriors in the Trinity village and 30 families in the Brazos village, 
perhaps 220 warriors in all. In 1778-79 he reported that these two 
towns, then on the Brazos, contained more than 300 warriors. Sibley 
(1832) reported that in 1805 the Tawakoni, probably including the 
Waco, numbered 200 men. In 1859 they were said to number 204 
exclusive of the Waco. The census of 1910 records only a single 
survivor of this tribe. 

Tawehash. Meaning unknown. Lesser and Weltfish (1932) suggest 
that this group was identical with a Wichita band reported to them 
as Tiwa. They have been given some of the same synonyms as 
the Wichita (q. v.). 
Connections. — The Tawehash belonged to the Caddoan linguistic 

stock and were related closely to the Wichita, Tawakoni, Waco, and 

Yscani. 



304 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Location. — Their earliest knovm home was on Canadian River 
north of the headwaters of the Washita. 

Villager 

In 1778 Mdziferes found two native villages to which he gave the names San 
Teodoro and San Bernardo. 

History. — The Tawehash were encountered in the above situation 
by La Harpe in 1719. They moved south about the same time as the 
Tawakoni and other tribes of the group and were found on Red River 
in 1759, when they defeated a strong Spanish force sent against them. 
They remained in this same region until in course of time they united 
with the Wichita and disappeared from history. Their descendants 
are among the Wichita in Oklahoma. 

Population. — Most writers give estimates of the Tawehash along 
with the Wichita and other related tribes. In 1778 they occupied 
two villages aggregating 160 lodges and numbered 800 fighting men 
and youths. 

Tonkawa. In 1884 the remnant of the Tonkawa were removed to 
Oklahoma and the next year settled on a reservation near Ponca, 
where they were finally allotted land in severalty. (See Texas.) 

Tuskegee. A Creek division believed to be connected linguistically 
with the Alabama Indians. It removed to Oklahoma with the other 
Creeks and established itself in the northwest^n part of the allotted 
territory. (See Alabama.) 

Waco. According to Lesser and Weltfish (1932), from Wehiko, a 
corruption of Mexico, and given the name because they were always 
fighting with the Mexicans. The same authorities report that the 
Waco are thought to have been a part of the Tawakoni without an 
independent village but separated later. Also called: 

Gentlemen Indians, by Bollaert (1850). 

Houechas, Huanchan6, by French writers, possibly intended for this tribe. 

Connections. — The Waco were most closely related to the Tawakoni 
of the Wichita group of tribes belongiiig to the Caddoan Stock. 

Location. — They appear first in connection with their village on the 
site of the present Waco, Tex., though their original home was in 
Oklahoma with the Wichita. 

Villages 

Quiscat, named from its chief, on the west side of the Brazos on a blufiF or 
plateau above some springs and not far from the present Waco. 

History. — According to native informants as reported by Lesser 
and Weltfish (1932), the Waco are formerly supposed to have con- 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 305 

stituted a part of the Tawakoni without an independent village. It 
has also been suggested that they may have been identical with the 
Yscani, but Lesser and Weltfish identify the Yscani with another 
band. Another possibility is that the Waco are descendants of the 
Shuman tribe. (See Texas.) In later times the Waco merged with 
the Tawakoni and Wichita. 

Population. — In 1824 the Waco had a village of 33 grass houses and 
about 100 men, and a second village of 15 houses and an unnamed 
number of men. In 1859, just before their removal from Texas, they 
numbered 171, They are usually enumerated with the Wichita (q. v.), 
but the census of 1910 returned 5 survivors. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Almost the sole claim 
to special remembrance enjoyed by the Waco is the fact that its name 
was adopted by the important city of Waco, Tex. It also appears as 
the name of places in Sedgwick County, Kans.; Madison County, 
Ky.; Jasper County, Mo.; Smith County, Miss.; Haralson County, 
Ga.; York County, Nebr.; Cleveland County, N. C; Stark County, 
Ohio; and in Tennessee; but it is uncertain whether the designations 
of all these came originally from the Waco tribe. 

Wea, see Miami. 

Wichita. From wits, "man." Ms,o known as: 

Black Pawnee, common early name. 

Do'gu'at, Kiowa name, meaning "tattooed people." 

Do'kan&, Comanche name, meaning "tattooed people." 

Freckled Panis, from above. 

Guichita, Spanish form of the name. 

Hindsso, Arapaho name. 

Hoxsiiwitan, Cheyenne name. 

Ki'-^i-ku'-jfuc, Omaha name. 

Kirikiris, Kirikurus, or Kitikitish, reported as own name but properly the 

name of one of their bands. 
Mftsitd, Kansa name. 

Pd^i° wasdbe, Ponca and Omaha name, meaning "Black bear Pawnee." 
Paneassa, various early writers. 
Panis noirs, early French name. 
Panis piqu6s, early French name. 
Pdnyi Wac4we, Iowa, Oto, and Missouri name. 
Picks, from Panis piquds. 

Pitchindvo, Comanche name, meaning "paint-ed breasts." 
Prickled Panis, referring to their tattooing. 
Quirasquiris, French form of native name. 
Quivira, from chronicles of Coronado expedition. 
S6nik'ni, Comanche name, meaning "grass lodges." 
Speckled Pawnee, referring to their tattooing. 
TtixquSt, see Do'gu'at. 

Connections. — The Wichita were one of the principal tribes of the 
Caddoan linguistic family. 



306 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Location. — Their earliest certain location was on Canadian River 
north of the headwaters of the Washita. (See also Texas.) 

Subdivisions 

Most of the so-called subdivisions of the Wichita were independent tribes, 
some of which, including the Tawakoni, Waco, Tawehash, and Yscani, have been 
treated separately. The others — Akwits or Akwesh, Kirikiris, Isis (see Yscani), 
Tokane (see Yscani), and Itaz — were probably only temporary bands. Mooney 
(1928) also mentions the Kirishkitsu (perhaps a Wichita name for the Kichai) 
and the Asidahetsh and Kishkat, which cannot be identified. 

History. — The Wichita rose to fame at an early period owing to the 
fact that they were visited by Coronado in 1541, the Spaniards calling 
the Wichita country the province of Quivira. They were then farther 
north than the location given above, probably near the great bend 
of the Arkansas and in the center of Kansas. A Franciscan missionary, 
Juan de Padilla, remained 3 years among them in the endeavor to 
convert them to Christianity, but he was finally killed by them through 
jealousy on account of his work for another tribe. In 1719 La Harpe 
found the Wichita and several allied tribes on the south Canadian 
River in the territory later embraced in the Chickasaw Nation. 
Within the next 50 years they were forced south by hostile northern 
and eastern tribes and by 1772 were on the upper courses of the Red 
and Brazos Rivers. In 1835 they made their first treaty with the 
United States Government. They continued to live in southwestern 
Oklahoma until the Civil War, when they fled to Kansas until it was 
over. In 1867 they returned and were placed on a reservation in 
Caddo County, Okla., where they have since remained. 

Population. — In 1772 the Wichita and the Tawehash seem to have 
had about 600 warriors. Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 the 
confederated Wichita tribes had a population of about 3,200. Bolton 
(1914), on information derived from M^zi^res, estimated about 3,200 
for the Wichita proper in 1778. In 1805 Sibley estimated the Wichita 
at 400 men. In 1868, 572 were reported in the confederated tribes. 
The census of 1910 gives 318, including the remnant of the Kichai. 
In 1937 there were 385. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Although a tribe of 
considerable power in early days, the Wichita will be remembered in 
future principally from the prominence of the city of Wichita, Kans., 
which bears their name. It is also the name of counties in Kansas and 
Texas, a ridge of hills in southwestern Oklahoma called the Wichita 
Mountains, a river in Texas, and places in Oklahoma, besides Wichita 
Falls in Wichita County, Tex. The identification of this tribe with 
the Province of Quivira gives it additional interest. 



8WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 307 

Wyandot. In 1867 a part of the Wyandot who had been Uving in 
Kansas was removed to the northeastern comer of Oklahoma where 
they have since remained. It is probable that this body includes 
more of the old Tionontati than of the true Wyandot. (See Ohio.) 

Yscani. Meaning unknown. Also spelled Ascani, Hyscani, Ixcani. 

Connections. — This was one of the confederated Wichita tribes and 
therefore without doubt related to them in speech, and thus of the 
Caddoan linguistic family. 

Location. — The Yscani are first mentioned in connection with the 
Wichita and allied tribes on the South Canadian in the territory later 
assigned to the Chickasaw Nation. Part, however, were reported to 
be Hving 60 leagues farther toward the northwest. 

History. — The Yscani evidently moved south from the above- 
mentioned location at the same time as the other tribes. They kept 
particularly close to the Tawakoni, with whose history their own is 
almost identical. As the name Yscani disappears from the early 
annals shortly before the name Waco appears in them, it has been 
thought that the Waco were the Yscani under a new name, but Lesser 
and Weltfish (1932) identify the Waco with the Isis or Tokane, 
perhaps both. (See Waco above.) 

Population. — In 1772 their village was reported to contain 60 
warriors, and about 1782 the entire tribe was said to have about 
90 families. 

Yuchi. Although originally an independent tribe, the Yuchi united 
with the Creeks before coming west, and they settled in the Creek 
Nation, in the northwestern part of that territory, where their 
descendants still live. (See Georgia.) 

TEXAS 

Akokisa. The name Akokisa, spelled in various ways, was given 
by the Spaniards to those Atakapa hving in southeastern Texas, 
between Trinity Bay and Trinity River and Sabine River. (See 
Atakapa under Louisiana.) 

Alabama. Alabama Indians came to Texas early in the nineteenth 
century, and the largest single body of Alabama still lives there on 
a State reservation in Polk County. (See Alabama.) 

Anadarko. The name of a tribe or band belonging to the Hasinai 
Confederacy (q. v.). 

Apache. The Jicarilla and other Apache tribes raided across the 
boundaries of this State on the northwest and west in early times, 
but the only one of them which may be said to have had its head- 
quarters inside for any considerable period was the Lipan (q. v.). 



308 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Aranama. The Aranama were associated sometimes with the Karan- 
kawa in the Franciscan missions but were said to be distinct from 
them. Although a small tribe during all of their kno\vn history, 
they held together until comparatively recent times, and Morse 
(1822) gives them a population of 125. They were remembered by 
the Tonkawa, when Dr. A. S. Gatschet visited the latter, and he 
obtained two words of their language, but they are said to have 
been extinct as a tribe by 1843. While their affiUations are not 
certainly known, they were undoubtedly with one of the three 
stocks, Karankawan, Tonkawan, or Coahuiltecan, probably the 
last mentioned, and will be enumerated provisionally with them. 
(See Coahuiltecan Tribes.) 

Atakapa, see Akokisa above and under Louisiana. 

Bidai. Perhaps from a Caddo word signifying "brushwood," and 
having reference to the Big Thicket near the lower Trinity River 
about which they lived. Also called: 

Quasmigdo, given as their own name bj^ Ker (1816). 
Spring Creeks, the name given by Foote (1841). 

Connections. — From the mission records it appears that the Bidai 
were of the Atakapan linguistic stock. 

Location. — On the middle course of Trinity River about Bidai 
Creek and to the westward and southwestward. 

History. — The Bidai were hving in the region above given when first 
known to the Europeans and claimed to be aborigines of that territory. 
The Franciscan mission of San Ildefonso was founded for them and the 
Akokisa, Deadose, and Patiri. In the latter part of the eighteenth 
century they are said to have been chief intermediaries between the 
Spaniards and Apache in the sale of firearms. The attempt to mis- 
sionize them was soon abandoned. In 1776-77 an epidemic carried 
away nearly half their number, but they maintained separate existence 
down to the middle of the nineteenth century, when they were in a 
village 12 miles from Montgomery. They have now entirely 
disappeared. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates for them a population of 
500 in 1690. In 1805 there were reported to be about 100. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name is perpetuated 
in that of a small creek flowing into Trinity River from the west and 
in a village known as Bedias or Bedais in Grimes County, Tex. 
Biloxi. Some Biloxi entered Texas before 1828. In 1846 a band was 

camped on Little River, a tributary of the Brazos. Afterward 

they occupied a village on Biloxi Bayou in the present Angelina 

County, but later either returned to Louisiana or passed north to 

the present Oklahoma. (See Mississippi.) 



SWANTONJ INDIAN TRIBES OP NORTH AMERICA 309 

Caddo Tribes. Under this head are included the Adai and the Natchi- 
toches Confederacy (see Louisiana) ; and the Eyeish, the Hasinai 
Confederacy, and the Kadohadacho Confederacy in Texas. 

Cherokee. A band of Cherokee under a chief named Bowl settled in 
Texas early in the nineteenth century, but they were driven out by 
the Texans in 1839 and their chief killed. (See Tennessee.) 

Choctaw. Morse (1822) reported 1,200 Choctaw on the Sabine and 
Neches Rivers, and some bands continued to live for a while in 
eastern Texas. One band in particular, the Yowani Choctaw, was 
admitted among the Caddo there. All the Choctaw finally re- 
moved to Oklahoma. (See Mississippi.) 

Coahuiltecan Tribes. The name was derived from that of the Mexican 
State of Coahuila, the tribes of this group having extended over 
the eastern part of that province as well as a portion of Texas. 
Also called: 

Tejano, an alternative name for the group. 
Connections. — As Coahuiltecan are included all of the tribes known 
to have belonged to the Coahuiltecan linguistic family and some 
supposed on circumstantial evidence to be a part of it. It is probable 
that most of the so-called Tamaulipecan family of Mexico were really 
related to this, and that the Karankawan and Tonkawan groups were 
connected as well, though more remotely. 

Location. — The Coahuiltecan tribes were spread over the eastern 
part of Coahuila, Mexico, and almost all of Texas west of San Antonio 
River and Cibolo Creek. The tribes of the lower Rio Grande may 
have belonged to a distinct family, that called by Orozco y Berra 
(1864) Tamaulipecan, but the Coahuiltecans reached the Gulf coast 
at the mouth of the Nueces. Northeast of that point they were 
succeeded by Karankawan tribes. Toward the north it is probable 
that the Coahuiltecans originally extended for a long distance before 
they were displaced by the Apache and Comanche. (See also Mexico.) 

Subdivisions 

In considering the Coahuiltecan stock it has been found necessary to change 
the original plan of giving separate consideration to each tribe because we are 
here confronted bj' an enormous number of small tribal or band names, of many 
of which we do not know even the location. In lieu of subdivisions, therefore, 
we shall give as complete a list as possible of these small tribes or bands, as far as 
they are known. They are as follows: 

Aguastayas. Asan. 

Alasapas. Atajal. 

Andacaminos. Atastagonies. 

Anns'". Borrados. 

Apayxam. Cabia. 

Aranama (see above). Cacafes. 



310 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 145 



Cachopostales. 

Camai. 

Cantunas. 

Casas Chiquitas. 

Casastles. 

Chaguantapam, 

Chagustapa. 

Chapamaco. 

Ghemoco. 

Choyapin (perhaps Tonkawan). 

Chuapas. 

Cimataguo. 

Cluetau. 

Cocomeioje. 

Comecrudo. 

Cotonam. 

Cupdan. 

Escaba. 

Espopolames. 

Gabilan. 

Geies. 

Guanipaa. 

Gueiquesales. 

Guerjuatida. 

Guisoles. 

Haeser. 

Hapes. 

Harames. 

Heniocane. 

Hiabu. 

Hihames. 

Huacacasa. 

Huanes. 

Hume. 

Juamaca. 

Jueinzum. 

Juncatas. 

Junced. 

Macapao. 

Macocoma. 

Mallopeme. 

Mamuqui. 

Manam. 

Manico. 

Manos Colorados. 

Manos de Perro. 

Manos Prietaa. 

Maquems. 

Maraquites. 

Matucar. 

Matuime. 

Maubedan. 

Mauyga. 



Mazapes. 

Menenquen. 

Mescales. 

Mesquites. 

Miiijaes. 

Morbanas. 

Mulatoa. 

Muruam (perhaps Tonkawan). 

Narices. 

Natao. 

Nazas. 

Necpacha. 

Nigco (probably meant for Sinicu). 

Nonapho (perhaps Tonkawan). 

Obozi (?). 

Ocana. 

Odoesmades. 

Ohaguames. 

Orejones. 

Oydican. 

Paac. 

Paachiqui. 

Pabor. 

Paearuja (given by Uhde, 1861). 

Pachal. 

Pachalaque. 

Pachaloco. 

Pachaquen. 

Pachaug. 

Pacpul. 

Pacuaches. 

Pacuachiam. 

Paguan. 

Paguanan. 

Pajalat. 

Pajarito. 

Pakawa. 

Pamaque. 

Pamaya. 

Pamoranos. 

Pampopas. 

Papanao, 

Paquache. 

Parantones. 

Parchaque. 

Parchinas. 

Pasalves. 

Pasnacanes. 

Pasqual. 

Pastaloca. 

Pastancoyas. 

Pas teal. 

Patague. 



SWAKTOW] 



INDIAN TRIBES OP NORTH AMERICA 



311 



Patan. 

Patanium. 

Pataquilla (perhaps Karankawan). 

Patou. 

Patzau. 

Pausanes. 

Pausaqui. 

Pausay. 

Payaya. 

PayuguarL 

Peana. 

Pelones. 

Pescado (?). 

Piedraa Blancas. 

Piquique. 

Pinanaca. 

Piniquu. 

Pintos. 

Pita. 

Pitahay. 

Pomuluma. 

Prietos. 

Psaupsau. 

Pulacuam (perhaps Tonkawan). 

Putaay. 

Quanataguo. 

Querns. 

Quepanos. 

Quesal. 

Quide (?). 

Quioborique (?). 

Quisabas (?). 

Quitacas. 

Quivi (?). 

Salapaque (?). 

Salinas (?). 

Samampac. 

Sampanal. 

Sanipao. 

Saracuam (?). 

Secmoco. 

Semonan (?). 

Senisos. 

Siaguan. 

Siansi. 

Sijame (perhaps Tonkawan). 

Sillanguayas. 

Simaomo (perhaps Tonkawan). 

Sinicu. 

Siupam. 

Sonaque. 

Sonayan. 

Suahuaohes (?). 



Suanaa. 

Sulujame. 

Tacame. 

Taimamares. 

Tamcan (7). 

Tamique (?). 

Tanpacuazes. 

Tarequano. 

Teana. 

Tecahuistes. 

Tejones. 

Teneinamar. 

Tenicapeme. 

Tepachuaches. 

Tepemaca. 

Terocodame. 

Tet. 

Tetaaauoica. 

Tetecores. 

Tetzino (perhaps Tonkawan). 

Tilijaes. 

Tinapihuayas. 

Tiopane (perhaps Karankawan). 

Tiopines. 

Tishim. (perhaps Tonkawan). 

Tocas. 

Tonzaumacagua. 

Tripaa Blancas. 

Tuancas. 

Tumamar. 

Tumpzi. 

Tusanes. 

Tusonid. 

Tuteneiboica. 

Unojita (?). 

Uraoha. 

Utaca (?). 

Venados. 

Vende Flechas. 

Viayam. 

Viddaquimamar. 

Xarame. 

Xiabu. 

Yacdossa. 

Ybdacax. 

Yem6. 

Yman. 

Ymic. 

Yoricas. 

Ysbupue. 

Yni. 

Yurguimes. 

Zorquan. 



312 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bttll. 145 

As indicated, some of these were perhaps Tonkawan, Karankawan, or of other 
affiliations. Some were represented by single individuals and no doubt many of 
the names are synonyms or have become distorted in the process of recording. 
The exact nature of these groups can now never be known. The above list does 
not include a great many names given only by Cabeza de Vaca or La Salle and 
his companions in the same region. The multiplicity of tribes and confusion in 
names is not so serious in any other region north of Mexico. 

History. — The Coahuiltecan tribes were first encountered by Cabeza 
de Vaca and his companions who passed through the heart of their 
country, and by the Spaniards when they invaded Coahuila and 
founded Parral. From the early part of the seventeenth century 
onward, their country was traversed repeatedly. In 1675 the Coa- 
huiltecan country on both sides of the Rio Grande was invaded by 
Fernando del Bosque, and in 1689 and 1690 the Texas portion was 
again traversed by De Leon and Manzanet. In 1677 a Franciscan mis- 
sion for Coahuiltecan tribes was established at Nadadores and before 
the end of the century others were started £vlong the Rio Grande and 
near San Antonio. Great numbers of Indians were gathered into 
these missions during the first part of the eighteenth century but the 
change of life entailed upon roving people, disease, and the attacks of 
hostile tribes from the north reduced their numbers rapidly. Today 
none of these Indians are known to survive in Texas. In 1886 Dr. 
A. S. Gatschet found remnants of two or three tribes on the south 
side of the Rio Grande and some of their descendants, survive, but 
they are no longer able to speak their ancient language. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1690 the Coahuiltec- 
an peoples totaled 15,000; no figures embracing all of them occur in 
the various narratives. 

Comanche. Significance unknown. Also called: 

AUebome, given by Lewis and Clark as the French- name. 
Bald Heads, so called by Long (1823). 

Bo'daik' ifiago, Kiowa name, meaning "reptile people," "snake men." 
Ca'-tha, Arapaho name, meaning "having many horses." 
Cintu-aluka, Teton Dakota name. 
Dats6-a°, Kiowa Apache name (Gatschet, MS, BAE). 
Gyai'-ko, Kiowa name, meaning "enemies." 
Idahi, Kiowa Apache name (Mooney, 1896). 
Indd, Jicarilla name. 

La Plais, French traders' name, perhaps corrupted from T^te Pel6e. 
La'-ri'hta, Pawnee name. 
Los Mecos, Mexican name. 
Mahdn, Isleta name. 
Mdhana, Taos name. 

Na"Iani, Navaho name, meaning "many aliens," or "many enemies" (col- 
lective for Plains tribes). 
Na'nita, Kichai name. 
Nar-a-tah, Waco name. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 313 

Na't&a, Wichita name, meaning "snakes," i. e., "enemies." 
Ne'me ng, or Nim6nim, own name, or Numa, meaning "people." 
Padouca, common early name, evidently from the name of the Penateka 

band. 
Sanko, obsolete Kiowa name. 
Sau'hto, Caddo name. 
Selakamp6m, Comecrudo name for all warlike tribes but especially for the 

Comanche. 
ShIshIn6wtitz-hita'neo, Cheyenne name meaning "snake people." 
Snake Indians, common name. 

THe Pel6e, French traders' name, identification somewhat doubtful. 
Yampah or Ya'mpaini, Shoshoni name, meaning "Yampa people," or 

"Yampa eaters." 

Connections. — The Comanche belonged to the Shoshonean linguistic 
family, a branch of Uto-Aztecan, its tongue being almost identical 
with that of the Shoshoni. 

Location.- — In northwestern Texas and the region beyond as far 
as Arkansas River. (See also Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New 
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Wyoming.) 

Subdivisions 

The following are the names of Comanche bands so far as these are known: 

Detsanayuka or Nokoni. Pagatsu. 

Ditsakana, Widyu, Yapa or Yamparika. Penateka or Penande. 

Kewatsana. Pohoi (adopted Shoshoni), 

Kotsai. Tanima, Tenawa or Tenahwit. 

Kotsoteka, Kwahari or Kwahadi. Waaih. 

Motsai. 

Various writers also mention the following: 

Guage-johe. Muvinabore. 

Ketahto. Nauniem. 

Kwashi. Parkeenaum. 

History. — Although differing today in physical type, on account of 
their close linguistic relationship it is supposed that the original 
Comanche must have separated from the Shoshoni in the neighbor- 
hood of eastern Wyoming. The North Platte was known as Padouca 
Fork as late as 1805. In 1719, however, the Comanche are placed 
by early writers in southwestern Kansas. For a long time the Arkan- 
sas River was their southern boundary, but finally they moved below 
it attracted by opportunities to obtain horses from the Mexicans and 
pushed on by other peoples. The Apache, who were in the country 
invaded, attacked them but were defeated. In this movement the 
Penateka Comanche were in advance and from the name of this band 
comes Padouca, one of the old terms applied to the entire people. 
For a long time the Comanche were at war with the Spaniards and 



314 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bulu 145 

the Apache, and later with the Americans. Texas suffered so much 
from their depredations that the famous Texas Rangers were organ- 
ized as a protection against them and proved extremely effective. In 
1854, by permission of the State of Texas, the Federal Government 
established two reservations upon Brazos River and some of the 
Comanche and Kiowa were placed upon the upper reserve. Friction 
with the settlers, however, continued and compelled the abandonment 
of these reserves in 1859 and the removal of the Indians to the terri- 
tory embraced in the present State of Oklahoma. By a treaty con- 
cluded October 18, 1865, a reservation was set apart for the Comanche 
and Kiowa consisting of the Panhandle of Texas and aU of Oklahoma 
west of Cimarron River and the 98th meridian of west longitude. By 
a treaty concluded October 21, 1867, they surrendered all of this except 
a tract of land in southwestern Oklahoma between the 98th meridian. 
Red River, the North Fork of Red River, and Washita River. They 
did not settle finally upon this land, however, until after the last 
outbreak of the southern prairie tribes in 1874-75. Their descendants 
continue to live in the same territory. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that there must have been 
7,000 Comanche about 1690. The census of 1904 gives 1,400; the 
census of 1910, 1,171; and the United States Indian Office Report for 
1923 shows a total of 1,697. The census of 1930 returned 1,423. In 
1937 the figure given is 2,213. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Comanche were one 
of the most famous tribes of the Plains, particularly the southern 
Plains. They were remarkable (1) for their numbers, horsemanship, 
and warlike character; (2) for the frequent clashes between them and 
the White expeditions or bodies of emigrants; (3) as largely instru- 
mental in introducing horses to the Indians of the northern Plains. 
They gave place names to counties in Kansas and Texas; a mountain 
in Texas; and places in Yellowstone County, Mont.; Comanche 
County, Tex.; and Stephens County, Okla. There is a Comanche 
River in Colorado. 

Creeks, see Muskogee, under Alabama. 

Deadose. An Atakapa tribe or subtribe in south central Texas. 
(See Louisiana.) 

Eyeish, or HIiish. Meaning unknown. Also called Aays, Aix, 
Aliche, Yayecha, etc. 

Connections. — The Eyeish belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock, 
their closest relatives probably being the Adai, and next to them the 
peoples of the Kadohadacho and Hasinai Confederacies, with which, 
in fact, Lesser and Weltfish (1932) classify them. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 315 

Location. — On Ayish Creek, northeastern Texas, between the Sabine 
and Neches Rivers. 

History. — In 1542 the Eyeish were visited by the Spaniards under 
Moscoso, De Soto's successor. They are next noted in 1686-87 by 
the companions of La Salle. In 1716 the mission of Nuestra Sefiora 
de los Dolores was established among them by the Franciscans, 
abandoned in 1719, reestablished in 1721, and finally given up in 1773, 
the success of the mission having been very small. Their proximity 
to the road between the French post at Natchitoches and the Spanish 
post at Nacogdoches seems to have contributed to their general 
demoralization. Sibley (1832) reported only 20 individuals in the 
tribe in 1805 but in 1828 there were said to be 160 families. Soon 
afterward they joined the other Caddo tribes and followed their for- 
tunes, and they must have declined very rapidly for only a bare 
memory of them is preserved. 

Population. — In 1779, 20 families were reported; in 1785, a total 
population of 300; in 1805, 20 individuals; in 1828, 160 families. (See 
Caddo Confederacy, under Louisiana.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Ayish Bayou, a tribu- 
tary of the Angelina River on which they formerly lived, perpetuates 
the name of the Eyeish. 

Guasco. A tribe or band which attained some prominence from the 
importance attached to jt in the narratives of the De Soto expedi- 
tion. (See Hasinai Confederacy.) 

Hainai. An important band of the Hasinai Confederacy (q. v.). 

Hasinai Confederacy. Hasinai signifies "our own folk." The name 

often occurs in the forms Assinay or Cenis. 

Connections. — The Hasinai Confederacy constituted one of the 
major divisions of the Caddo, the others being the Kadohadacho 
Confederacy, the Natchitoches Confederacy, and the Adai and Eyeish, 
the two last probably connected but not confederated. All belonged 
to the Caddoan linguistic stock. 

Location. — ^In northeastern Texas between the headwaters of the 
Neches and Trinity Rivers. 

Subdivisions 

The following tribes or bands were included: 
Anadarko, northwest of Nacogdoches in the present Rusk County. 
Guasco, position unknown. 
Hainai, 3 leagues west of Nacogdoches. 
Nabedache, 3 to 4 leagues west of Neches River and near Arroyo San Pedro, at a 

site close to the old San Antonio road, which became known as San Pedro. 
Nacachau, just north of the Neches tribe and on the east side of Neches River. 



316 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Nacanish, north of the Hainai. 

Nacao, probably part of the Nacanish. 

Nacogdoche, at the present Nacogdoches. 

Nacono, southeast of the Neches and Nabedache and 5 leagues frona the former. 

Namidish or Nabiti, on Angelina River north of the Hainai. 

Nasoni, two towns: (1) about 27 miles north of Nacogdoches near the Anadarko; 

(2) in the Kadohadacho Confederacy. 
Nechaui, southeast of the Nabedache, half a league from the Nacono, and 5 

leagues from the crossing of the Neches at the Neches village. 
Neches, the main village 1 league or more east of Neches River, nearly west of the 

present Nacogdoches and near the mounds southwest of Alto, Cherokee County. 

The following names may belong to other allied tribes but next to nothing is 
known of them: 

Naansi. ^fJadamin. Neihahat. 

Nabeyeyxa. Natsshostanno. Tadiva. 

Lesser and Weltfish (1932) speak of a tribe called Kayamaici, but this was 
probably a local group on Kiamichi River. 

Villages 

As recorded by our authorities, these almost always bore the names of the 
tribes occupying them. 

History. — On their way west in 1542 after the death of De Soto, in 
an endeavor to reach Mexico overland, the Spaniards who had followed 
him passed through the Caddo country, and the names of the Nabe- 
dache, Nasoni, Anadarko, and Nacanish seem to be recognizable. In 
1686-87 La Salle and his companions spent some time in their villages, 
and it was near one of them that La Salle was murdered by his own 
people. In 1690 the Spaniards entered their country and opened the 
first mission among them at the Nabedache village in May of that 
year. A number of missions were established in the other villages. 
All were abandoned in 1719 in expectation of a French attack, but 
they were reestablished in 1721. They did not prove successful, how- 
ever, and were gradually removed to the neighborhood of San Antonio. 
Early in the nineteenth century the Hasinai were joined by the 
Louisiana Caddo, and all were placed upon a reservation on the Brazos 
River in 1855. Threatened with massacre by some of their White 
neighbors, they fled to Oklahoma 4 years later, were granted new lands 
near the present Anadarko, and finally allotted land in severalty. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1690 the entire Caddo 
population, including the Hasinai, the Kadohadacho and Natchitoches 
Confederacies, and the Adai and Eyeish tribes, amounted to 8,500, 
700 more than the number I arrived at. He does not give figures for 
the Hasinai by themselves, but it is probable that he would have al- 
lowed between 4,000 and 5,000. The former figure is the one I sug- 
gested (see Swanton, 1942). 

Referring to earlier estimates, we are told that a Canadian who had 
lived for several years among the Hasinai stated in 1699 that they had 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 317 

between 600 and 700 warriors, which would indicate a population of 
2,500-3,000. In 1716 Don Diego Ramon, under whom the missions 
were established, gave it as his opinion that they were serving a popu- 
lation of 4,000-5,000. When x\guayo reestablished them in 1721 he 
distributed presents to the inhabitants of the principal towns. His 
figures are evidently incomplete, but even so they suggest some falling 
off in the 5 years that had elapsed. At any rate it is evident that 
these Indians lost very heavily during the eighteenth century and that 
their numbers did not exceed 1,000 at the opening of the nineteenth 
century. A rather careful estimate by Jesse Stem in 1851 would 
indicate a population of about 350. In 1864 the United States Indian 
Office reported 150, and in 1876 and subsequent years still smaller 
figures appear which are evidently incomplete. The first seemingly 
accurate census taken by the Indian Office was in 1880, when the figure 
for the united Caddo people was given as 538. It varied httle from 
this until after 1910 when it showed steady gains. In 1937, 967 
Caddo were reported. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Hasinai are noted 
as the Indians among whom La Salle came to his untimely end, and 
along with the Kadohadacho and Natchitoches as makers of the beau- 
tiful Caddo pottery. (See Kadohadacho Confederacy.) Texas, a 
common name applied to them, was adopted as the designation of a 
Republic and later State of the American Union. It has been given 
to places in Washington County, Ky., and Baltimore County, Md.; 
to Texas City, Galveston County, Tex.; Texas Creek, Fremont 
County, Colo.; and in the combined form Texarkana to a city on the 
boundary line between Texas and Arkansas, entering also into Tex- 
homa, Texas County, Olda., and Sherman County, Tex. 

Isleta del Sur, see Pueblos under New Mexico. 

Jicarilia. The Jicarilla ranged into this State (Texas) at times. 
(See Colorado.) 

Kadohadacho Confederacy. The word Kadohadacho signifies in the 
native language "real chiefs," kadi being the word for "chief," and 
it is from an abbreviation of this term that we get the word Caddo. 
They were also called: 

At'-ta-wits, by the Comanche, according to Ten Kate (1907). 

Da'sha-i, or Tdshash, by the Wichita. 

firawika, by the Pawnee. 

'H'-doum-dei-kiH, by the Kiowa. 

Ka-16X-la'-tce, by the Choctaw. 

Kalu-xnddshu or Kasseye'i, by the Tonkawa. 

Kul-hQI-atsI, by the Creeks. 

Ma'-seip'-kiH, by the Kiowa, signifying "pierced noses." 

Ni'rls-h&ri's-kl'riki, another Wichita name. 



318 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Ota's-ita'niuw', Cheyenne name, signifying "pierced nose people" (or 

Utds6ta). 
Su'-d^6, by the Quapaw. 

Tani'bangn, by the Arapaho, signifying "pierced nose people." 
Witdne, by the Comanche, according to Gatschet (MS., B. A. E.). 

Connections. — The Kadohadacho belonged to the Caddo division 
of the Caddoan linguistic stock, the other members being the closely- 
related Hasinai (q, v.) and Natchitoches (see under Louisiana), and 
the more remotely connected Adai of Louisiana and Eyeish of Texas. 

Location. — The Kadohadacho lived in northeastern Texas and 
southwestern Arkansas at the Great Bend of Red River, though they 
are usually associated with the region around Caddo Lake which they 
occupied at a later period. (See also Arkansas and Louisiana.) 

Subdivisions 

Cahinnio, near Ouachita River, Ark. 

Kadohadacho, on the north side of Red River near the point where the present 

Arkansas-Texas boundary line reaches it. 
Nanatsoho, on the south side of Red River not far from the point reached by the 

present Arkansas-Oklahoma State line. 
Upper Nasoni, on the south side of Red River nearly opposite the present Ogden. 
Upper Natchitoches, on the south side of Red River between the Nanatsoho and 

Nasoni. 
Upper Yatasi, a part of the Yatasi which joined them in very late times. 

History. — In October 1541, De Soto and his army entered a province 
called Tula believed to be the country of the Indians later known as 
Cahinnio, a tribe for whose bravery the Spaniards came to have a 
wholesome respect. The next encounter between these people and 
white men was in the summer of 1687 when, after the murder of the 
Sieur de la Salle, six survivors of his expedition, including Joutel 
and Father Anastasius Donay, passed through the Kadohadacho 
towns on their way to the Mississippi, visiting the Nasoni, Kadohada- 
cho, and Cahinnio. Tonti visited them also 4 years later. In Novem- 
ber and December 1691, Domingo Teran (Castaneda, 1936) spent a 
miserable week in this country exploring it and taking soundings of 
Red River, and we owe to him the first map of the region. In 1700 
Bienville undertook to reach them but got no farther than the Yatasi 
village halfway between the Natchitoches and Kadohadacho. In 
1719 the French officer Bernard de la Harpe (1831) spent some time 
among them and established a trading post which endured for a con- 
siderable period. French traders quickly monopolized the Kadohada- 
cho trade, the principal trading point being Natchitoches, but no 
missions were established. This group of tribes proved to be a strong 
bulwark against the warlike northern Indians, particularly the Osage, 
but they suffered much in consequence, and late in the eighteenth 
century the Kadohadacho or a part of them moved to another location 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 319 

some miles below their ancient village. The town established in the 
new location, however, was also attacked by the Osages, who inflicted 
such losses upon its inhabitants that they removed again about 1800 
and established themselves on Sodo Creek northwest of the present 
Shreveport. In 1824 a treaty was signed between the United States 
Government and the Quapaw Indians by which the latter agreed to 
give up their lands on the Arkansas and remove to the country of the 
Caddo Indians. The Quapaw removed the year following but suffered 
such losses on account of floods in Red River that in 1833 they sur- 
rendered these lands and removed to Oklahoma, Two years later the 
Kadohadacho and their allies also subscribed to a treaty by which 
they surrendered all of their lands within the territory of the United 
States. In consequence, they removed to Texas and settled near their 
Hasinai kindred, whose fortunes they afterward followed although the 
two parties remained distinct for a considerable period. Some united 
themselves for a time with the Cherokee under Chief Bowl. Some 
also took up their residence with the Chickasaw in the Indian Terri- 
tory. Those who remained in Texas were fellow victims with the 
Hasinai of the increasing friction with their white neighbors embittered 
by Comanche and Apache depredations for which they were in no 
way responsible. We may now call these united peoples by the simple 
term "Caddo." In an endeavor to end these difficulties a reservation 
w^as set apart for the Caddo on Brazos River in 1852 but trouble arose 
again of such a violent character that in 1859 the Caddo abandoned 
Texas and were assigned a new reservation in the southwestern part 
of the present State of Oklahoma, where their descendants still live, 
most of the scattered bands having been gathered into one section. 
Most of the Caddo sided with the Federal Government during the 
Civil War and went to Kansas, where they remained until it was over, 
though experiencing many hardships in consequence and losing many 
of their people in epidemics. They took considerable interest in the 
Ghost Dance Religion and still more in the Peyote Cult, John Wilson, 
a mixed-blood Caddo and Delaware, being one of the prominent 
leaders. The fact that they had always cultivated the ground has 
made their adjustment to the new economic system fairly easy. In 
1902 they were allotted land in severalty. 

Population. — My estimate for the Kadohadacho division of the 
Caddo before WTiite contact is 2,000. Bienville and La Harpe place 
it in 1700-1709 between 2,000 and 2,500. In 1718, however, Bienville 
asserts that it had fallen to 200 warriors, which would mean about 800 
people, and Sibley (1832) indicates the same figures as late as 1805. 
In 1829 Porter {in Schoolcraft, vol. 3) gives an estimate of 450, and 
in 1851 Stem (1851) who is likely to be reliable, places it at 476, In 
1857 Neighbors returns a partial enumeration of 235, and in 1876, 



320 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

the last time they were returned separately from the Hasinai, the 
Indian Ofl&ce reported 467. It is evident, however, that this also 
includes part of the Hasinai and all of the Adai and Eyeish besides the 
remnants of the Natchitoches group. After this date the population 
of the united Caddo group remained around 500, but during the 
present century it has been steadily increasing and in 1937, 967 were 
reported. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Kadohadacho 
group is noted as containing the tribe which ultimately gave the name 
Caddo to the linguistic family of which it is a part. The name Caddo 
has been applied to a parish and lake in Louisiana; a county in Okla- 
homa; a creek and gap in Arkansas; to the village of Caddo Gap, 
Montgomery County, Ark.; and to villages in Bryan County, Olda., 
and Stephens County, Tex. ; and in Hunt County, Tex., is Caddo Mills. 

Earankawan Tribes. The name Karankawa is derived from one of 
the constituent tribes, but the significance is unknown. 

Nda kun-dad6he, Lipan name, meaning "people walking in the water." 
Quglancouchis, Clamcoets, names given by the French. 
Ydkokon kdpai, Tonkawa, meaning "without moccasins," but this name 
includes the coast Coahuiltecan tribes. 

Connections. — The Karankawan tribes are placed in an independent 
linguistic stock, which was connected most closely, it would seem, 
with the Coahuiltecan group. 

Location. — On the coast of the Gulf of Mexico between Trinity and 
Aransas Bays. 

Subdivisions 

Five principal tribes constituted the Karankawan stock. They were as follows: 

Coapite. 

Coaque or Coco, on Galveston Island and at the mouth of Brazos River. 

Karankawa, on Matagorda Bay. 

Kohani, near the mouth of Colorado River. 

Kopano, on Copano Bay. 

To these should perhaps be added the Tiopane and Tups, and perhaps also the 
Pataquilla, and the Quilotes mentioned by Cabeza de Vaca (1851). 

History. — The Karankawan coast was skirted by a number of early 
voyagers but the first contact with its inhabitants worth noting was 
by Cabeza de Vaca and other shipwrecked members of Pamphilo de 
Narvaez's expedition. There is little doubt that the people among 
whom Cabeza de Vaca was cast away in 1528 were the Coaque or 
Coco. In 1685 La Salle landed in their country supposing that he 
was near the mouth of the Mississippi, and he built a fort (Fort St. 
Louis) in which the French maintained themselves for 2 years. In 
1689 the region was visited by a Spanish expedition under De Leon 
intent upon driving the Frenchmen out of the country. Shortly 



SwANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 321 

afterward the Spaniards began to colonize Texas and, though few 
settlements were made near the coast, missions were established from 
time to time to gather in the Karankawan Indians. The neophytes 
could never be induced to remain long at these missions, however, 
and continued during the Spanish period in about the same condition 
of savagery in which they had been fomid, though they decreased 
steadily in numbers. After the American settlements had begun, the 
coast tribes annoyed them by constant pilfering, and the reprisals 
which the Karankawans suffered finally destroyed them entirely. 
The last are said to have perished shortly before the Civil War. The 
only Karankawan vocabulary of undoubted purity was recorded in 
1720 by the French Captain Beranger. In 1891 Dr. A. S. Gatschet 
published two others, one obtained from Tonkawa Indians and the 
other, much longer, from a white woman named Oliver who had lived 
near the last band of Karankawa in her girlhood and had learned a 
considerable number of words. But this band is said to have been 
much mixed with Coahuiltecan, a contention which an examination 
of the material seems to confirm. 

Population. — Mooney's (1928) estimate of 2,800 for the Karanlvawan 
tribes in 1690 appears to me decidedly too high, but there are prac- 
tically no data upon which to make a satisfactory determination. 

Connection in which they haiie become noted. — The Karankawan 
tribes will be longest remembered as those among which Cabeza de 
Vaca and his companions were cast away in 1528, and where La Salle's 
colony was established in 1685. The name of one Karanlcawan 
tribe (Kopano) is preserved by Copano Bay. 

Kichai or (more phonetically) Kitsei. Their own name and said to 
mean "going in wet sand," but the Pawnee translate their rendering 
of it as "water turtle." Also called: 

Gits'ajl, Kansa name. 

Ki-jii'-tcac, Omaha name. 

Ki6tsash, Wichita name. 

Ki'-tchesh, Caddo name. 

Quichais, Spanish variant. 

Quidehais, from French sources (La Harpe, 1831). 

Connections. — The Kichai were a tribe of the Caddoan stock whose 
language la}' midway between Wichita and Pawnee. 

Location. — On the upper waters of Trinity River, and between that 
stream and Red River. (See also Oklahoma.) 

History. — It is probable that in the prehistoric period the Kichai 
lived north of Red River but they had gotten south of it by 1701 when 
the French penetrated that country and they continued in the same 
general region until 1855. They were then assigned to a small 
reservation on Brazos River, along with several other small tribes. 



322 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

In 1858, however, alarmed at threats of extermination on the part of 
the neighboring Whites, they fled to the present Oklahoma, where they 
joined the Wichita. They have remained with them ever since. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates a total Kichai population of 
500 in 1690. In 1772 the main Kichai village contained 30 houses 
and there were estimated in it 80 warriors, most of whom were young. 
In 1778 the number of Kichai fighting men was estimated at 100, 
The census of 1910 returned a total population of only 10, and that 
of 1930 included them with the Wichita, the figure for the two tribes, 
nearly all Wichita however, being 300. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Their name Kichai is 
perpetuated in the Keeche Hills, Okla.; Keechi Creek, Tex.; a branch 
of the Trinity, Keechi; a post hamlet of Leon County, Tex.; and per- 
haps Kechi, a post township of Sedgwick County, Kans. 

Kiowa. This tribe hunted in and raided across northern Texas. 
(See Kansas.) 

Koasati. Early in the nineteenth century bands of Koasati had 
worked over from Louisiana into Texas, settling first on the Sabine 
and later on the Neches and the Trinity. In 1850 the bulk of the 
entire tribe was in Texas but later, partly it is said on account of 
a pestilence, they suffered heavy losses and most of the survivors 
returned to Louisiana, where the largest single body of Koasati is 
living. Among the Alabama in Polk County, Tex., there were in 
1912 about 10 of this tribe. (See Alabama and Louisiana.) 

Lipan. Adapted from Ipa-n'de, apparently a personal name; n'de 
meaning "people." Also called: 

A-tagui, Kiowa name, meaning "timber Apache"; used also for Mescalero. 

Cances, Caddo name, meaning "deceivers." 

Hu-ta'-ci, Comanche name, meaning "forest Apache" (Ten Kate, 1884, in 

Hodge, 1907). 
Hiixul, Tonkawa name. (See Uxul.) 
Na-izha'fi, own name, meaning "ours," "our kind." 
Nav6ne, Comanche name (Gatschet, MS., B. A. E.). 
Shi'Ini, former Mescalero name, meaning "summer people" (?). 
Tu-tsan-nde, Mescalero name, meaning "great water people." 
Uxul, Tonkawa name, meaning a spiral shell and applied to this tribe 

because of their coiled hair. 
Yabipai Lipan, so called by Garces in 1776. 

Connections. — This is one of the tribes of the Athapascan linguistic 
stock to which the general name Apache was applied. Their closest 
relations politically were with the Jicarilla, with whom they formed 
one Imguistic group. 

Location. — The Lipan formerly ranged from the Rio Grande in 
New Mexico over the eastern part of the latter State and western 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 323 

Texas southeastward as far as the Gulf of Mexico. (See also New 
Mexico and Oklahoma.) 

Subdivisions 

The Lipan were reported during the early part of the nineteenth century to 
consist of three bands, probably the same which Orozco y Berra (1864) calls 
Lipanjenne, Lipanes de Arriba, and Lipanes Abajo. 

History. — The position of the Lipan prior to the eighteenth century 
is somewhat obscure, but during that century and the early part of 
the nineteenth they ranged over the region just indicated. In 1757 
the San Saba mission was estabhshed for them, but it was broken up 
by their enemies, the Comanche and Wichita. In 1761-62 the mis- 
sions of San Lorenzo and Candelaria were organized for the same 
purpose but met a similar fate in 1767. In 1839 the Lipan sided 
with the Texans against the Comanche but suffered severely from the 
Whites between 1845 and 1856, when most of them were driven into 
Coahuila, Mexico. They remained in Coahuila until October 1903, 
when the 19 survivors were taken to northwest Chihauhua, and re- 
mained there until 1905. In that year they were brought to the 
United States and placed on the Mescalero Reservation, N. Mex., 
where they now live. A few Lipan were also incorporated with the 
Tonkawa and the Kiowa Apache. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that the Lipan numbered 
500 in 1690. In 1805 the three bands were reported to number 300, 
350, and 100 men respectively, which would seem to be a too hberal 
allowance. The census of 1910 returned 28. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Lipan were noted 
as persistent raiders into Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico. Their 
name has been given to a post village in Hood County, Tex. 

Muskogee. A few Muskogee came to Texas in the nineteenth century, 
most belonging to the Pakana division. Two or three individuals 
lived until recently near Livingston, Tex. (See Alabama.) 

Nabedache, Nacachau, Nacanish, Nacogdoche, Nadaco, Namidish, 
Nechaui, Neches, and one section of the Nasoni. Small tribes 
or bands belonging to the Hasinai Confederacy (q. v.). 

Nanatsoho, Nasoni (Upper). Small tribes or bands connected with 
the Kadohadacho Confederacy (q. v.). 

Pakana. A Muskogee division. (See Muskogee above and also under 
Alabama.) 

Pascagoula. Bands belonging to the Pascagoula, entered Texas from 
Louisiana early in the nineteenth century, and one baud lived on 
Biloxi Bayou, a branch of the Neches, for a considerable period, 
together with some Biloxi Indians. AU had disappeared in 1912 



324 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

except two Indians, only half Pascagoula, living with the Alabama 
in Polk County. (See Mississippi). 

Patiri. A tribe associated with the Akokisa, Bidai, and Deadose in 
the mission of San Ildefonso west of Trinity River. Since related 
tribes are said to have been put in the same mission in that period 
(1748-49), it is believed that the Patiri spoke an Atakapan language. 
Their former home is thought to have been along Caney Creek. 

Pueblos. There were two late settlements of Pueblo Indians, Isleta 
del Sur and Senecii del Sur, near El Paso, Tex., composed principally 
of Indians brought back by Governor Otermin in 1681 after an 
unsuccessful attempt to subdue the Pueblo Indians of the Rio 
Grande. Senecii del Sur was, however, actually in Chihuahua, 
Mexico. The people of these pueblos are now almost completely 
Mexicanized. (See New Mexico.) 

Quapaw. Between 1823 and 1833 the Quapaw lived with the Caddo 
Indians in northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas, and one 
band of them known as Imaha were reckoned as a constituent ele- 
ment of the Caddo Confederacy. (See Arkansas.) 

Senecfi del Sur. (See Pueblos above.) 

Shawnee. A band of Shav.Tiee entered eastern Texas for a brief 
period during the middle of the nineteenth century. They were 
afterward moved to Oklahoma. (See Tennessee.) 

Shuman. More often known as Jumano or Humano, significance 
unknown. Also called: 

Borrados, from Spanish sources, "striped" (?). 
Chouman, French form of name. 

Humanas, Jumanas, Xumanas, Spanish forms of name. 
Ipataragiiites, from Mota-Padilla, probably intended for this tribe. 
Patarabueyes, given by Espejo in 1582. 

Suma, sometimes regarded as a separate tribe but considered by Sauer 
merely as a synonym. 

Connections. — The eastern division of the Shuman, that to which 
the name Jumano is oftenest applied, was once thought to have be- 
longed to the Caddoan stock, but Sauer (1934) appears to have shown 
that in all probability it was Uto-Aztecan. The western section, 
oftener called Suma, has been classed, erroneously of course, as Tanoan. 

Location. — In early times most of the Shuman lived along the Rio 
Grande between the mouth of the Concho and the present El Paso but 
extending westward as far as the Casas Grandes in Chihuahua. Later 
a part of them entered the Plains in western Texas and eastern New 
Mexico. (See also New Mexico.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 325 

Subdivisions and Villages 

Besides the two main divisions to which the names Shuman or Jumano and Suma 
have been applied respectively, the Suma later became separated into two groups, 
one about El Paso and the other in the region of the Casas Grandes. The only 
villages named are: Atripuy, Genobey, Quelotetrey, and Pataotrey. 

History. — The Shuman were first met by Cabeza de Vaca and his 
companions about the beginning of the year 1536 although De Vaca 
does not mention them by name. In 1582 they were visited by 
Antonio de Espejo and in 1598 by Juan de Onate. At the latter date 
a part of them at least were near the Salinas, east of the Rio Grande in 
what is now New Mexico. About 1622 they were visited by the 
Franciscan missionary of the Pueblo of Isleta, and in 1629 an independ- 
ent mission was established for them. By this time, the eastern sec- 
tion of the tribe had gotten as far east as the Conchos, a headstream of 
the Nueces. About 1670 there were Shuman not far from Pecos 
River, and from that time through the eighteenth century they seem 
to have resided principally in the region indicated. As late as the 
middle of the nineteenth century they are mentioned in connection 
with the Kiowa, and again as living near Lampazas, Nuevo Leon, 
Mexico. Possibly they were the tribe later known as Waco. The 
name of the western Shuman appears in the form Suma as early as 
1630 when it was used by Benavides, and in 1659 some of the northern 
Suma were at San Lorenzo. During the Pueblo revolt of 1680 they 
became hostile and united with the Manso and Jano in an outbreak in 
1684, but they were reduced 2 years later and formed into several 
settlements about El Paso, San Lorenzo being the only one to endure. 
They declined steadily in numbers until in 1897 only one was known to 
be living, at Senecu. The mission of Casas Grandes was established 
among the southern branch of the Suma in 1664. Then and for some 
years afterward they were allied with the Apache and Jocome in raids 
against the Piman tribes west of them, particularly the Opata, but are 
supposed to have been destroyed ultimately by the Apache. 

Population. — In 1582 Espejo believed that the Shuman numbered 
10,000, probably an overestimate. Mooney (1928) does not give 
them separate entry in his estimates' of population. In 1744 the 
northern branch of that part of the tribe called Suma had become re- 
duced to 50 families; in 1765 there were only 21 families; and in 1897 
only one individual was supposed to be left. 

Soacatino, or Xacatin. A tribe met by the companions of De Soto in 
northwestern Louisiana or northeastern Texas. It was undoubtedly 
Caddo but has not been identified satisfactorily with any known 
Caddo tribe. 

Tawakoni. The Tawakoni were a subdivision of the Wichita, or at 
least a tribe closely afl^iated with them. (See Oklahoma.) 



326 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Tonkawan Tribes. The name derived from the most important and 
only surviving tribe of the family. Gatschet (1891 a) says that 
Tonkawa is a Waco word, Tonka weya, meaning "they all stay 
together." The synonyms are not to be confounded with those of 
the Tawakoni. Also called: 

Kddiko, Kiowa name, probably a corruption of Kdikogo, "man-eating men" 

(Gatschet, MS., B. A. E.). 
Kariko, Comanche name, from above. 

KMnahi-pfako, Kiowa name, meaning "maneaters" (Mooney, 1898). 
Konkon6 or Komkom^, early French name. 
Maneaters, common translation of some of above synonyms. 
Midxsfin, Cheyenne name. 

N^mer^xka, Comanche name (Gatschet, MS., B. A. E.). 
Tftskan wdtitch, own name. 

Connections. — The Tonkawan tribes constitute a distinct linguistic 
family but with affinities for the Coahuiltecan and probably Karan- 
kawan and Tunican groups. 

Location. — In central Texas from Cibolo Creek on the southwest to 
within a few miles of Trinity River on the northeast. (See also 
Oklahoma.) 

Subdivisions 

The tribes or bands certainly included under this head were the Tonkawa, 
Yojuane, Mayeye, and Ervipiame, but there should probably be added the Sana, 
Emet, Cava, Toho, Tohaha, Quiutcanuaha, Tenu, Tetzino, Tishin, Tusolivi, and 
Ujuiap, and perhaps also the Nonapho, Sijame, Siraaomo, Muruam, Pulacuam, 
and Choyapin, though the last three at least were probably Coahuiltecan. 

History. — Tribes of Tonkawan stock were undoubtedly encountered 
by Cabeza de Vaca early in the sixteenth century; certainly so if the 
Muruam were Tonkawan for they are evidently his Mariames. In 
1691 the Tonkawa and Yojuane are mentioned by Francisco Casafias 
de Jesus Maria as enemies of the Hasinai (Swanton, 1942, p. 251), and 
in 1714 the Yojuane destroyed the main fire temple of the Hasinai. 
Between 1746 and 1749 the Tonkawa were gathered into missions on 
San Xavier (San Gabriel) River but these were given up in 1756, and 
2 years later the Tonkawa assisted in the destruction of the San Saba 
Mission established for the Apache, From that time until well into 
the nineteenth century the tribe continued to reside in the same 
section, rarely settling down for any considerable period. In 1855 
they and several other Texas tribes were gathered by the United States 
Government on two small reservations on Brazos River. In 1859 
however, the threatening attitude of their white neighbors resulted in 
their removal to Washita River in what is now Oklahoma. On the 
night of October 25, 1862, the Tonkawa camp there was fallen upon 
by a body of Delaware, Shawnee, and Caddo Indians desiring to pay 
off old scores but pretending that the Tonkawa and their agent were 
in sympathy with the Southern Confederacy. Out of about 300 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 327 

Tonkawa 137 were massacred, and the survivors, after some years of 
miserable wandering, were gathered into Fort Griffin, Tex., where they 
might be protected from their enemies. In 1884 all that were left 
were given a small reservation in northern Oklahoma, near the Ponca, 
where their descendants still Uve. 

Population. — Moftney (1928) estimated that in 1690 there were 
about 1,600 Tonkawa. A Spanish estimate of 1778 gives 300 warriors 
but the following year, after an epidemic of smallpox, this is cut in 
half. In 1782, 600 were said to have attended a certain meeting and 
this was only a portion of the tribe. Sibley (1832) estimated that in 
1805 they had 200 men. In 1809 there were said to be 250 families 
and in 1828, 80. In 1847 the official estimate was 150 men. Before 
the massacre of 1862 there were supposed to be about 300 all told, but 
when they were placed on their reservation in 1884 there were only 92. 
In 1908 there were 48 including a few intermarried Lipan; the census 
of 1910 gave 42, but that of 1930 restores the figure to 48, and in 1937 
there were said to be 51. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Tonkawan tribes 
have the following claims to remembrance: (1) On account of the 
uniqueness of their language, (2) for their reputed addiction to can- 
nibalism, (3) on account of the massacre perpetrated upon them 
partly in consequence of this reputation, as above described. The city 
of Tonkawa in Kay County, Okla., perpetuates the name. 

Waco. The Waco were a subtribe or tribe of the Wichita group which 
Hved near the present Waco for a Umited period before removal to 
Oklahoma (q. v.). 

Wichita. The Wichita lived for a time along both sides of Red River 
in northern Texas. (See Oklahoma.) 

NEW MEXICO 

Apache. Probably from §,pachu, "enemy," the Zuni name for the 
Navaho who were designated "Apaches de Nabaju" by the early 
Spaniards in New Mexico. The name has also been applied to 
some Yuman tribes, the Apache Mohave (Yavapai) and the Apache 
Yuma. Also called: 

Ahuddjg, Havasupai name for at least Tonto and White Mountain Apache. 

Ai-a'-ta, Panamint name. 

Atokiiwe, Kiowa name. 

Awdtch or Awdtche, Ute name. 

Chah'-shm, Santo Domingo Keres name. 

Chishye, Laguna name. 

Ha-ma-kaba-mitc kwa-dig, Mohave name, meaning "far-away Mohave." 

H'iwana, Taos name. 

Igihua'-a, Havasupai name. 



328 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Inde or Nde, own name. 

Jarosoma, Pima name (from Kino). 

Mountain Comanche, by Yoakum (1855-56). 

Muxtsuhintan, Cheyenne name. 

Oop, Papago name. 

Op, or Awp, Pima name. 

P6anin, Sandia and Isleta name (Hodge, 1895). 

P'6nin, Isleta name (Gatschet, MS., B. A. E.). 

Shis-Inday, own name meaning "men of the woods," because their winter 
quarters were always in the forest. 

Td-ashi, Comanche name, meaning "turned up," and having reference to 
their moccasins. 

Tagdi, Old Kiowa name. 

Tdguker^sh, Pecos name. 

Tashin, Comanche name (Mooney, 1898). 

Taxkdhe, Arapaho name. 

Thah-a-i-nin', Arapaho name, meaning "people who play on bone instru- 
ments," meaning two bison ribs, one notched, over which the other is 
rubbed. 

Tinna'-ash, Wichita name. 

Tshish6, Laguna name. 

Utce-cI-nyu-mAh or Utsaamu, or Yotchd-eme, Hopi name. 

Xa-he'-ta-no', Cheyenne name meaning "those who tie their hair back." 

Connections. — Together with the Navaho, the Apache constituted 
the western group of the southern division of the Athapascan Hnguistic 
stock (Hoijer, 1938). 

Location. — In southern New Mexico and Arizona, western Texas, 
and southeastern Colorado, also ranging over much of northern 
Mexico. (See also Kansas, Oklahoma, and Mexico.) 

Subdivisions 

On linguistic grounds Hoijer (1938) divides the southern Athapascans into two 
main groups, a western and an eastern. The latter includes the Jicarilla, Lipan, 
and Kiowa Apache, the two former being more closely related to each other than 
either is to the Kiowa Apache. In the western group Hoijer again distinguishes 
two major subdivisions, the Navaho, and the San Carlos-Chiricahua-Mescalero. 
The Navaho are always regarded as a distinct tribe and will be so treated here. 
Separate treatment is also being given to the Jicarilla, Lipan, and Kiowa Apache. 
The rest of the southern Athapascans will be placed under the present head, it 
being freely admitted at the same time that such treatment is mainly a matter of 
convenience and that it is impossible to say how many and what southern 
Athapascan divisions should be given tribal status. What is here called the 
Apache Tribe may be classified as follows with the locations of the divisions, 
basing the scheme on the classifications of Hoijer and Goodwin (1935) : 

1. San Carlos Group: 
San Carlos proper: 

Apache Peaks Band, in the Apache Mountains, northeast of Globe. 
Arivaipa Band, on Arivaipa Creek. 

Pinal Band, between Salt and Gila Rivers in Gila and Pinal Counties. 
San Carlos Band, in the region of San Carlos River between Gila and 
Salt Rivers. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 329 

1. San Carlos Group — Continued. 

White Mountain Group: 

Eastern White Mountain Band, in the region of the upper Gila and Salt 

Rivers in southeastern Arizona. 
Western White Mountain Band, in the same region between the Eastern 

Band and the San Carlos Band. 
Cibecuo Group: 

Canyon Creek Band, centering on Canyon Creek in Gila and Navajo 

Counties. 
Carrizo Band, on Carrizo Creek in Gila County. 
Cibicue Band, on Cibecue Creek between the two last. 
Southern Tonto Group: 

Mazatzal Band, about the Mazatzal Mountains. 

Six semibands: north of Roosevelt Lake; on the upper Tonto Creek; 

between the upper Tonto and the East Verde; west of the preceding 

between the East Verde, Tonto, and Verde; north of the East Verde; 

and from Cherry Creek to Clear Creek. 
Northern Tonto Group: 

Bald Mountain Band, about Bald Mountain, south of Camp Verde. 
Fossil Creek Band, on Fossil Creek between Gila and Yavapai Counties. 
Mormon Lake Band, centering on Mormon Lake south of Flagstaff. 
Oak Creek Band, about Oak Creek south of Flagstaff. 

2. Chiricahua-Mescalero Group: 

Gilenos Group: 

Chiricahua Band, about the Chiricahua Mountains in southeastern 

Arizona. 
Mimbreno Band, centered in the Mimbres Mountains in southwestern 

New Mexico. 
MogoUon Band, about the MogoUon Mountains in Catron and Grant 

Counties, N. Mex. 
Warm Spring Band, at the head of Gila River. 
Mescalero Group: 

Faraon or Apache Band of Pharaoh, a southern division of the Mescalero. 
Mescalero Band, mainly between the Rio Grande and Pecos Rivers, 

N. Mex. 

The term Querecho, as well as Vaquero, was applied rather generally to Apache 
by the Spaniards but probably more particularly to the Mescalero and their 
allies. Under Llanero were included Mescalero, Jicarilla, and even some Coman- 
che. The term Coyotero has been applied to some of the San Carlos divisions 
and recently by Murdock (1941) to all. 

History. — The Apache tribes had evidently drifted from the north 
during the prehistoric period, probably along the eastern flanks of 
the Rocky Mountains. When Coronado encountered them in 1540 
under the name Querechos, they were in eastern New Mexico and 
western Texas, and they apparently did not reach Arizona until after 
the middle of the sixteenth century. They were first called Apache 
by Onate in 1598. After that time their history was one succession 
of raids upon the Spanish territories, and after the United States 
Government had supplanted that of Mexico in the Southwest, the 
wars with the Apache constituted some of the most sensational 



330 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

chapters in our military annals. Except for some Apache in Mexico 
and a few Lipans with the Tonkawa and Kiowa in Oklahoma, these 
people were finally gathered into reservations in New Mexico and 
Arizona. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that all of the Apache 
proper numbered 5,000 in 1680. The census of 1910 gives 6,119 
Apache of all kinds, excluding only the Kiowa Apache, and the 
Report of the United States Indian OflEice for 1923 enumerates 6,630. 
If an increase has actually occurred, it is to be attributed to the 
captives taken by these people from all the surrounding tribes and 
from the Mexicans. The census of 1930 returned 6,537 but this 
includes the Jicarilla and Lipan. The Apache proper would number 
about 6,000. However, the Indian Office Report for 1937 gives 
6,916 exclusive of the Jicarilla. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Apache is one of the 
best-known Indian tribal names. This is due (1) to the warlike 
character of the people bearing it, (2) to their constant depredations 
along the Spanish and American frontiers, and (3) to the severe and 
difficult fighting made necessary before they were forced to give up 
their ancient raiding proclivities. The word has, therefore, been 
taken over to some extent into literature when it is desired to describe 
fierce and ruthless individuals, and in this sense it has been given 
local application to some of the criminal elements of Paris. The 
name Apache is given to villages in Cochise County, Ariz., and Caddo 
County, Okla., and Apache Creek is a place in Catron County, N. Mex. 
Comanche. In the Spanish period, the Comanche raided into and 

across the territory of New Mexico repeatedly. (See Texas.) 
Jemez. Corrupted from Ha'-mish or Hae'-mish, the Keresan name 

of the pueblo. Also spelled Amayes, Ameias, Amejes, Emeges, 

Gemes, etc. Also called: 

Maf-d6c-kT2-ne, Navaho name, meaning "wolf neck." 

Tu'-wa, own name of pueblo. 

Uala-to-hua or Walatoa, own name of pueblo, meaning "village of the 

bear." 
Wong'-ge, Santa Clara and Ildefonso name, meaning "Navaho place." 

Connections. — With the now extinct Pecos, the Jemez constituted 
a distinct group of the Tanoan linguistic family now a part of the 
Kiowa-Tanoan stock. 

Location. — On the north bank of Jemez River, about 20 miles north- 
west of Bernalillo. 

Villages 

The following names of villages have been recorded as formerly occupied by 
the Jemez but the list may contain some duplication: 

Amushungkwa, on a mesa west of the Hot Springs, about 12 miles north of Jemez 
pueblo. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 331 

Ajiyukwinu, north of Jemez pueblo. 

Astialakwa, on the summit of a mesa that separates San Diego and Guadalupe 

Canyons at their mouths. 
Bulitzequa, exact site unknown. 
Catr6o, site not identified. 
Ceca, not identified. 
Guatitruti, not identified. 
Guayoguia, not identified. 
Gyusiwa, one-half mile north of Jemez Hot Springs, on a slope descending to the 

river from the east in Sandoval County. 
Hanakwa, not identified. 

Kiashita, in Guadalupe Canyon, north of Jemez pueblo. 
Kiatsukwa, not identified. 
Mecastria, not identified. 
Nokyuntseleta, not identified. 
Nonyishagi, not identified. 
Ostyalakwa, not identified. 
Patoqua, on a ledge of the mesa which separates Guadalupe and San Diego 

Canyons, 6 miles north of Jemez pueblo. 
Pebulikwa, not identified. 
Pekwiligii, not identified. 
Potre, not identified. 
Seshukwa, not identified. 

Setokwa, about 2 miles south of Jemez pueblo. 
Towakwa, not identified. 
Trea, not identified. 
Tyajuindena, not identified. 
Uahatzae, not identified. 
Wabakwa, on a mesa north of Jemez pueblo. 
Yjar, not identified. 
Zolatungzezhii, not identified. 

Hisiory. — The Jemez came from the north, according to tradition, 
settKng in the valleys of the upper tributaries of the Jemez River 
and at last in the sandy valley of the Jemez proper. Castaneda, 
the chronicler of Coronado's expedition, mentions seven towns be- 
longing to the Jemez tribe besides three in the region of Jemez Hot 
Springs. After they had been missionized they were induced to 
abandon their towns by degrees until about 1622 they became con- 
centrated into the pueblos of Gyusiwa and probably Astialakwa. 
Both pueblos contained chapels, probably dating from 1618, but 
before the Pueblo revolt of 1680 Astialakwa was abandoned and 
another pueblo, probably Patoqua, established. About the middle 
of the seventeenth century, in conjunction with the Navaho, the 
Jemez twice plotted insurrection against the Spaniards. After the 
insurrection of 1680 the Jemez were attacked by Spanish forces led 
successively by Otermin, Cruzate, and Vargas, the last of whom 
stormed the mesa in July 1694, killed 84 Indians, and after destroying 
Patoqua and two other pueblos, returned to Santa F6 with 361 pris- 



332 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

oners and a large quantity of stores. Gyusiwa was the only Jemez 
pueblo reoccupied, but in 1696 there was a second revolt and the 
Jemez finally fled to the Navaho country, where they remained for 
a considerable time before returning to their former home. Then 
they built their present village, called by them Walatoa, "Village of 
the Bear." In 1728, 108 of the inhabitants died of pestilence. In 
1782 Jemez was made a visita of the mission of Sia. In 1838 they 
were joined by the remnant of their relatives, the Pecos Indians from 
the upper Rio Pecos. Their subsequent history has been uneventful. 
Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates the Jemez population at 
2,500 in 1680. In 1890 it was 428; in 1904, 498, including the remnant 
of Pecos Indians; in 1910, 499. In 1930 the entire Tanoan stock 
numbered 3,412. In 1937 the Jemez Indians numbered 648. 

Jicarilla. An Apache tribe which ranged over the northeastern 
corner of New Mexico. (See Colorado.) 

Keresan Pueblos. Keresan is adapted from K'eres, their own desig- 
nation. Also called: 

Biernl'n, Sandia name. 

Cherechos, Ofiate in 1598. 

Drinkers of the Dew, Zufii traditional name. 

Ing-we-pi'-ra^-di-vi-he-ma", San Ildefonso Tewa name. 

Pabiernl'n, Isleta name. 

Connections. — These Indians constituted an independent stock 
having no affiliations with any other. 

Location. — On the Rio Grande, in north central New Mexico, 
between the Rio de los Frijoles and the Rio Jemez, and on the latter 
stream from the pueblo of Sia to its mouth. 

Subdivisions and Villages 

The Keresan Indians are divided dialectically into an Eastern (Queres) Group 
and a Western (Sitsime or Kawaiko) Group, comprising the following pUeblos: 

Eastern (Queres) Group: 

Cochiti, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, 27 miles southwest of Santa F6. 

San Felipe, on the west bank of the Rio Grande about 12 miles above Ber- 
nalillo. 

Santa Ana, on the north bank of the Rio Jemez. 

Santo Domingo, on the east bank of the Rio Grande about 18 miles above 
Bernalillo. 

Sia, on the north bank of Jemez River about 16 miles northwest of Bernalillo. 
Western (Sitsime or Kawaiko) Group: 

Acoma, on a rock mesa or pefiol, 357 feet in height, about 60 miles west of the 
Rio Grande, in Valencia County. 

Laguna, on the south bank of San Jos6 River, in Valencia County. 

In addition to the above principal towns, we have the following ancient towns 
and later out-villages recorded: 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 333 

Former towns of Cochiti and San Felipe: 

At the Potrero de las Vacas. 

At Tyuooyi or Rito de los Frijoles. 

Haatze, near the foot of the Sierra San Miguel, about Cochiti Pueblo. 

Hanut Cochiti, about 12 miles northwest of Cochiti Pueblo. 

Kuapa, in the Cafiada de Cochiti, 12 miles northwest of Cochiti Pueblo. 
Former towns of Santo Domingo: 

At the Potrero de la Cafiada Quemada. 

Gipuy, two towns: (1) on the banks of the Arroyo de Galisteo, more than a 
mile east of the present station of Thornton; (2) west of No. 1. 

Huashpatzena, on the Rio Grande. 
Former towns of Sia: 

Opposite Sia are the ruins of a town called Kakanatzia and south of it another 
called Kohasaya which may have been former Sia settlements. 
Former towns of Acoma: 

Kashkachuti, location unknown. 

Katzimo or the Enchanted Mesa, about 3 miles northeast of the present .\coma 
Pueblo. 

Kowina, on a low mesa opposite the spring at the head of Cebollita Valley, 
about 15 miles west of Acoma. 

Kuchtya, location unknown. 

Tapitsiama, on a mesa 4 or 5 miles northeast of their present pueblo. 

Tsiama, the ruins are situated at the mouth of Canada de la Cruz, at or near 
the present Laguna village of Tsima. 
Later villages: 

Acomita, about 15 miles north of Acoma. 

Heashkowa, about 2 miles southeast of Acoma. 

Pueblito, about 15 miles north of Acoma. 

History. — Like the other Pueblo peoples of New Mexico, the Kere- 
sans traced their origin to the underworld, whence they had emerged 
at an opening called Shipapu. According to the tradition, they after- 
ward drifted south slowly to the Rio Grande, where they took up 
their residence in the Rito de los Frijoles, or Tyuonyi, and constructed 
the cliff dwellings found there today excavated in the friable volcanic 
tufa. Long before the coming of Europeans, they had abandoned 
the Rito and moved farther south, separating into a number of au- 
tonomous viUage communities. Coronado, who visited them in 1540, 
reported seven of these. In 1583 Espejo encountered them and in 
1598 Onate. Missions were estabhshed in most of the principal towns 
early in the seventeenth century, but they were annihilated and 
Spanish dominion temporarily brought to an end by the great Pueblo 
rebellion of 1680, which was not finally quelled until about the end of 
the eighteenth century. Afterward, missionary work was resumed but 
without pronounced success, while the native population itself grad- 
ually declined in numbers. Although some of the most conservative 
pueblos belong to this group, they will not be able indefinitely to resist 
the dissolving force of American civihzation in which they are 
immersed. 



334 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Population. — In 1760 there were 3,956 Keresans;ni 1790-93, 4,021; 
in 1805, 3,653; in 1850, 3,342; in 1860, 2,676; in 1871, 3,317; in 1901-5, 
4,249; in 1910, 4,027; in 1930, 4,134; in 1937, 5,781. 

Kiowa. The Kiowa raided into and across New Mexico in the Spanish 
and early American period. (See Oklahoma.) 

Kiowa Apache. The Kiowa Apache were an Athapascan tribe in- 
corporated into and accompanying the Kiowa. (See Oklahoma.) 

Lipan. The Lipan were the easternmost of the Apache tribes. (See 
Apache and also Texas.) 

Manso. A Spanish word meaning "mild." Also called: 
Gorretas, by Zarate-Salmeron. 
Lanos, by Perea (1632-33). 

Connections. — The Manso belonged to the Tanoan division of the 
Kiowa-Tanoan linguistic stock. 

Location. — About Mesilla Valley, in the vicinity of the present Las 
Cruces, N. Mex. 

Villages 

The mission of Nuestra Sefiora de Guadalupe de los Mansos was founded among 
them but none of the native names of their villages are known. 

History. — Shortly before the appearance of the Spaniards in their 
country, the Manso hved in substantial houses like the Pueblo Indians 
generally but changed these to dwellings of reeds and wood. They 
were relocated at a spot near El Paso in 1659 by Fray Garcia de San 
Francisco, who established the above-mentioned mission among them. 
The remnant of the Manso are now associated in one town with the 
Tiwa and Piro. 

Population. — In 1668, when the mission of Nuestra Sefiora de Gua- 
dalupe de los Mansos was dedicated, Vetancourt states that it con- 
tained upward of 1,000 parishioners. Very few of Manso blood 
remain. 

Navaho, Navajo. From Tewa Navahu, referring to a large area of cul- 
tivated land and applied to a former Tewa pueblo, and by extension 
to the Navaho, known to the Spaniards as "Apaches de Navaj6," 
who intruded on the Tewa domain or who hved in the vicinity, to 
distinguish them from other so-called Apache bands. Also called: 

Bdgowits, Southern Ute name. 
Dacdbimo, Hopi name. 
Ddvaxo, Kiowa Apache name. 
DIn6', own name. 
Djen6, Laguna name. 
Hua'amii'u, Havasupai name. 
I'hl-den6, Jicarilla name. 
Moshome, Keresan name. 
Oop, Oohp, Pima name. 



SW4NTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 335 

Pdgowitch, southern Ute name, meaning "reed knives." 

Ta-cdb-cf-nyu-milh, Hopi name. 

Ta'hli'mnin, Sandia name. 

Tasdmew^, Hopi name (Ten Kate, 1885) meaning "bastards." 

Te'li^mnim, Isleta name. 

Teny^, Laguna name. 

Wild Coyotes, Zuni nickname translated. 

Yabipais Nabajay, Carets (1776). 

Ydtilatldvi, Tonto name. 

Yoetahd or Yutahd, Apache name, meaning "those who live on the border 

of the Ute." 
Yu-i'-ta, Panamint name. 
Yutflapd, Yavapai name. 
Yutilatlawi, Tonto name. 

Connections. — With the Apache tribes, the Navaho formed the 
southern division of the Athapascan Hnguistic family. 

Location. — In northern New Mexico and Arizona with some exten- 
sion into Colorado and Utah. 

History. — Under the loosely appUed name Apache there may be a 
record of this tribe as early as 1598 but the first mention of them by 
the name of Navaho is by Zarate-Salmeron about 1629. Missionaries 
were among them about the middle of the eighteenth century, but 
their labors seem to have borne no fruits. For many years previous 
to the occupation of their country by the United States, the Navaho 
kept up an almost constant predatory war with the Pueblo Indians 
and the \Miite settlers. A revolution in their economy was brought 
about by the introduction of sheep. Treaties of peace made by them 
with the United States Government in 1846 and 1849 were not ob- 
served, and in 1863, in order to put a stop to their depredations, Col. 
"Kit" Carson invaded their country, killed so many of their sheep as to 
leave them without means of support, and carried the greater part of 
the tribe as prisoners to Fort Sumner and the Bosque Redondo on the 
Rio Pecos. They were restored to their country in 1867 and given 
a new supply of sheep and goats, and since then they have remained 
at peace and prospered greatly, thanks to their flocks and the sale of 
their famous blankets. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 8,000 
Navaho in 1680. In 1867 an incomplete enumeration gave 7,300. 
In 1869 there were fewer than 9,000. The census of 1890, taken on 
a faulty system, gave 17,204. The census of 1900 returned more than 
20,000 and that of 1910, 22,455. The report of the United States 
Indian Office for 1923 gives more than 30,000 on the various Navaho 
reservations, and the 1930 census 39,064, while the Indian Oflice 
Report for 1937 entered 44,304. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — This tribe has acquired 
considerable fame from its early adoption of a shepherd life after the 



336 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

introduction of sheep and goats, and from the blankets woven by 
Navaho women and widely known to collectors and connoisseurs. 
The name has become affixed, in the Spanish form Navajo, to a county, 
creek, and spring in Arizona; a post village in Apache County, Ariz.; 
a mountain in New Mexico; and a place in Daniels County, Mont. 
In southwestern Oklahoma is a post village known as Navajoe. The 
tribe has attracted an unusual amount of attention from ethnologists 
and from writers whose interests are purely literary. 

Pecos. From P'e'-a-ku', the Keresan name of the pueblo. Also 
called : 

Acuy^, Cicuy6, probably the name of a former pueblo, Tshiquit6 or 

tziquit^. 
Aqiu, Pecos and Jemez name. 
HiokQo'k, Isleta Tiwa name. 
K'ok'-o-ro-t'ii'-yu, Pecos name of pueblo. 
Los Angeles, mission name. 

Nuestra Senora de los Angeles de Porciuncula, full church name. 
Paego, Keresan name of Pueblo. 
Paequiu or Paequiuala, Keresan name of tribe. 
P'a-qu-lah, Jemez name. 
P^ahko, Santa Ana name. 
PeakQnf, Laguna name of Pueblo. 
Tamos, from Espejo. 

Connections. — The Pecos belonged to the Jemez division of the 
Tanoan linguistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock. 

Location. — On an upper branch of Pecos River, about 30 miles 
southeast of Santa F6. 

Villages 

The following are names of ruined Pecos villages: 
Kuuanguala, a few miles southeast of Pecos, near Arroyo Amarillo, at the present 

site of Rowe. 
Pomojoua, near San Antonio del Pueblo, 3 miles southeast of San Miguel, San 

Miguel Count}'. 
San Jose, modern Spanish name of locality. 
Seyupa, a few miles southeast of Pecos, at the site of the village of Fulton, San 

Miguel County, 
Tonchuun, 5 miles southeast of Pecos Pueblo, 

History. — According to tradition, the Pecos came originally from 
some place to the north of their historic seats, but their last migration 
was from the southeast where they occupied successively the now 
ruined pueblos at San Jos6 and Kingman before locating at their 
final settlement. Pecos was first visited by Coronado in 1540 and 
afterward by Espejo in 1583, Castano de Sosa in 1590-91, and Onate 
in 1598. During the governorship of Onate, missionaries were 
assigned to Pecos, and the great church, so long a landmark of the 
Santa F6 Trail, was erected about 1617. The town suffered severely 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 337 

from attacks of the Apache of the Plains and afterward from the 
Comanche. In the Pueblo revolts of 1680-96 it took an active part 
and suffered proportionately. In 1782 the Pecos mission was aban- 
doned, the place becominj^ a visita of Santa F^. A few years later 
nearly every man in the Pecos tribe is said to have been killed in a 
raid by the Comanche, epidemics decreased the numbers of the 
remainder, and in 1838 the old town of Pecos was abandoned. The 
17 surviving Pecos Indians moved to Jemez, where their descendants 
stiU live. 

Population. — At the time of Coronado's visit in 1540 the population 
was estimated as 2,000-2,500. In 1630 and 1680 there were 2,000 
Pecos; in 1760, 599 (including Galisteo); in 1790-93, 152; in 1805, 
104; in 1838, 17; in 1910, 10. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Pecos seems 
assured of permanent preservation as applied to Pecos River, Tex., 
the largest branch of the Rio Grande, as well as to Pecos County, 
Tex., and its principal town, and also to a place in San Miguel County, 
New Mex., adjacent to the ruins of the aboriginal village. The 
latter are well known as a result of the archeological work done there 
by Dr. A. V. Kidder for the Department of Archeology, Phillips 
Academy, Andover, Mass. 

Piro Pueblos. Significance of Piro unknovrn. Also called: 

Nortefios, "northerners" in Spanish, because inhabiting the region of 

El Paso del Norte (may also refer to Tiwa). 
Tiikahun, Isleta Tiwa name for all pueblos below their village, meaning 

"southern pueblos." 

Connections. — They w^ere a division of the Tanoan linguistic family, 
which in turn is a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock. 

Location and major subdivisions. — In the early part of the seven- 
teenth century the Piro comprised two divisions, one inhabiting the 
Rio Grande Valley from the present town of San Marcial, Socorro 
County, northward to within about 50 miles of Albuquerque, where 
the Tiwa settlements began; and the other, sometimes called Tompiros 
and Salineros, occupying an area east of the Rio Grande in the 
vicinity of the salt lagoons, or salinas, where they adjoined the eastern 
group of Tiwa settlements on the south. 

Towns 

Abo, on the Arroyo del Empedradillo, about 25 miles east of the Rio Grande and 

20 miles south of Manzano, in Valencia County. 
Agua Nueva, on the Rio Grande between Socorro and Servilleta. 
Alamillo, on the Rio Grande about 12 miles north of Socorro. 
Barrancas, on the Rio Grande near Socorro. 
Qualacu, on the east bank of the Rio Grande near the foot of the Black Mesa, 

on or near the site of San Marcial. 



338 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

San Felipe, on the Rio Grande, probably near the present San Marcial, Socorro 

County. 
San Pascual, on the east bank of the Rio Grande, opposite the present San 

Antonio village, Socorro County. 
Senecu, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, at the site of the present village of 

San Antonio, 13 miles below Socorro. 
Senecu del Sur (also Tiwa), on the southeast bank of the Rio Grande, a few miles 

below El Paso, in Chihuahua, Mexico. 
Sevilleta, on the east bank of the Rio Grande about 20 miles above Socorro. 
Socorro or Pilabo, on the site of the present Socorro. 

Socorro del Sur, on both sides of the Rio Grande a few miles below El Paso, Tex. 
Tabira, at the southern apex of the Mesa de los Jumanos, northeast of the present 

Socorro. 
Tenabo, probably at the Siete Arroyos, northeast of Socorro and east of the Rio 

Grande. 
Teypana, nearly opposite the present town of Socorro, on the east bank of the 

Rio Grande, in Socorro Couuty. 
Tenaquel (?). 

Following are names of deserted pueblos near the lower Rio Grande which were 
also in all probability occupied by the Piro: 



Arao. 








Pueblo de la Parida, same location as 


Aponitre. 








Pueblos Blanco and Colorado. 


Aquicabo. 








Pueblo del Alto, on the east side of the 


Atepua. 








Rio Grande, 6 miles south of Belen. 


Ayqui. 








Queelquelu. 


Calciati. 








Quialpo. 


Canocan. 








Quiapo. 


Cantensapu6. 








Quiomaquf. 


Cunquilipinoy. 








Quiubaco. 


Encaquiagualcaca. 








Tecahanqualahdmo. 


Huertas, 4 miles below Socorro. 






Teeytraan. 


Peixol6e. 








Teredo. 


Pencoana. 








Texa. 


Penjeacu. 








Teyaxa. 
Tohol. 


Pesquis. 








Trelagii. 


Peytre. 








Trelaquepu. 


Polooca. 








Trey^y. 


Preguey. 








Treypual, 


Pueblo Blanco, on 


the west rim 


of the 


Trula. 


M6dano, or great sand-flow. 


east 


of 


Tuzahe. 


the Rio Grande. 








Vumahein. 


Pueblo Colorado, 


same location 


as 


Yancomo. 


Pueblo Blanco. 








Zumaque. 


The following deserted pueblos 


were inhabited either by the Piro or the Tiwa: 


Acoli, 








Axauti. 


Aggey. 








Chein. 


Alle. 








Cizentetpi. 


Amaxa. 








Couna. 


Apena. 








Dhiu. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 339 

Mejia, 5 leagues below Isleta. San Francisco, on the lower Rio Grande 

Quanquiz. between El Paso, Tex., and San 

Salineta, 4 leagues from Guadelupe Lorenzo. 

Mission at El Paso, Tex. Xatoe. 

San Bautista, on the Rio Grande, 16 Xiamela (?). 

miles below Sevilleta. Yonalus. 

All the above pueblos not definitely located were probably situated in the 
Salinas in the vicinity of Abo. 

History. — The western or Rio Grande branch of the Piro was visited 
by members of Coronado's Expedition in 1540, by Chamuscado in 
1580, by Espejo in 1583, by Onate in 1598, and by Benavides in 
1621-30. The establishment of missionaries among them began in 
1626, and the efforts of the monks combined with the threats of 
Apache raids to induce the Indians to concentrate into a smaller 
number of towns. The first actual mission work among the Piros 
of the Salinas began in 1629 and was prosecuted rapidly, but before 
the Pueblo rebellion of 1680 Apache raids had become so numerous 
that all of the villages of the Salinas region and Senecu on the Rio 
Grande were abandoned. The Piro were not invited to take part in 
the great rebellion and when Governor Otermin retreated to El Paso 
nearly all of them joined him, while the few who remained subse 
quently scattered. Those who accompanied the governor were 
settled at Senecu del Sur and Socorro del Sur, where their descendants 
became largely Mexicanized. 

Population. — The Piro population was estimated at 9,000 early in 
the sixteenth century, but is now about 60. (See Tewa.) 

Pueblo Indians. A general name for those Indians in the Southwest 
who dwelt in stone buildings as opposed to the tribes living in more 
fragile shelters, pueblo being the word for "town" or "village" in 
Spanish. It is not a tribal or even a stock name, since the Pueblos 
belonged to four distinct stocks. Following is the classification of 
Pueblos made by F. W. Hodge (1910) except that the Kiowa have 
since been connected with the Tanoans and a few minor changes 
have been introduced: 

Kiowa-Tanoan linguistic stock: 
Tewa Group: 

Northern Division: Nambe, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa 

Clara, Pojoaque (recently extinct), Hano. 
Southern Division: Tano (practically extinct). 
Tiwa Group: Isleta, Isleta del Sur (Mexicanized), Sandia, Taos, Picuris. 
Jemez Group: Jemez, Pecos (extinct). 
Piro Group: Senecu, Senecu del Sur (Mexicanized). 
Keresan linguistic stock: 

Eastern Group: San Felipe, Santa Ana, Sia, Cochiti, Santo Domingo. 
Western Group: Acoma, Laguna, and outlying villages. 



340 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

Zunian linguistic stock: 

Zuni Group: Zufii and its outlying villages. 
Shoshonean linguistic stock, part of the Uto-Aztecan stock: 

Hopi Group: Walpi, Sichomovi, Mishongnovi, Shipaulovi, Shongopovi, 
Oraibi. 

The Pueblo Indians in New Mexico are being considered at length 
under the following heads: Jemez, Keresan Pueblos, Piro Pueblos, 
Tewa Pueblos, Tiwa Pueblos, and Zuni; the Hopi are considered under 
Arizona. (See also Colorado, Nevada, and Texas.) 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Pueblo Indians 
have become famous from the fact that, unlike all of their neighbors, 
they lived in communal stone houses and in stone dwellings perched 
along the canyon walls; from their peculiar customs and ceremonies, 
such as the Snake Dance; and from their real and supposed connection 
with the builders of the stone ruins with which their country and 
neighboring parts of the Southwest abound. In recent years they 
have been subjects of interest to artists and writers and an attempt 
has been made to base a style of architecture upon the type of their 
dwellings. They are of historic interest as occupants of one of the 
two sections of the United States first colonized by Europeans. 

Shuman. The Shuman lived at various times in or near the southern 
and eastern borders of New Mexico. (See Texas.) 

Tewa Pueblos. The name Tewa is from a Keres word meaning 
"moccasins." Also called: 

Tu'-ba-na, Taos name. 

Tu'-vSn, Isleta and Sandia name. 

Connections. — They constituted a major division of the Tanoan 
linguistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock. 

Location. — Along the valley of the Rio Grande in the northern part 
of New Mexico, except for one pueblo, Hano, in the Hopi country, 
Arizona. 

Subdivisions 

They consisted of two main branches, the Northern Tewa, from near Santa 
T6 to the mouth of the Rio Chama, including also Hano; and the Southern Tewa 
or Tano, from Santa F4 to the neighborhood of Golden, back from the Rio Grande. 

Towns 
Northern Tewa towns and villages still occupied: 

Hano, the easternmost pueblo of Tusayan, Ariz. 

Nambe, about 16 miles north of Santa Fe, on Nambe River, a small tributary 

of the Rio Grande. 
San Ildefonso, near the eastern bank of the Rio Grande, about 18 miles northwest 

of Santa F6. 
San Juan, near the eastern bank of the Rio Grande 25 miles northwest of Sante Fe. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 341 

Santa Clara, on the western bank of the Rio Grande, about 30 miles above 

Santa F6. 
Tesuque, 8 miles north of Santa F6. 

Towns and villages formerly occupied by the Northern Tewa: 

Abechiu, at a place called Le Puente, on a bluff close to the southern bank of 

Rio Chama, 3 miles southeast of the present town of Abiquiu, Rio Arriba 

County. 
Agawano, in the mountains about 7 miles east of the Rio Grande, on Rio Santa 

Cruz. 
Analco, at the place where there is now the so-called "oldest house," adjacent to 

San Miguel Chapel, in Santa F6. 
Axol, location uncertain. 
Camitria, in Rio Arriba County. 
Chipiinuinge, on a small but high detached mesa between the Canones and 

Polvadera Creek, 4 miles south of Chama and about 14 miles southwest of Abi- 
quiu, Rio Arriba County. 
Chipiwi, location uncertain. 
Chupadero, location uncertain. 
Cuyamunque, on Tesuque Creek, between Tesuque and Pojoaque, about 15 miles 

northwest of Santa Fd. 
Fejiu, at the site of the present Abiquiu on the Rio Chama, Rio Arriba County. 
Fesere, on a mesa west or south of the Rio Chama, near Abiquiu, Rio Arriba 

County. 
Homayo, on the west bank of Rio Ojo Caliente, a small western tributary of the 

Rio Grande, in Rio Arriba County. 
Howiri, at the Rito Colorado, about 10 miles west of the Hot Springs, near Abiquiu, 

Rio Arriba County. 
Ihamba, on the south side of Pojoaque River, between Pojoaque and San Ildefonso 

Pueblos. 
Jacona, a short distance west of Nambe, on the south side of Pojoaque River, 

Santa F6 County. 
Junetre, in Rio Arriba County. 
Kaayu, in the vicinity of the "Santuario" in the mountains about 7 miles east 

of the Rio Grande, on Rio Santa Cruz, Santa F6 County. 
Keguayo, in the vicinity of the Chupaderos, a cluster of springs in a mountain 

gorge, about 4 miles east of Nambe Pueblo. 
Kuapooge, with Analco occupying the site of Santa F6. 
Kwengyauinge, on a conical hill about 15 feet high, overlooking Chama River, 

at a point known as La Puenta, about 3 miles below Abiquiu, Rio Arriba 

County. 
Luceros, partially Tewa. 
Navahu, in the second valley south of the great pueblo and cliff village of Puye, 

west of Santa Clara Pueblo, in the Pajarito Park. 
Navawi, between the Rito de los Frijoles and Santa Clara Canyon, southwest 

of San Ildefonso. 
Otowi, on a mesa about 5 miles west of the point where the Rio Grande enters 

White Rock Canyon, between the Rito de los Frijoles and Santa Clara Canyon, 

in the northeastern corner of Sandoval County. 
Perage, a few rods from the west bank of the Rio Grande, about 1 mile west 

of San Ildefonso Pueblo. 
Pininicangui, on a knoll in a valley about 2 miles south of Puye and 3 miles south 

of Santa Clara Creek, on the Pajarito Plateau, Sandoval County. 



342 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Pojiuuingge, at La Joya, about 10 miles north of San Juan Pueblo. 
Pojoaque, on a small eastern tributary of the Rio Grande, about 18 miles north- 
west of Santa F6. 
Ponyinumbu, near the Mexican settlement of Santa Cruz, in the northern part 

of Santa F6 County. 
Ponyipakuen, near Ojo Caliente and El Rito, about the boundary of Taos and 

Rio Arriba Counties. 
Poseuingge, at the Rito Colorado, about 10 miles west of the hot springs near 

Abiquiu. 
Potzuye, on a mesa west of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, between 

San Ildefonso Pueblo on the north and the Rito de los Frijoles on the south. 
Pueblito, opposite San Juan Pueblo, on the west bank of the Rio Grande in 

Rio Arriba County. 
Pueblo Quemado (or Tano), 6 miles southwest of Santa F6. 
Puye, on a mesa about 10 miles west of the Rio Grande and a mile south of 

Santa Clara Canyon, near the intersection of the boundaries of Rio Arriba, 

Sandoval, and Santa F6 Counties. 
Sajiuwingge, at La Joya, about 10 miles north of San Juan Pueblo, Rio Arriba 

County. 
Sakeyu on a mesa west of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, between 

San Ildefonso Pueblo and Rito de los Frijoles. 
Sandia, not the Tiwa pueblo of that name. 
Santa Cruz, east of the Rio Grande, 30 miles northwest of Santa Fe, at the site 

of the present town of that name. 
Sepawi, in the valley of El Rito Creek, on the heights above the Ojo Caliente 

of Joseph, and 5 miles from the Mexican settlement of El Rito. 
Shufina, on a castlelike mesa of tufa northwest of Puye and separated from it by 

Santa Clara Canyon. 
Teeuinge, on top of the mesa on the south side of Rio Chama, about K mile 

from the river and an equal distance below the mouth of Rio Oso, in Rio Arriba 

County. 
Tejeuingge Ouiping, on the southern slope of the hills on which stands the present 

pueblo of San Juan, on the Rio Grande. 
Tobhipangge, 8 miles northeast of the present Nambe Pueblo. 
Triapf, location uncertain. 
Triaque, location uncertain. 
Troomaxiaquino, in Rio Arriba County. 
Tsankawi, on a lofty mesa between the Rito de los Frijoles on the south and Los 

Alamos Canyon on the north, about 5 miles west of the Rio Grande. 
Tsawarii, at or near the present hamlet of La Puebla, or Pueblito, a few miles 

above the town of Santa Cruz, in southeastern Rio Arriba County. 
Tseweige, location uncertain. 
Tshirege, on the northern edge of the Mesa del Pajarito about 6 miles west of 

the Rio Grande and 7 miles south of San Ildefonso Pueblo. 
Yugeuingge, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, opposite the present pueblo 

of San Juan, near the site of the village of Chamita. 

The following extinct villages are either Tewa or Tano: 

Chiuma, location uncertain. 

Guia, on the Rio Grande in the vicinity of Albuquerque. 
Guika, on the Rio Grande near Albuquerque. 

Penas Negras, on an eminence west of Pecos Road, near the edge of a forest, 8 
miles south-southeast of Santa F6. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 343 

The following were inhabited by either the Tiwa or the Tewa: 

Axoytre, perhaps the same as Axol above? 

Camitre, perhaps the same as Camitria above? 

Paniete, location uncertain. 

Piamato, location uncertain. 

Quiotrdco, probably in Rio Arriba County. 

So far as known the following pueblos belonged to the Southern Tewa: 

Ci^nega (also contained Keresan Indians), in the valley of Rio Santa F6, 12 miles 

southwest of Santa F6. 
Dyapige, southeast of Lamy, "some distance in the mountains." 
Gahsteo, l}i miles southeast of the present hamlet of the name and about 22 miles 

south of Santa F6. 
Guika (or Tewa), on the Rio Grande near Albuquerque. 
Kayepu, about 5 miles south of Galisteo, Santa F6 County. 
Kipana, south of the hamlet of Tejon, in Sandoval County. 
Kuakaa, on the south bank of Arroyo Hondo, 5 miles south of Santa F6. 
Ojana, south of the hamlet of Tejon, Sandoval County. 
Paako, south of the mining camp of San Pedro, Santa F6 County. 
Pueblo Blanco, on the west rim of the M6dano, or great sand-flow, east of the 

Rio Grande. 
Pueblo Colorado, on the south border of the Galisteo plain. 
Pueblo de los Silos, in the Gahsteo Basin, between the Keresan pueblos of the 

Rio Grande and Pecos. 
Pueblo Largo, about 5 miles south of Galisteo. 
Pueblo Quemado (or Tewa), 6 miles southwest of Santa Y6. 
Puerto (or Keresan). 

San Crist6bal, between Galisteo and Pecos. 
San Ldzaro, 12 miles southwest of the present Lamy, on the south bank of the 

Arroyo del Chorro, Santa F^ County. 
San Marcos, 18 miles south-southwest of Santa F6. 
Sempoai, near Golden, Santa F6 County. 
She, about 5 miles south of Galisteo in Santa T6 County. 
Tuerto, near the present Golden City, Santa F6 County, 
Tungge, on a bare slope near the banks of a stream called in the mountains farther 

south Rio de San Pedro; lower down, Ufia de Gato; and in the vicinity of the 

ruins Arroyo del Tunque, at the northeastern extremity of the Sandia Moun- 
tains, in Sandoval County. 
Tzemantuo, about 5 miles south of Galisteo, Santa F6 County. 
Tzenatay, opposite the little settlement of La Bajada, on the declivity sloping 

from the west toward the bed of Santa F6 Creek, 6 miles east of the Rio Grande 

and 20 miles southwest of Santa F6. 
Uapige, east of Lamy Station on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa F6 Railway, 

some distance in the mountains. 

History. — When Coronado passed through the southern end of 
Tewa territory in 1540, he found it had been nearly depopulated by 
the Teya, a warlike Plains tribe, perhaps Apache, about 16 years before. 
The Tewa were next visited by Espejo. In 1630 there were but five 
Southern Tewa towns remaining and those were entirely broken up 
during the Pueblo revolts of L680-96, most of the Indians removing 



344 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

to the Hopi in Arizona, after 1694. The greater part of the remainder 
were destroyed by smallpox early in the nineteenth centmy, though 
there are still a few descendants of this group living in the other pueblos 
along the Rio Grande, particularly Santo Domingo. The history of 
the NorthernTewa was similar to that of the Southern but they suffered 
much less and remain a considerable body at the present day though 
with a stationary population. The Pueblo of Hano was established 
among the Hopi as a result of the rebellion of 1680-92. 

Populations. — The population of the Northern Tewa is given as 
follows: In 1680, 2,200; in 1760, 1,908; in 1790-93, 980; in 1805, 929; 
in 1850, 2,025; in 1860, 1,161; in 1871, 979, in 1901-05, 1,200; in 1910, 
968. In 1930 the entire Tanoan stock numbered 3,412. In 1937, 
1,708 were returned from the Tewa excluding the Hano, which were 
enumerated with the Hopi. 

In 1630 Benavides estimated the Southern Tewa population at 
4,000; in 1680 Galisteo, probably including San Crist6bal, had an 
estimated population of 800 and San Marcos of 600. No later separate 
figures are available. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — Tano, the alternative 
name of the Southern Tewa, has been used as a designation of the stock 
to which the entire group — Tewa, Tiwa, Piro, Pecos, and Jemez — 
belong, a stock now merged with the Kiowa-Tanoan. 

Tiwa Pueblos. The name Tiwa is from TiVan, pi. Tiwesh', their 
own name. Also spelled Tebas, Tigua, Tiguex, Tihuas, Chiguas. 
Also called: 

E-nagh-magh, a name given by Lane (in Schoolcraft, 1851-57) to the 
language of "Taos, Picuris, Tesuqua, Sandia," etc. 

Connections. — The Tiwa Pueblos are a division of the Tanoan lin- 
guistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock. 

Location and Subdivisions. — The Tiwa Pueblos formed three geo- 
graphic divisions, one occupying Taos and Picuris (the most northerly 
of the New Mexican Pueblos) , on the upper waters of the Rio Grande ; 
another inhabiting Sandia and Isleta, north and south of Albuquerque 
respectively; and the third Uving in the pueblos of Isleta del Sur and 
Senecu del Sur, near El Paso, Tex., in Texas and Chihuahua, Mexico, 
respectively. 

Towns and Villages 
(As far as known) 

Alameda, on the east side of the Rio Grande about 10 miles above Albuquerque. 
Bejuituuy, near the southern limit of the Tiwa habitat on the Rio Grande, at the 

present Los Lunas. 
Carfaray, supposed to have been east of the Rio Grande beyond the saline lakes. 
Chilili, on the west side of the Arroyo de Chilili, about 30 miles southeast of 

Albuquerque. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 345 

Isleta, on the west bank of the Rio Grande about 12 miles south of Albuquerque. 

Isleta del Sur, on the northeast side of the Rio Grande, a short distance below 
El Paso, Tex. 

Kuaua, north of the present bridge across the Rio Grande above Bernalillo. 

Lentes, on the west bank of the Rio Grande near Los Lunas. 

Manzano, near the present village so called, 6 miles northwest of Quarai and about 
25 miles east of the Rio Grande. 

Mojualuna, in the mountains above the present Taos Pueblo. 

Nabatutuei, location unknown. 

Nachurituei, location unknown. 

Pahquetooai, location unknown. 

Picuris, inhabited, about 40 miles north of Santa F6. 

Puaray, on a gravelly bluff overlooking the Rio Grande in front of the southern 
portion of the town of Bernalillo. 

Puretuay, on the summit of the round mesa of Shiemtuai, or Mesa de las Padillas, 
3 miles north of Isleta. 

Quarai, about 30 miles straight east of the Rio Grande, in the eastern part of Valen- 
cia County. 

San Antonio, east of the present settlement of the same name, about the center 
of the Sierra de Gallego, or Sierra de Carnu6, between San Pedro and Chilili, 
east of the Rio Grande. 

Sandia, inhabited, on the east bank of the Rio Grande, 12 miles north of Albu- 
querque. 

Santiago, probably about 12^ miles above Bernalillo, on the Mesa del Cangelon. 

Senecu del Sur, including Piro Indians, on the southeastern bank of the Rio Grande, 
a few miles below El Paso, in Chihuahua, Mexico, 

Shumnac, east of the Rio Grande in the vicinity of the present Mexican settle- 
ments of Chilili, Tajique, and Manzano. 

Tajique, about 30 miles northeast of Belen, close to the present settlement of the 
same name, on the southern bank of the Arroyo de Tajique. 

Taos, inhabited, on both sides of Taos River, an eastern tributary of the Rio 
Grande, in Taos County. 

The following pueblos now extinct were probably also Tiwa: 

Locations entirely unknown: Locations known: 

Acacafui. Ranchos, about 3 miles from Taod 

Guayotrf. Pueblo. 

Henicohio. Shinana, on the Rio Grande near 

Leyvia. Albuquerque. 

Paniete. Tanques, also on the Rio Grande near 

Poxen. Albuquerque. 

Trimati. Torreon, at the modern town of the 

Tuchiamas. same name, about 28 miles east of 

Vareato. Belen. 

History. — The first two Tiwa divisions above mentioned occupied 
the same positions when Coronado encountered the Tiwa in 1540-42. 
Relations between his followers and the Indians soon became hostile 
and resulted in the capture of two pueblos by his army. In 1581 
three missionaries were sent to the Tiwa under an escort but all were 
killed as soon as the escort was withdrawn. In 1583 Espejo approached 
Puaray, which Coronado had attacked, but the Indians fled. Cas- 



346 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

tano de Sosa visited the Tiwa in 1591 and Ofiate in 1598. Missionary- 
work was begun among them early in the seventeenth century, and the 
Indians were withdrawn progressively until only four pueblos were 
occupied by them at the time of the great rebellion of 1G80, in which 
ihej took part. In 1681 Governor Otermin stormed Isleta and cap- 
tured 500 Indians most of whom he settled near El Paso. Part of the 
Isleta fled to the Hopi country and remained there until 1709 or 1718, 
when the people of Isleta returned and reestablished their town. The 
Sandia Indians, however, remained away until 1742, when they were 
brought back by some missionaries and settled in a new pueblo near 
their former one. Since then there have been few disturbances of 
importance, but the population until very lately slowly declined. 

Population. — In 1680 there were said to be 12,200 Tiwa; in 1760, 
1,428 were reported; in 1790-93, 1,486; in 1805, 1,491; in 1850, 1,575; 
m 1860, 1,163; in 1871, 1,478; m 1901-5, 1,613; in 1910, 1,650; in 1937, 
2,122. (See Tewa Pueblos.) 

Ute. The Ute were close to the northern border of New Mexico, 
extending across it at times and frequently raiding the tribes of the 
region and the later white settlements. (See Utah.) 

Zufii. A Spanish adaptation of the Keresan Siinyyitsi, or Su'nyitsa 
of unknown meaning. Also spelled Juni. Synonyms are: 

A'shiwi, own name, signifying "the flesh." 

Cibola, early Spanish rendering of A'swiwi. 

La Purisima de Zuni, mission name. 

Nai-t6'-zi, Navaho name. 

Narsh-tiz-a, Apache name. 

Nashtezhg, Navaho name. 

Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe de Zuni, mission name. 

Saraf, Isleta and Sandia name of the pueblo; Sardn, Isleta name of the 

people. 
Saray, Tiwa name of the pueblo. 
Sa'u'u, Havasupai name. 

Siete Ciudades de Cibola, or Seven Cities of Cibola. 
Sti'nyitsa, Santa Ana name of the pueblo. 
Siinyftsi, Laguna name. 

TSa Ashiwani, sacred name of tribe, signifying "corn peoples." 
Xaray, the Tiwa name. 
Ze-gar-kin-a, given as Apache name. 

Connections. — The Zuni constitute the Zunian linguistic stock. 
Location. — On the north bank of upper Zuni River, Valencia 
County. 

Villages 

Halona (extinct), on both sides of Zuni River, on and opposite the site of Zuni 

Pueblo. 
Hampasawan (extinct), 6 miles west of Zuni Pueblo. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 347 

Hawikuh (extinct), about 15 miles southwest of Zuni Pueblo, near the summer 
village of Ojo Caliente. 

Heshokta (extinct), on a mesa about 5 miles northwest of Zuni Pueblo. 

Heshota Ayathltona (extinct), on the summit of Taaiyalana, or Seed Mountain, 
commonly called Thunder Mountain, about 4 miles southeast of Zuiii Pueblo. 

Heshota Hluptsina (extinct), between the "gateway" and the summer village of 
Pescado, 7 miles east of Zuni Pueblo. 

Heshota Imkoskwin (extinct), near Tawyakwin, or Nutria. 

Heshotapathltaie, or Kintyel, on Leroux Wash, about 23 miles north of Navaho 
Station, on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa F6 Railway, Ariz. 

Heshota Uhla (extinct), at the base of a mesa on Zuni River, about 5 miles west of 
the summer village of Ojo Pescado, or Heshotatsina. 

Kechipauan (extinct), on a mesa east of Ojo Caliente, or Kyapkwainakwin, 15 
miles southwest of Zuni Pueblo. 

Kiakima (extinct), at the southwestern base of Thunder Mountain, 4 miles south- 
east of Zuiii Pueblo. 

Kwakina (extinct), 7 miles southwest Of Zuili Pueblo. 

Kwakiuawan (extinct), south-southeast of Thunder Mountain, which lies 4 miles 
east of Zuiii Pueblo. 

Matsaki (extinct), near the northwestern base of Thunder Mountain and 3 miles 
east of Zufii Pueblo. 

Nutria, at the headwaters of an upper branch of Zuiii River, about 23 miles north- 
east of Zuiii Pueblo. 

Ojo Caliente, about 14 miles southwest of Zuni Pueblo. 

Pescado, about 15 miles east of Zuiii Pueblo. 

Pinawan (extinct), about V/z miles southwest of Zuiii Pueblo, on the road to Ojo 
Caliente. 

Shopakia (extinct), 5 miles north of Zuni Pueblo. 

Wimian (extinct), 11 miles north of Zuiii Pueblo. 

History. — According to Gushing (1896), the Zufii are descended from 
two peoples, one of whom came originally from the north and was 
later joined by the second, from the west or southwest (from the 
country of the lower Colorado), who resembled the Yuman and Piman 
peoples in culture. Although indefinite rumors of an Indian province 
in the far north, containing seven cities, were afloat in Mexico soon 
after its conquest, the first definite infonnation regarding the Zuni 
was supplied by Fray Marcos de Niza, who set out in 1539, with a 
Barbaiy Negro named Estevanico as guide, to explore the regions of 
the northwest. In the present Arizona he learned that Estevanico 
who, together with some of his Indian companions, had been sent on 
ahead, had been killed by the natives of "Cibola," or Zufii. After 
approaching within sight of one of the Zuni pueblos, Fray Marcos 
returned to Mexico with such glowing accounts of the "Kingdom of 
Cibola" that the expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado was 
fitted out the next year. The first Zufii Indians were encountered near 
the mouth of Zuni River, and the Spaniards later carried the Zufii 
pueblo of Hav/ikuh by storm, but it was discovered that the Indians 
had already moved their women and children, together with the 



348 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 143 

greater part of their property, to their stronghold on Taaiyalone Mesa. 
Thither the men also escaped. The invaders were bitterly dis- 
appointed in respect to the riches of the country, and, after the arrival 
of the main part of the army, they removed to the Rio Grande to go 
into winter quarters. Later, Coronado returned and subjugated the 
Zuiii. 

In 1580 the Zuiii were visited by Francisco Sanchez Chamuscado, 
and in 1583 by Antonio de Espejo, the first to call them by the 
name they commonly bear. By this time one of the seven original 
pueblos had been abandoned. In 1598, the Zuni were visited by 
Juan de Onate, the colonizer of New Mexico. The first Zuni mission 
was established by the Franciscans at Hawikuh in 1629. In 1632 the 
Zuni murdered the missionaries and again fled to Taaiyalone Mesa, 
where they remained until 1635. On August 7, 1670, the Apache or 
Navaho raided Hawikuh, killed the missionary, and burned the 
church. The mission was not reestablished, and it is possible that the 
village itself was not rebuilt. In 1680 the Zuni occupied but three 
villages, excluding Hawikuh, the central mission being at Halona, on 
the site of the present Zuni pueblo. They took part in the great re- 
bellion of 1680 and fled to Taaiyalone Mesa, where they remained until 
their reconquest by Vargas in 1692. From this time on the people 
were concentrated in the single village now known as Zuni, and a 
church was erected there in 1699. In 1703 they killed the missionary 
and again fled to their stronghold, returning in 1705. A gaiTison was 
maintained at Zuni for some years after this, and there were troubles 
with the Hopi, which were finally composed in 1713. The mission 
continued well into the nineteenth century, but the church was visited 
only occasionally by priests and gradually feU into ruins. In recent 
yeai"s the United States Government has built extensive irrigation 
works and established a large school, where the younger generation are 
being educated in the ways of civilization. 

Population. — In 1630 the Zuni population was estimated at 10,000, 
probably much too high a figure; and in 1680, at 2,500. In 1760 it was 
given as 664; in 1788, 1,617; in 1797-98, 2,716; in 1805, 1,470; inl871, 
1,530; in 1889, 1,547; in 1910, 1,667; in 1923, 1,911; in 1930, 1,749; 
in 1937, 2,080. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — The Zuni have become 
widely loiowTi (1) from their association with the "Kingdom of Ci- 
bola"; (2) from the size of the pueblo and the unique character of the 
language spoken there; and (3) from the close study made of them by 
Gushing, Mrs. Stevenson, Kroeber, and others. The name Zuni is 
borne by a detached range of mountains in the northwestern part of 
New Mexico. Besides Zuni post village in McKinley County, N. Max., 
there is a place named Zuni in Isle of Wight County, Va. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 349 

ARIZONA 
Apache. Bands of Apache occupied the Gila River region in Arizona 

within historic times and periodically overran much of the territory 

of the State. (See New Mexico.) 
Cocopa. Significance of name unknown. 

Connections. — The Cocopa belong to the Yuman linguistic family, 
a branch of the Hokan stock. 

Location. — About the mouth of Colorado River. (See also Mexico.) 

Subdivisions 

River Cocopa and Mountain Cocopa. Cuculato and Llagas are also men- 
tioned, the latter a name applied by the Spaniards to a group of villages. 

Villages 

GiflFord (1923) reports as follows: "Settlement sites on W. bank of Colorado 
from Hardy confluence N. (when river flowed near Colonia Lerdo) : 1, A'u'ewawa; 
2, Kwinyakwa'a; 3, Yishiyul, settlement of Halyikwamai in 1848; 4, Heyauwah, 
5 miles N. of Yishiyul and opposite Colonia Lerdo (8 hours' slow walk from 
Colorado-Hardy confluence); 5, Amanyochilibuh; 6, Esinyamapawhai CNoche Buena 
of the Mexicans)." There was also a tovra called Hauwala below or above No. 5. 

"Settlement sites on W. bank of Hardy from confluence N.: 1, Karukhap; 2, 
Awiahamoka; 3, Niimischapsakal; 4, EweshespiL; 5, Tamanikwawa, (meaning 
'mullet (tamanik) place') on lagoon 4 or 5 miles SE of Cocopah mts; 6, 'wikukapa 
(Cocopa mt.); 10, Wclsul; 11, Awisinyai, northernmost Cocopa village, about 5 
miles S. of Mexicali. 

"Lumholtz (p. 251) lists following Cocopa settlements in the first decade of 
20th century; Noche Buena (20 families), Mexical (40-50 families), Pescador (15 
families), Pozo Vicente (more than 100 families)." 

History. — Without question this tribe was first met by Hernando de 
Alarc6n in 1540. They are mentioned by Onate in 1604-5, by Kino 
in 1701-2 under the name "Hogiopas," and by Francisco Garc6s in 
1776. Most of their territory was outside of the limits of the United 
States, but a small part of it passed under United States Government 
control with the Gadsden Purchase. Those Cocopa who remained on 
the northern side of the International Boundary were placed on the 
Colorado River Reservation. 

Population. — Garc6s estimated 3,000 in 1776. In 1857 Heintzelman 
placed the former strength of the tribe at about 300 warriors. There 
are now said to be 800 in northern Baja California. There were 99 
in the United States in 1930, and 41 in 1937. 

Halchidhoma. Significance unknown. 

Connections. — The Halchidhoma belonged to the Yuman branch of 
the Hokan Unguistic stock and are said to have spoken the same 
language as the Yuma tribe and to have been closely connected also 
with the Maricopa. 

Location. — At various points on the Colorado River near the mouth 
of the Gila. (See also California.) 



350 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Villages 

Asumpci6n, a group of villages on or near the Colorado River, in California, more 

than 50 miles below the mouth of Bill Williams Fork. 
Lagrimas de San Pedro, a group of villages in the neighborhood of Asumpci6n. 
San Antonio, in the same general location as Lagrimas but only 35 or 40 miles 

below the mouth of Bill Williams Fork. 
Santa Coleta, a group of villages in the same region as Asumpci6n and Lagrimas 

de San Pedro. 

History. — The Halchidhoma were probably encountered by Alarc6n 
in 1540, though he does not mention them. In 1604-5 Onate found 
them occupying eight villages on the Colorado below the mouth of the 
GUa; Father Eusebio Kino in 1701-2 came upon them above the 
Gila, and by Garc6s' time (177B) their villages were scattered on both 
sides of the Colorado, beginning about 38 miles below Bill WiUiams' 
Fork and extending the same distance downstream. Later they 
moved farther north, along with the Kohuana, but were soon forced 
downstream again by the Mohave and ultimately took refuge with 
the Maricopa on Gila River, by whom they were ultimately absorbed. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates 3,000 in 1680, but this is 
evidently based on Garc6s' figure of 2,500 in 1776, which Kroeber 
(1920) believes much too high. Kroeber suggests about 1,000 as of 
the year 1770. 

Halyikwamai. Significance unknown. Also spelled Jallicumay, 

Quigyuma, Tlalliguamayas, Kikima (by Mason, 1940), and in 

various other ways. 

Connections. — The Halyikwamai belonged to the Yuman linguistic 
stock, their dialect being reported as close to Cocopa and Kohuana. 

Location. — (See History.) 

Villages 

Presentacion, probably Quigyuma, on the west side of the Colorado River, in 

Baja California, 
San Casimiro, probably on the east bank of the Colorado River, above tidewater, 

in northwest Sonora, Mexico. 
San Felix de Valois, apparently on the east bank of the Rio Colorado, between its 

mouth and the junction of the Gila, probably about the present Arizona-Sonora 

boundary line. 
San Rudesindo, probably on the east bank of the Colorado River, just above its 

mouth, in northwestern Sonora, Mexico. 
Santa Rosa, a group of villages on the eastern side of the lower Rio Colorado, 

about latitude 32° 18' N., in northwestern Sonora, Mexico. 

History. — The Halyikwamai were discovered in 1540 by Alarc6n, 
who calls them Quicama. In 1604-5 Onate found them in villages on 
the Colorado River below the mouth of the Gila River and above the 
Cocopa Indians. In 1762 they dwelt in a fertile plain, 10 or 12 leagues 
in length, on the eastern bank of the Colorado, and here they were 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 351 

found by Father Garc^s in 1771 in a group of villages which he named 
Santa Rosa. By 1775, when he revisited the tribe, they had moved to 
the west side of the river, their first villages on the north being in the 
vicinity of Ogden's Landing, about latitude 32°18' N., adjacent to the 
Kohuana. It is probable that they were finally absorbed by the 
Cocopa or some other Yuman people. 

Population. — -Mooney (1928) estimates a population for the Hal3^ik- 
wamai in 1680 of 2,000, which is Garces' estimate in 1775. Oiiate esti- 
mated 4,000-5,000 in 1605, but all of these figm'es are probably much 
too high. 

Havasupai. Signifying "blue (or green) water people," abbreviated 
into Supai. Also called: 

Ak'-ba-su'-pai, Walapai form of name. 

Ka'nlna, Coconino, Cosnino, Kokonino, Zuni name said to have been 

borrowed from the Hopi and to signify "pinon nut people." 
Nation of the Willows, so called by Gushing. 
Yabipai Jabesua, so called by Carets in 1776. 

Connections. — The Havasupai belong to the Yuman branch of the 
Hokan linguistic stock, being most closely connected with the Walapai, 
and next with the Yavapai. 

Location. — They occupy Cataract Canyon of the Colorado River, 
northwestern Arizona. 

History. — The nucleus of the Havasupai Tribe is believed to have 
come from the Walapai. The Cosnino caves on the upper Rio Verde, 
near the northern edge of Tonto Basin, central Arizona, were named 
for them, from a traditional former occupancy. Garces may have met 
some of these Indians in 1776, but definite notices of them seem to be 
lacking until about the middle of the last century. Leroux (1888) 
appears to have met one of this tribe in 1851, and since then they 
have come increasingly to the knowledge of the Whites. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates about 300 Havasupai in 
1680, but Spier (1928) believes this figure somewhat too high. In 
1869, 300 were reported; in 1902, 233; in 1905, 174; in 1910, 174; and 
in 1923, 184. In 1930, with the Walapai and Yavapai, they num- 
bered 646. In 1937 the number estimated was 208. 

Hopi. Contracted from their own name H6pitu, "peaceful ones," 
or Hdpitu-shinumu, "peaceful all people." Also called: 

A-ar-ke, or E-ar'-ke, Apache name, signifying "live high up on top of the 

mesas." 
Ah-mo-kdi, Zuni name. 
Ai-yah-kin-nee, Navaho name. 

A'-mu-kwi-kwe, Zuni name, signifying "smallpox people." 
Asay or Osay, by Bustamante and Gallegos (1582). 
Bokeaf, Sandia Tiwa name. 



352 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

Buhk'h6rk, Isleta Tiwa name for Tusayan. 

Bukfn, Isleta name for the people. 

Eyanini din6, Navaho name (Gatschet). 

Hapeka, a Zuni name, referring to excrement. 

Joso, Tewa name. 

Khoso, Santa Clara name. 

Kosho, Hano Tewa name. 

K'o-so-o, San Ildefonso Tewa name. 

Maastoetsjkwe, given by Ten Kate, signifying "the land of Mdsaw6," god 

of the earth, given as the name of their country. 
Mastutc'kwe, same as preceding. 
Moki, signifying "dead" in their own language, but probably from some 

other, perhaps a Keresan dialect. 
Topin-keua, said to be a Zuni name of which Tontonteac is a corruption. 
Tusayan, name of the province in which the Hopi lived, from Zufii Usaya- 

kue, "people of Usaya," Usaya referring to two of the largest Hopi 

villages. 
Whiwunai, Sandia Tiwa name. 

Connections. — The Hopi constitute a peculiar dialectic division of 
the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family, and they 
are the only Shoshonean people, so far as known, who ever took on a 
Pueblo culture, though the Tanoans are suspected of a remote 
Shoshonean relationship. 

Location. — On Three Mesas in northeastern Arizona. 

Towns 

Awatobi (destroyed), on a mesa about 9 miles southeast of Walpi. 
Hano, occupied by Tewa (see Tewa Pueblos under New Mexico). 
Homolobi, near Winslow, was formerly occupied by the ancestors of various Hopi 

clans. 
Kisakobi, at the northwest base of the East Mesa. 
Kuchaptuvela, on the terrace of the First or East Mesa below the present Walpi 

village. 
Mishongnovi, on the Second or Middle Mesa. 

Moenkapi, about 40 miles northwest of Oraibi, a farming village of Oraibi. 
Oraibi, on the Third or West Mesa. 
Shipaulovi, on the Second or Middle Mesa. 
Shongopovi, on the Second or Middle Mesa. 
Sichomovi, on the First or East Mesa. 
Walpi, on the First or East Mesa. 

Kisatobi and Kuchaptuvela were successively occupied by the ancestors of the 
Walpi before the later Walpi was built. 

History. — According to tradition, the Hopi are made up of peoples 
who came from the north, east, and south. Their first contact with 
Europeans was in 1540, when Coronado, then at Zuni, sent Pedro de 
Tobar and Fray Juan de Padilla to visit them. They were visited 
by Antonio de Espejo in 1583, and in 1598 Juan de Onate, governor 
and colonizer of New Mexico, made them swear fealty and vassalage 
to the King of Spain. In 1629 a Franciscan mission was established 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 353 

at Awatobi, followed by others at Walpi, Shongopovi, Mishongnovi, 
and Oraibi. These were destroyed in the general Pueblo outbreak of 
1680, and an attempt to reestablish a mission at Awatobi in 1700 led 
to its destruction by the other pueblos. The pueblos of Walpi, Mish- 
ongnovi, and Shongopovi, then situated in the foothills, were prob- 
ably abandoned about the time of the rebellion, and new villages were 
built on the adjacent mesas for defense against a possible Spanish 
attack which did not materialize. After the reconquest of the Rio 
Grande pueblos by Vargas, some of the people who formerly occupied 
them fled to the Hopi and built a pueblo called Payupki on the Middle 
Mesa. About the middle of the eighteenth century, however, they 
were taken back and settled in Sandia. About 1700 Hano was 
established on the East Mesa, near Walpi, by Tewa from near Abi- 
quiu, N. Mex., on the invitation of the Walpians. About the time 
when the Payupki people returned to their old homes, Sichomovi was 
built on the First Mesa by clans from the Rio Grande, and Shipaulovi 
was founded by a colony from Shongopovi. The present Hopi 
Reservation was set aside by Executive order on December 16, 1882. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates a Hopi population of 2,800 
m 1680. In 1890 the population of Oraibi was 905, and in 1900 the 
other pueblos (exclusive of Hano) had 919. In 1904 the total Hopi 
population was officially given as 1,878. The Census of 1910 re- 
turned 2,009, apparently including Hano, and the Report of the 
United States Indian Office for 1923 gave 2,336. The United States 
Census of 1930 returned 2,752. In 1937 there were 3,248, including 
the Tewan Hano. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — The Hopi are noted 
as a tribe Shoshonean in language but Puebloan in culture, and also 
deserve consideration as one of the Pueblo divisions to which particular 
attention has been paid by ethnologists, including Fewkes, the Steven- 
sons, Hough, Voth, Forde, Lowie, etc. Great popular attention has 
been drawn to them on account of the spectacular character of the 
Snake Dance held every 2 years. 

Kohuana. Significance unknown. Also given as Cajuenche, Cawina, 
and Quokim. 

Connections. — The Kohuana belonged to the Yuman branch of the 
Hokan linguistic stock, spoke the Cocopa dialect, and were also closely 
connected with the Halyikwamai. 

Location. — In 1775-76 the Kohuana lived on the east bank of the 
Colorado River below the mouth of the Gila, next to the Halyik- 
wamai, theu' villages extending south to about latitude 32°33' N., and 
into southern California, at about latitude 33°08' N., next to the 
eastern Diegueno. (See also Mexico.) 



354 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Villages 

Merced, a group of rancherias in northeastern Baja California, west of the 
Colorado and 4 leagues southwest of Santa Olalla, a Yuma village. 

San Jacome, probably Cajuenche, near the mountains, about latitude 33°8' N., 
in southern California. 

San Sebastian, Cajuenche or Diegueiio, in southern California, latitude 33°8' N., 
evidently at Salton Lake. 

History. — The Kohuana are the Coana mentioned by Hernando de 
Alarc6n, who ascended the Colorado River in 1540. Juan de Onate 
visited them in 1604-5, and they are probably the Cutganas of Kino 
(1701-2), while Francisco Garc^s in 1776 reported that they were 
numerous and at enmity with the Cocopa. From Mohave tradition, 
it appears that at a somewhat later period they lived along the river 
near Parker together with the Halchidhoma, whom they followed to 
the fertile bottom lands higher up. Later the Mohave crowded them 
southward but still later compelled them to return to the Mohave 
country where they remained for 5 years. At the end of that period 
they determined to go downstream again to live with the Yuma; but, 
one of their number having been killed by the Yuma, they jomed the 
Maricopa, with whom they ultimately became merged. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,000 
Kohuana in 1680, the figure given by Garc^s in 1775-76. Kroeber 
(1920) believes these estimates are too high. In 1851 Bartlett re- 
ported 10 of this tribe living with the Maricopa, and, according to a 
Mohave informant of Kroeber's, there were 36 about 1883. 

Maricopa. Significance of the name unknown. Also called: 

Atchihwa', Yavapai name (Gatschet 1877-92). 
Cocomaricopa, an old form. 
Cohpdp, or Awo-pa-pa, Pima name. 
Pipatsje, own name, signifying "people." 

Si-ke-na, Apache name for Pima, Papago, and Maricopa, signifying "liv- 
ing in sand houses." 
Td'hba, Yavapai name (Gatschet, 1877-92). 
Tchihogdsat, Havasupai name. 
Widshi itfkapa, Tonto name, also applied to Pima and Papago. 

Connections. — The Maricopa belong to the Yuman linguistic stock, 
a part of the Hokan family, and are said to be related most closely 
to the Yuma tribe proper and the Halchidhoma. 

Location. — On Gila River, with and below the Pima, to the mouth 
of the river. Anciently they are said to have had some rancherias in 
a valley west of the Colorado. 



SWANTON] 



INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 



355 



Villages 



The following villages were all on the 

Aicatum. 

Ainoque. 

Aopomue. 

Aqui. 

Aquimundurech. 

Aritutoc, on the north side at or near 
the present Oatman flat and the 
Great Bend of the river. 

Atiahigui. 

Aycate. 

Baguiburisac, probably Maricopa, near 
the Gila River. 

Caborh. 

Caborica. 

Cant, probably Maricopa, not far below 
the mouth of Salt River. 

Choutikwuchik. 

Coat, probably Maricopa, location un- 
certain. 

Cocoigui. 

Cohate. 

Comarchdut. 

Cuaburidurch. 

Cudurimuitac. 

Dueztumac, about 120 miles above the 
mouth of the Gila. 

Gohate. 

Guias. 

Hinama, its people now on the south 
bank of Salt River east of the Mor- 
mon settlement of Lehi, Maricopa 
County. 

Hiyayulge. 

Hueso Parado, with Pima, on the Pima 
and Maricopa Reservation. 

Khauweshetawes. 

Kwatchampedau. 

Norchean. 

Noscario. 

Oitac. 

Ojiataibues. 

Pipiaca. 

Pitaya. 

Sacaton, mainly Pima, on the Gila River 
about 22 miles east of Maricopa Sta- 
tion. 



Gila River unless otherwise specified: 

San Bernadino, at Agua Caliente, near 
the Gila River; another place on the 
river was called by the same name. 

San Geronimo, 20 leagues from Merced 
and 27 leagues from the Gila River. 

San Martin, on the Gila River west of 
the Great Bend. 

San Rafael, probably Maricopa, in 
southern Arizona. 

Sasabac. 

Shobotarcham. 

Sibagoida, probably Maricopa, location 
uncertain. 

Sibrepue. 

Sicoroidag, on the Gila River below 
Tucsani. 

Soenadut. 

Stucabitic. 

Sudac. 

Sudacsasaba. 

Tadeovaqui. 

Tahapit. 

Toa. 

Toaedut. 

Tota, probably Maricopa. 

Tuburch. 

Tuburh, location uncertain. 

Tubutavia. 

Tucavi, perhaps identical with Tucsani. 

Tucsani. 

Tucsasic. 

Tuesapit. 

Tumac, said to have been the western- 
most Maricopa village on the Gila 
River. 

Tuquisan. 

Tutomagoidag. 

Uitorrum, a group of rancherias on the 
south bank of the Gila River not far 
west of the Great Bend. 

Uparch. 

Upasoitac, near the Great Bend of the 
Gila River. 

Urchaoztac. 

Yayahaye. 



356 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

History. — The Maricopa are thought to have separated from the 
Yuma and to have moved slowly up the Colorado River to the lower 
Gila River; or, as later history would indicate, they may have been 
forced into this region by hostile tribes. They were encountered by 
Juan de Onate in 1604-5, and by Kino in 1701-2. From 1775 until 
recent times they were at war with the Yuma, and in 1857, in alliance 
with the Pima, they inflicted a severe defeat upon the Yuma near 
Maricopa Wells. A reservation was set apart for the Maricopa and 
Pima by Act of Congress February 28, 1859; it was enlarged by Execu- 
tive order of August 31, 1876, but was revoked and other lands were 
set apart by Executive order of June 14, 1879. This was again 
enlarged by Executive orders May 5, 1882, and November 15, 1883. 
No treaty was ever made with them. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 2,000 Mari- 
copa in 1680, Venegas (1758) says that in 1742 there were about 
6,000 Pima and "Cocomaricopa" on Gila River, and in 1775 Garces 
estimates a population of 3,000 Maricopa. In 1905 there were 350 
under the Pima School Superintendent. The census of 1910 gives 
386, and the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923, 394. 
The census of 1930 returned 310, and the Report of the United States 
Indian Office of 1937, 339. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name of the 
Maricopa is preserved in that of Maricopa County, Ariz., and in the 
name of a post village in Pinal County and another in Kern County, 
Calif. 

Mohave. From a native word "hamakhava," referring to the Needles 
and signifying "three mountains." Also given as Amojave, 
Jamajabs. Synonyms are: 

Naks'-at, Pima and Papago name. 

Soyopas, given by Font (1775). 

Tzi-na-ma-a, given as their own name "before they came to the Colorado 

River." 
Wamakava, Havasupai name. 
Wili idahapd, Tulkepaya name. 

Connections. — The Mohave belonged to the Yuman linguistic 
family. 

Location. — On both sides of the Colorado River — though chiefly 
on the east side — between the Needles and the entrance to Black 

Canyon. 

Villages 

Pasion, a group of rancherias on the east bank of the Colorado, below the present 

Fort Mohave. 
San Pedro, on or near the west bank of the Colorado, about 8 miles northwest of 

Needles, Calif. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 357 

Santa Isabel, a group of rancherias situated at or in the vicinity of the present 

Needles. 

History. — Possibly Alarc6n may have reached the Mohave territory 
in 1540. At any rate, Onate met them in 1604, and in 1775-76 Carets 
found them in the above-named villages. No treaty was made with 
them by the United States Government, but by Act of March 3, 1865, 
supplemented by Executive orders in 1873, 1874, and 1876, the Colo- 
rado River Reservation was established and it was occupied by the 
Mohave, Chemehuevi, and Kawia. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) gives 3,000 Mohave in 1680, and 
Kroeber (1925) the same as of 1770, the estimate made by Garces 
in 1775-76. About 1834 Leroux estimated 4,000. In 1905 their 
number was officially given as 1,589, of whom 508 were under the 
Colorado River School Superintendent, 856 under the Fort Mohave 
School Superintendent, 50 under the San Carlos Agency, and about 
175 at Camp McDowell, on the Verde River. The Indians at Fort 
Mohave and Camp McDowell, however, were apparently Yavapai, 
commonly known as Apache Mohave. The census of 1910 gives 
1,058 true Mohave. The United States Indian Office Report for 
1923 seems to give 1,840, including Mohave, Mohave Apache, and 
Chemehuevi. The census of 1930 returned 854, and the Report of 
the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937, 856. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Mohave has 
been preserved in the designation of the Mohave Desert and Mohave 
River in California, and Mohave County, Ariz., and also in the name 
of a post-village in Arizona. There is also a post village named 
Mojave in Kern County, Calif. 

Navaho. The Navaho occupied part of the northeastern section of 

Arizona. (See New Mexico.) 

Paiute. The southern or true Paiute occupied or hunted over some 
of the northernmost sections of Arizona. (See Nevada.) 

Papago. Signifying "bean people," from the native words papah, 
"beans," and 6otam, "people." Also called: 

Saikinn6, Si'-ke-na, Apache name for Pima, Papago, and Maricopa. 

Tdh'ba, Yavapai name. 

Texpamais, Maricopa name. 

T6no-oohtam, own name, signifying "people of the desert." 

Vidshi itikapa, Tonto name. 

Connections. — The Papago belong to the Piman branch of the Uto- 
Aztecan linguistic stock and stand very close to the Pima. 

Location. — In the territory south and southeast of the Gila River, 
especially south of Tucson; in the main and tributary valleys of the 



358 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Santa Cruz River; and extending west and southwest across the 
desert waste known as the Papagueria, into Sonora, Mexico. 

Subdivisions and Villages 

Acachin, location uncertain. 

Alcalde, probably in Pima County. 

Ana, probably in Pima County. 

Anicam, probably in Pima County. 

Areitorae, south of Sonorita, Sonora, Mexico. 

Ati, on the west bank of Rio Altar, between Uquitoa and Tubutama, just south 
of the Arizona boundary. 

Babasaqui, probably Papago, 3 miles above Imuris, between Cocospera and 
Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico. 

Bacapa, in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, slightly southeast of Carrizal. 

Baipia, slightly northwest of Caborca, probably on the Rio Altar, northwestern 
Sonora, Mexico. 

Bajfo, location uncertain. 

Batequi, east of the Rio Altar in northwestern Sonora, Mexico. 

Boca del Arroyo, probably in Pima County. 

Caborica, on the Gila River. 

Caca Chimir, probably in Pima County. 

Cahuabi, in Arizona near the Sonora border. 

Canoa, between Tubac and San Xavier del Bac, on Rio Santa Cruz. 

Casca, probably in Pima County. 

Charco, probably identical with Chioro. 

Chiora, probably in Pima County. 

Chuba, location uncertain. 

Coca, location uncertain. 

Comohuabi, in Arizona on the border of Sonora, M6xico. 

Cops, west of the Rio San Pedro, probably in the vicinity of the present Arivaca, 
southwest of Tubac. 

Cubac, in the neighborhood of San Francisco Atf, west from the present Tucson. 

Cuitoat, between San Xavier del Bac and the Gila River. 

Cujant, in northwest Sonora, between the mouth of the Rio Gila and Sonorita. 

Cumaro, southern Arizona near the Sonora border. 

Elogio, probably in Pima County. 

Fresnal, probably in Pima County. 

Guadalupe, about 10 leagues south of Areitorae. 

Gubo, probably Papago, 13 leagues east of Sonorita, just below the Arizona 
boundary. 

Guitciabaqui, on the west bank of the Santa Cruz River, near the present Tucson. 

Juajona, near San Xavier del Bac, southern Arizona. 

Junostaca, near San Xavier del Bac. 

Macombo, probably in Pima County. 

Mata, probably Papago, north of Caborica. 

Mesquite, probably in Pima County. 

Milpais, location uncertain. 

Nariz, probably in Pima County. 

Oapars, in Arizona between San Xavier del Bac and the Gila River. 

Ocaboa, location uncertain. 

O'isur, on the Santa Cruz River, 5 or 6 leagues north of San Xavier del Bac, south- 
ern Arizona. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 359 

Onia, probably in Pima County. 

Ooltan, in northwest Sonora, Mexico, 3 leagues northwest of Busanic. 

Otean, location uncertain. 

Perigua, Arizona, south of the Gila River. 

Perinimo, probably in Pima County. 

Piato, probably the same as Soba, in the region of Tubutaraa and Caborica, 
Sonora, Mexico. 

Pitic, on the Rio Altar, northwest Sonora. 

Poso Blanco, in Arizona south of the Gila River. 

Poso Verde, south of the Arizona-Sonora boundary, opposite Oro Blanco, Ariz. 

Purificaci6n, probably Papago, near the Arizona-Sonora boundary, 12 leagues 
from Agua Escondida, probably in a southeasterly direction. 

Quitovaquita, on the headwaters of Rio Salado of Sonora, near the Arizona- 
Sonora boundary line. 

Raton, location uncertain. 

San Bonifacio, probably Papago, south of the Gila River between San Angelo 
and San Francisco, in the present Arizona. 

San Cosme, probably Papago, directly north of San Xavier del Bac, on the Santa 
Cruz River, Ariz. 

San Ignacio, with Pima, on the north bank of Rio San Ignacio, latitude 30° 45' N., 
longitude 111° W., Sonora, Mexico. 

San Ildefonso, 4 leagues northwest of Caborica, Sonora, Mexico. 

San Lazaro, probably Papago, on the Rio Santa Cruz in longitude 110°30' W., 
just below the Arizona-Sonora boundary. 

San Luis Babi, in northwest Sonora, Mexico, between Busanic and Cocospera. 

San Martin, probably Papago, on the Gila River, west of the Great Bend of the 
Colorado. 

San Rafael, iu southern Arizona near the headwaters of the Rio Salado of Sonora. 

Santa Barbara, probably Papago, 4 miles southwest of Busanic, near the head- 
waters of the north branch of the Rio Altar, in Sonora, Mexico. 

Santa Rosa, south of the Gila River and west of Tucson. 

Saric, probably Papago, on the west bank of Rio Altar, in northern Sonora, Mexico. 

Saucita, in southern Arizona. 

Shuuk, or Pima, on the Gila River Reservation, southern Arizona. 

Sierra Blanca, probably in Pima County. 

Soba, a large body of Papago, including the villages of Carborica, Batequi, Mata, 
Pitic, and San Ildefonso. 

Sonoita, on the headwaters of the Rio Salado of Sonora, just below the Arizona- 
Sonora boundary. 

Tachilta, in southern Arizona or northern Sonora. 

Tacquison, on the Arizona-Sonora boundary. 

Tecolote, in southwestern Pima County, Ariz., near the Mexican border. 

Tubasa, probably on the Rio Santa Cruz River between San Xavier del Bac 
and the Gila River, southern Arizona. 

Tubutama, on the eastern bank of the northern branch of the Rio Altar, in north- 
west Sonora, Mexico. 

Valle, probably in Pima County. 

Zuniga, probably Papago, in northwest Sonora, Mexico. 

History. — Father Eusebio Kino was probably the first white man 
to visit the Papago, presumably on his first expedition in 1694. Their 
subsequent history has been nearly the same as that of the Pima, 



360 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

except that they were not brought quite as much in contact with the 
Whites. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) places the number of Papago at 6,000 
in 1680. In 1906 they were reported as follows: Under the Pima 
School Superintendent, 2,233; under the farmer at San Xavier, 523 
allottees on the reservation and 2,225 in Pima County. In addition, 
859 Papago were officially reported in Sonora, Mexico, in 1900, prob- 
ably an underestimate. In 1910, 3,798 were reported in the United 
States, but the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923 
gives 5,672; the 1930 census, 5,205; and the Indian Office Report 
for 1937, 6,305. 

Pima. Signifying "no" in the Nevome dialect and incorrectly applied 
through misunderstanding by the early missionaries. Also called: 

A'-d'tam, own name, signifying "people," or, to distinguish them from the 

Papago, A'-d'tam fi'kimtilt, "river people." 
Nashtefse, Apache name, signifying "live in mud houses." 
Palnyd, probably name given by Havasupai. 
Saikine, Apache name, signifying "living in sand (adobe) houses," also 

applied to Papago and Maricopa. 
Tex-p^s, Maricopa name. 
Tihokahana, Yavapai name. 
Widshi Iti'kapa, Tonto-Yuma name. 

Connections. — The Pima gave their name to the Piman linguistic 
stock of Powell, which is now recognized to be a subdivision of the 
great Uto-Aztecan stock, also including the Nahuatlan and Shoshonean 
families. The tribes connected most intimately with the Pima were 
the Papago (see above) and the Quahatika (q. v.), and after them 
the so-called Pima Bajo or Nevome of Mexico. 

Location. — In the valleys of the Gila and Salt Rivers. (See also 
Mexico.) 

Subdivisions 

Formerly the name Pima was applied to two tribes called respectively tne 
Pima Bajo and Pima Alto, but the former, living chiefly in Sonora, Mexico, are 
now known as Nevome, the term Pima being restricted to the Pima Alto. 

Villages 

Agua Escondida, probably Pima or Papago, southwest of Tubac, southwestern 

Arizona. 
Agua Fria, probably Pima, on Gila River Reservation. 
Aquitun, 5 miles west of Picacho, on the border of the sink of the Santa Cruz 

River. 
Aranca, two villages, location unknown. 

Arenal, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Gila River. 
Arivaca, west of Tubac. 
Arroyo Grande, southern Arizona. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 361 

Bacuancos, 7 leagues south of the mission of Guevavi, northwestern Sonora, 

Mexico. 
Bisani, 8 leagues southwest of Caborica, Sonora, Mexico. 
Blackwater. 

Bonostac, on the upper Santa Cruz River, below Tucson. 
Busanic, southwest of Guevavi, near the Arizona-Sonora boundary, latitude 

31°10' N. longitude 111°10' W. 
Cachanila, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Ariz. 
Casa Blanca, on the Gila. 

Cerrito, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Ariz. 
Cerro Chiquito, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Ariz. 
Chemisez, on the Gila. 
Chupatak, in southern Arizona. 
Chutikwuchik. 

Chuwutukawutuk, in southern Arizona. 
Cocospera, on the headwaters of the Rio San Ignacio, latitude 31° N., Sonora, 

Mexico. 
Comae, on the Gila River, 3 leagues (miles?) below the mouth of Salt River, Ariz. 
Estaneia, 4 leagues south of the mission of Saric, which was just south of the 

Arizona boundary. 
Gaibanipitea, probably Pima, on a hill on the west bank of the San Pedro River, 

probably identical with the ruins known as Santa Cruz, west of Tombstone, Ariz, 
Gutubur, locality unknown. 

Harsanykuk, at Sacaton Flats, southern Arizona. 
Hermho, on the north side of Salt iliver, 3 miles from Mesa, Maricopa County, 

Ariz. 
Hiatam, north of Maricopa Station on the Southern Pacific R. R., southern 

Arizona. 
Hormiguero, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Ariz. 
Huchiltchik, below Santa Ana, on the north bank of the Gila. 
Hueso Parado, with Maricopa, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Ariz. 
Imuris, near the eastern bank of Rio San Ignacio, or Magdalena, latitude 30°50' N. 

longitude 110°50' W., in the present Sonora, Mexico. 
Judae, on the Gila. 
Kamatukwucha, at the Gila crossing. 
Kamit, in southern Arizona. 
Kawoltukwucha, west of the Maricopa and Phoenix R. R., in Maricopa County, 

Ariz. 
Kikimi, on the Gila River Reservation. 
Kookupvansik, in southern Arizona. 
Mange, on the Gila. 

Merced, northeast of San Rafael, in what is now southern Arizona. 
Nacameri, on the east bank of Rio Horcasitas, Sonora, Mexico. 
Napeut, on the north bank of the Gila. 

Ocuca, in Sonora, Mexico, near the Rio San Ignacio, northwest of Santa Ana. 
Oquitoa, on the Rio del Altar, northwestern Sonora, M6xico. 
Ormejea, in southern Arizona. 
Oskakumukchochikam, in southern Arizona. 
Oskuk, on the Gila. 

Peepchiltk, northeast of Casa Blanca, southern Arizona. 
Pescadero, in northern Sonora, Mexico. 
Petaikuk, in southern Arizona. 
Pitac, on the Gila. 



362 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Potlapigua, about Babispe, Baserac, and the frontier in Sonora, Mexico, but this 

was Opata territory. 
Remedios, a mission on the San Ignacio branch of the Rfo Asunci6n, in Sonora, 

Mexico. 
Rsanuk, about 1 mile east of Sacaton Station, on the Maricopa and Phoenix R. R., 

southern Arizona. 
Rsotuk, northwest of Casa Blanca, southern Arizona. 
Sacaton, on the Gila, about 22 miles east of Maricopa Station and 16 miles north 

of Casa Grande Station on the Southern Pacific R. R., Ariz. 
San Andres Coata, near the junction of the Gila and Salado Rivers, Ariz. 
San Fernando, 9 leagues east of the ruins of Casa Grande, near the Gila. 
San Francisco Ati, west of the Santa Cruz River, Ariz., 
San Francisco de Pima, 10 or 12 leagues above the Rfo Asunci6n from Pitic, about 

latitude 31° N., Sonora, Mexico. 
San Serafin, northwest of San Xavier del Bac, southern Arizona. 
Santan, on the north bank of the Gila, opposite the Pima Agency. 
Santos Angeles, in Sonora, Mexico. 
Saopuk, at The Cottonwoods, on the Gila River. 
Sepori, south of the Gila River, Ariz. 

Shakaik, on the north side of the Gila, northwest of Casa Blanca. 
Statannyik, on the south bank of the Gila, between Vaaki (Casa Blanca) and 

Huchiltchik. 
Stukamasoosatick, on the Gila River Reservation. 
Sudacson, on the Gila River, Pinal County, Ariz., between Casa Grande and a 

point 10 leagues below. 
Tatsituk, about Cruz's store in southern Arizona. 
Taumaturgo. 

Tubuscabors, on or near the Gila River, southern Arizona. 
Tucson, probably with Papago and Sobaipuri, on the site of modern Tucson. 
Tucubavia, on the headwaters of Rfo Altar, northern Sonora, Mexico. 
Tutuetac, about 16 miles northwest of Tucson and west of the Santa Cruz River, 

in southern Arizona. 
Uturituc, on the Gila and probably on the site of the present Sacaton. 
Wechurt, at North Blackwater, southern Arizona. 

History. — According to native tradition, the Pima originated in the 
Salt River Valley and spread later to the Gila River. They attribute 
the large adobe ruins in their country, including the Casa Grande, to 
their ancestors, and tell stories of their occupancy of them, but the con- 
nection is still in doubt. The Nevome and Opata of the Altar, Mag- 
dalena, and Sonora Rivers are said to have sprung from Pima colonies. 
They claim that their old manner of life was ended by three bands of 
foreigners from the east, who destroyed their pueblos, devastated their 
fields, and killed or enslaved many of their people. The rest fled to 
the mountains, and when they returned they did not rebuild the sub- 
stantial adobe structures which they had formerly occupied, but lived 
in dome-shaped lodges of pliable poles covered with thatch and mud. 
Russell (1908) considers it unlikely that Coronado encountered the 
Pima, but in 1694 Father Eusebio Francisco Kino reached the Casa 
Grande and undoubtedly met them. Under his inspiration, an ex- 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 363 

pedition was sent to the Gila in 1697 to ascertain the disposition of the 
tribe. In 1698 he again visited them and between that date and 1702 
entered their country four times more. In 1731 Fathers Felipe 
Segresser and Juan Bautista Grashoffer took charge of the missions 
of San Xavier del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi and became the 
first permanent Spanish residents of Arizona. Padre Ignacio Javier 
KeUer visited the Pima villages in 1736-37 and in 1743, and Sedelmayr 
reached the Gila in 1750. The first military force to be stationed 
among the Pima was a garrison of 50 men at Tubac on the Santa Cruz. 
The presidio was moved to Tucson about 1776 and in 1780 it was in- 
creased to hold 75 men. Between 1768 and 1776 Father Francisco 
Garc6s made five trips from Xavier del Bac to the Pimas and beyond. 
In 1851 parties of the Boundary Survey Commission passed down the 
Gila River, and J. R. Bartlett, the American Commissioner, has left 
an excellent description of the Pima Indians (Bartlett, 1854). After 
the California gold rush began, the Pima frequently assisted parties 
of explorers and travelers who were making the southern route, and 
they often protected them from the Apache. In 1853 the Gadsden 
Purchase transferred the Pima to the jurisdiction of the United States. 
Surveys for a railroad through Pima territory were made in 1854 and 
1855, but it was not constructed until 1879. In the meantime the 
Pima were subjected to contact with White outlaws and border rufl^ans 
of the worst description, and White settlers threatened to absorb their 
supplies of water. In 1857 the first United States Indian Agent for 
the territory acquired by the Gadsden Purchase was appointed. In 
1871 the first school among them was opened. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 4,000 Pima 
in 1680. In 1775 Carets placed the number of those on the Gila River 
at 2,500. In 1906 there were 3,936 in all; in 1910, according to the 
United States Census, 4,236; and in 1923, according to the Report of 
the United States Indian Office, 5,592. The 1930 census returned 
4,382. The Indian Ofiice reported 5,170 in 1937. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — Pima County, Ariz., 
and a post town in Graham County, Ariz., preserve the name of the 
Pima, which has also been made familiar to ethnographers and geog- 
raphers by the use to which it has been put in the Powell classification 
to cover a supposed linguistic stock. There is little doubt, however, 
that this supposed stock is merely a part of a much larger stock, the 
Uto-Aztecan. 

Quahatika. Significance unknown. Also spelled Kohatk. 

Connections. — The Quahatika belonged to the Piman division of the 
Uto-Aztecan stock, and were most closely related to the Pima, of which 
tribe they are said to have been a branch. 



364 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Location. — In the desert of southern Arizona, 50 miles south of the 
Gila River. 

Villages 

The chief Quahatika settlement is Quijotoa, in the western part of Pima 
County, southern Arizona. Early in the eighteenth century they are said to have 
shared the village of Aquitun with the Pima. (See Pima.) 

History. — The history of the Quahatika has, in the main, been paral- 
lel with that of the Pima and Papago (q. v.). They are said to have 
left Aquitun about 1800, and to have introduced cattle among the 
Pima from the Mexicans about 1820. 

Population. — The Quahatika seem to have been enumerated with 
the Pima. 

Sobaipuri. Significance unknown. Also called: 

Rsdrsavinfi, Pima name, signifying "spotted." 

Connections. — The Sobaipuri were intimately connected with, if not 
a part of, the Papago, of the Piman division of the Uto-Aztecan 
linguistic stock. 

Location. — In the main and tributary valleys of the San Pedro and 
Santa Cruz Rivers, between the mouth of the San Pedro River and 
the ruins of Casa Grande, and possibly eastward of this area in southern 
Arizona. 

Villages 

Alamos, on Rio Santa Cruz, southern Arizona. 

Aribaiba, on the San Pedro River, not far from its junction with the Gila. 

Babisi, probably Sobaipuri, at the southern boundary near Suamca. 

Baicadeat, on the San Pedro River, Ariz. 

Busac, probably Sobaipuri, apparently on Arivaipa Creek, a tributary of the San 

Pedro, east of old Camp Grant, Ariz. 
Camani, probably Sobaipuri, on the Gila River, not far from Casa Grande, Ariz. 
Causae, on the San Pedro. 
Comarsuta, on the San Pedro, between its mouth and its junction with Arivaipa 

Creek. 
Esqugbaag, probably Sobaipuri, on or near the San Pedro, near the Arizona- 

Sonora boundary. 
Guevavi, on the west bank of the Santa Cruz, below Tubac, at or near the present 

Nogales. 
Jiaspi, on the western bank of San Pedro, probably near the present Prospect, Ariz. 
Juamalturgo, or Pima, in Arizona south of the ruins of Casa Grande. 
Muiva, on the San Pedro, probably near the mouth of Arivaipa Creek. 
Ojio, on the eastern bank of the San Pedro River, near its junction with the Gila 

River and not far from the present Dudleyville, Ariz. 
Optuabo, probably Sobaipuri, near the present Arizona-Sonora boundary and 

probably in Arizona. 
Quiburi, on the western bank of the San Pedro, perhaps not far from the present 

Benson, Ariz. 



S WANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 365 

Quiquiborica, on the Santa Cruz, 6 leagues south of Guevavi, near the Arizona- 

Sonora boundary. 
Reyes, probably Sobaipuri, on the Santa Cruz, in the present southern Arizona. 
San Angelo, near the western bank of the Santa Cruz, below its mouth, in southern 

Arizona. 
San Clemente, probably Sobaipuri, on the western bank of the Santa Cruz, north 

of the present Tucson, Ariz. 
San Felipe, at the junction of the Santa Cruz and Gila Rivers. 
San Salvador, on the San Pedro River, above Quiburi, southern Arizona. 
San Xavier del Bac, on Santa Cruz, 9 miles south of Tucson in the northeast 

corner of what is now the Papago Reservation. 
Santa Eulalia, probably Sobaipuri, slightly northwest of Busanic, just south of 

the Arizona-Sonora boundary line. 
Sonoita, on the Santa Cruz, north of the present Nogales and 7 leagues east north- 
east of Guevavi. 
Suamca, on the headwaters of the Santa Cruz, in the vicinity of Terrenate, Sonora, 

Mexico, just below the Arizona-Sonora boundary line. 
Tubo, probably Sobaipuri, apparently on Arivaipa Creek, a tributary of the San 

Pedro River, east of old Camp Grant, Ariz. 
Tumacacori, probably Sobaipuri, on the Santa Cruz, south of Tubac and 8 leagues 

north northwest of Guevavi. 
Turisai, probably Sobaipuri, probably on or near the Santa Cruz River, southern 

Arizona. 
Tusonimon, about 4 leagues west of Casa Grande, near the Gila River. 
Tutoida, on the San Pedro, probably between Arivaipa Creek and the Gila. 

History. — The Sobaipuri were visited by Kino, 1694-1702, and 
missions were established among them, but at a later period the tribe 
was broken up by the Apache and seems to have sought refuge among 
the Papago, with whom it became merged. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 600 Sobai- 
puri in 1680. They are now extinct as an independent tribe. 

Tonto. This name has been applied to a number of distmct groups 
of Apache and Yuman peoples. It is said to have been given to a 
mixture of Yavapai, Yuma, and Maricopa, with some Pinaleno 
Apache, placed on the Verde River Reservation, Ariz., in 1873, and 
transferred to the San Carlos Reservation in 1875; also to a body 
of Indians, descended mostly from Yavapai men and Pinaleno 
women. (See New Mexico.) 

Walapai. From the native word Xawalap^iy', "pine-tree folk" (fide 
J. P. Harrington). Also called: 

E-pa, by A. Hrdlifika (information, 1906), given as their own name. 

Gualiba, by Garc6s in 1776 (Diary, p. 404, 1900); Yavapai name. 

Hawdlapai, by Curtis (1907-9, vol. 2, p. 116). 

Jaguallapai, by Carets in 1776 (Diary, p. 308, 1900). 

Matd,v6k6-Paya, by Corbusier MS, p. 27. Meaning "people to the 

north"(?); Yavapai name. 
Oohp, by Ten Kate (1885, p. 160), Pima name. 



366 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Buli^ 145 

Pdxuddo dm6ti, by Gatschet (1886, p. 86), meaning "people far down the 

river," Yavapai name. 
Setd K6xnina.me, by Ten Kate (1884, p. 9), Hopi name, 
Tabk6pdya — Gatschet (1883, p. 124), Yavapai name; abbreviated from 

Matd,v6k6-Paya. 
Tiqui-Llapais, by Domenech (1860, vol. 1, p. 444). 

Connections. — The Walapai belonged to the Yuman branch of the 
Hokan Knguistic stock and were connected especially closely with the 
Havasupai, the Yavapai apparently standing next. 

Location. — On the middle course of the Colorado River, above the 
Mohave Indians, between Sacramento Wash and National Canyon 
and inland, extending south almost to Bill Williams Fork. 

Subdivisions and Villages 

Kroeber and his collaborators give the following: 

A. Mata'va-kopai (north people) {the northwestern division). Villages: HadQ'- 
ba, Hai'ya, Hathekdva-ki6, Huwusk6t, Kahwdga, Kwa'thekithe'i'ta, Mati'bika, 
Tanyika"; 

B. Soto'lve-kopai (west people) (the Cerbat Mountains and the country west to 
the Colorado). Villages: Chimethi'ap, Ha-kamue", Hdka-tovahddja, Hamt6", 
Ha'thewell'-kio', Ivthl'ya-tanakwe, Kenyua'tci, Kwatehd, Nyi'i'ta, Quwi'-nye- 
h-i, Thawiniiya, Waika'i'la, Wa-nye-ha', Wi'ka-tavata'va, Wi-kawea'ta, Winya'- 
ke-tawasa, Wiyakana'mo; 

C. Ko'o'u-kopai (mesa people) (north central section). — Villages: Crozier (Amer- 
ican name), Djiwa'ldja, Hak-tala'kava, Haktutu'deva, He'l, Katha't-nye-ha', 
Muketega'de, Qwa'ga-we', Sewi", Taki'otha'wa, Wi-kanyo"; 

D. Nyav-kopai (east people) (east of the point where Truxton Canyon begins 
to cut its way down to Hualpai Valley). — Villages: Agwa'da, Ha'ke-takwl'va, 
Haksa", Ha'nya-djiluwa'ya, Tha've-nalnalwi'dje, Wiwakwa'ga, Yiga't; 

E. Hakia' tce-pai (?) or Talta'l-kuwa (cane'!) (about the Mohon Mountains). — 
Villages: Hakeskia'l, Hakia' ch, Kr/nyu'tekwa', Tha'va-ka-lavala'va, Wi-ka-tava, 
Witevikivol, Witkitana'kwa; 

F. Kwe'va-kopai (south people). — Villages: Chivekaha', Djimwa'nsevio", 
Ha-djiluwa'ya, Ilapu'k, Kwakwa', Kwal-hwa'ta, Kwatha'wa, Tak-mi'nva; 

G. Hua'la-pai, Howa'la'^-pai (pine people) (at the northern end of the Hualpai 
Mountains, extending in a rough half-circle from east to west.) — Villages: 
Hake-djeka'dja, Ilwi'-nya-ha', Kahwa't, Tak-tada'pa. 

History. — It is possible that some of the Walapai were encountered 
by Hernando de Alarc6n in 1540, and at any rate Marcos Farfan de 
los Godos met them in 1598, and Francisco Garces in 1776. Their 
history since that time has been httle different from that of the other 
Yuman tribes of the region. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 700 Walapai 
in 1680, but estimates of native informants regarded by Kroeber and 
his associates as reliable would give a population of more than 1,000 
previous to 1880. There were 728 in 1889; 631 in 1897; 501 in 1910, 
according to the census of that year; 440 in 1923; and 449 in 1932; 
454 in 1937. (See Havasupai.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 367 

Yavapai. According to the Handbook of American Indians (Hodge, 
1907, 1910), from enya^va, "sun," and pai, "people," and thus 
signifying "people of the sun," but the southeastern Yavapai 
interpreted it to mean "crooked-mouth people," that is, a "sulky" 
people who do not agree with other peoples (fide Gifford, 1936). 
Also called: 

Apache Mohaves, in Rep. Office Ind. Aff., 1869, p. 92; 1870. 

Apdches, by Carets in 1775-76 (Diary, p. 446, 1900) ; also by Spaniards. 

Cruzados, by Oiiate in 1598 (Col. Doc. InM., vol. 16, p. 276, 1864-84). 

Dil-zha, by White (MS.); Apache name meaning "Indians living where 
there are red ants." 

E-nya6-va Pai, by Ewing (1892, p. 203), meaning "sun people" because 
they were sun worshipers. 

Gohun, by Ten Kate, (1884, p. 5), Apache name. 

Har-dil-zhays, by White (1875 MS.), Apache name. 

Inya'vap^, by Harrington (1908, p. 324), Walapai name. 

Jum-pys, by Heintzelman, (1857, p. 44) 

Kohenins, by Corbusier (1886, p. 276), Apache name. 

Ku-we-v6-ka pai-ya, by Corbusier (MS., p. 27); said to be own name, 
because they live in the south. 

Nyavapai, by Corbusier (1886, p. 276). 

Taros, by Carets in 1775-76 (Diary, p. 446, 1900), Pima name. 

Yampaos, by Whipple (1856, p. 103). 

Connections. — The Yavapai belonged to the Yuman branch of the 
Hokan linguistic family, their closest cultural afiBliations being with 
the Havasupai and Walapai. 

Location. — In western Arizona from the Pinal and Mazatzal 
Mountains to the country of the Halchidhoma and Chemehuevi in the 
neighborhood of Colorado River and from Williams and Santa Maria 
Rivers, including the valleys of the smaller branches, to the neighbor- 
hood of the Gila River. 

Subdivisions 

Gifford gives the following: 

A. Kewevikopaya or Southeastern Yavapai, which included the Walkamepa 
Band (along the southerly highway from Miami to Phoenix via Superior), and the 
Wikedjasapa Band (along the present Apache trail highway from Phoenix to 
Miami via Roosevelt Dam). These included the following exogamous bands: 
Limited to the Walkamepa Band: Ilihasitumapa (original home in the Pinal 
Mountains); limited to the Wikedjasapa Band: Amahiyukpa (claiming as their 
homeland the high mountains on the west side of the Verde River, just north of 
Lime Creek and directly opposite the territory of the Yelyuchopa Clan), Atachiopa 
(who originated in the mountains west of Cherry), Hakayopa (whose inland 
homeland was Sunflower Valley, south of Mazatzal Peak, high in the Mazatzal 
Mountains, and west of Fort Reno in the Tonto Basin), Hichapulvapa (whose 
country was the Mazatzal Mountains southward from the East Verde River and 
westward from North Peak and Mazatzal Peak); represented in both bands: 
liwilkamepa (who considered the mountainous country between the Superstition 
and Pinal Mountains as their homeland), Matkawatapa (said to have originated 



368 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

from intermarriage between people of the Walkamepa Band and Apache from the 
Sierra Ancha), Onalkeopa (whose original homeland was in the Mazatzal Moun- 
tains between the lands of the Hichapulvapa and Yelyuchopa clans but who 
moved later south into the territory of the Walkamepa Band), Yelyuchopa (who 
claimed as their homeland the Mazatzal Mountains between the territories of the 
Hakayopa and Hichapulvapa clans). Cuercomache (on one of the heads of 
Diamond Creek, near the Grand Canyon of the Colorado) is given as a village. 
Amanyikd was the principal camp site of the Wikedjasapa south of the Salt River. 

B. Yavepe or Northeastern Yavapai, including: 

a. Yavepe proper (claiming upper Verde Valley and the mountains on either 
side, including the Montezuma National Monument), whose bands were: Wipu- 
kupa (occupying caves in Redrock country, probably in the region designated as 
Red Buttes on maps, and descending Oak Creek to plant maize in certain moist 
flats and to gather mesquite in Verde Valley), Matkitwawipa (people of upper 
Verde Valley, East Verde River, Fossil Creek, Clear Creek, ranging south to Cave 
Creek, and Walkey-anyanyepa (people of the massif to which Jerome clings). 

b. Mat-haupapaya (inhabiting the massif from Prescott to Crown King and 
Bumble Bee), and including: Wikutepa (the Granite Peak Band) and Wikeni- 
chapa (the Black Mountains or Crown King Band). 

C. Tolkepaya or Western Yavapai, including: Hakupakapa or Inyokapa 
(inhabitants of mountains north of Congress) ; Hakehelapa Wiltaikapaya (people 
of Harquahala and Harcuvar Mountains on either side of Wiltaika (Salome) ; 
People's Valley, Kirkland Valley (upper drainage of Hassayampa Creek near 
Wickenburg and region around Hillside) ; Haka-whatapa or Matakwarapa (who 
formerly lived at La Paz and Castle Dome). 

History. — Gifford (1936) states that "the earliest probable mention" 
of the Yavapai "is by Luxan of the Espejo expedition, who in 1582- 
1583 apparently visited only the country of the Northeastern Yava- 
pai." In 1598 Marcos Farfan de los Godos met them and called them 
Cruzados because they wore small crosses on their heads, and in 
1604 Juan de Onate also visited them, as did Father Francisco Garces 
in 1776, after which time contact with Europeans was pretty regular. 
They were removed to the Verde River Agency in May 1873. In 
1875 they were placed on the San Carlos Apache Agency, but by 
1900 most of the tribe had settled in part of their old home on the 
Verde River, including the abandoned Camp McDowell Military 
Reservation, which was assigned to their use, November 27, 1901, 
by the Secretary of the Interior, until Congress should take final 
action. By Executive Order of September 15, 1903, the old reserva- 
tion was set aside for their use, and the claims of the white settlers 
purchased under Act of April 21, 1904. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates 600 Yavapai in 1680. 
Gifford's (1936) estimate would about double that, though he does not 
believe they ever exceeded 1500. In 1873 they were said to number 
about 1,000 and in 1903 between 500 and 600. In 1906, 520 were 
reported, 465 at Camp McDowell and Upper Verde Valley, and 55 at 
San Carlos. In 1910, 289 were reported by the Census, but the same 
year the Indian Office reported 178 under the Camp McDowell School 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 369 

Superintendent, 282 under the Camp Verde School, and 89 under the 
San Carlos School; total, 549. In 1823 the Indian Oflfice reported 
708 under the Camp Verde School and Salt River Superintendencies. 
In 1932 the Indian Office reported only 193, but the "Yuma Apache" 
would add 24. In 1937 there were 194. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — (See Havasupai.) The 
name has been perpetuated in that of Yavapai County, Ariz. 

Yuma. Said to be an old Pima and Papago term for this tribe and in 
some cases the Kamia and Maricopa also (Forde, 1931). Also called: 

Cetguanes, by Venegas (1759). 

Chirumas, an alternative name given by Orozco y Berra (1864). 

Club Indians, by Emory (1848). 

Cuchan, or, strictly, Kwitc*'dn», own name. 

Dil-zhay's, Apache name for this tribe and the Tonto and Mohave, signi- 
fying "red soil with red ants" (White, MS.). 

Garroteros, by Emory (1848). 

Guichyana, Chemehuevi name. 

Hatilshe', same as Dil-zhay's, 

Hiikwats, Paiute name, signifying "weavers." 

Klin, said to be Apache name for this tribe and the Tulkepaia. 

Wamakava, applied by Havasupai to Mohave and perhaps to this tribe 
also. 

Connections. — The Yuma were one of the chief tribes of the old 
Yuman linguistic stock, to which they have given their name, but 
their closest immediate relatives were the Maricopa and Halchidhoma, 
The Yuman stock is now considered a part of the larger Hokan family. 

Location. — On both sides of the Colorado River next above the 
Cocopa, or about 50 or 60 miles from the mouth of the nver, at and 
below the junction of the Gila River, Fort Yuma being in about the 
center of their territory. (See also California.) 

Villager 

Forde (1931) gives the following: 
Ahakwedehor (axakweSexor), about 2 miles northeast of Fort Yuma. 
Avikwotapai, some distance south of Parker on the California side of the Colorado. 
Huksil (xuksi'l), along the Colorado River near Pilot Knob, a few miles south of 

Algodones and across the International Boundary. 
Kwerav (ava'io), about 2 miles south of the present Laguna Dam and on the 

California side of the Colorado. 
Unnamed town, a little east of the present site of Picacho, at the foot of the 

Chocolate Mountains. 

History. — Neither Alarc6n, who ascended the Colorado River in 
1540, nor Onate, who visited it in 1604, mentions the Yuma, but in 
the case of Onate this may be accounted for by the fact that these 
Indians were then living exclusively on the west side of the river, 
which he did not reach. The first explorer to mention them by 



370 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

name seems to have been Father Kino, 1701-2; and Garces, 1771, and 
Anza, 1774 and 1775, have a great deal to say about them. Garces 
and Eixarch remained among them in 1775. (See Kino (1726), and 
Garces (1900).) Most of their territory passed under the control of the 
United States by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, and 
the remainder in consequence of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853. 
After the founding of Fort Yuma, contacts between the Whites and 
this tribe became intimate. Most of them were ultimately concen- 
trated on the Colorado River and Yuma Reservations. 

Population. — Garces (1776) estimated that there were 3,000 Yuma, 
but Anza (see Coues, 1900) raises this to 3,500. An estimate attributed 
to M. Leroux dating from "early in the 19th century," again gives 
3,000. According to the Report of the United States Indian Office 
for 1910, there were then 655 individuals belonging to the tribe, but 
the census of that year gives 834. The Indian Office figure for 1923 
is 826 and that for 1929, 826, but the United States Census for 1920 
increases it very materially, to 2,306. However, the Report of the 
Indian Office for 1937 gives only 848. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — Besides giving its 
name to the Yuman stock, the name Yuma is preserved by counties in 
Arizona and Colorado; localities in Yuma County, Ariz.; Yuma 
County, Colo.; Cloud County, Kans.; Taylor County, Ky; Wexford 
County, Mich. ; and Carroll County, Tenn. 

COLORADO 

Apache. A number of the Apache bands extended their raids from 
time to time over the territory of what is now Colorado, but only 
one of them, the Jicarilla, may be said to have been permanent 
occupants of any part of the State within the historic period. This 
tribe is considered under the name Jicarilla below; for an account 
of the other Apache tribes except the Lipan, see New Mexico. The 
Lipan are treated under Texas. 

Arapaho. The Arapaho hunted and warred over parts of eastern 
Colorado. (See Wyoming.) 

Bannock. This tribe and the Shoshoni roamed over the extreme 
northwestern corner of the State. (See Idaho.) 

Cheyenne. The same may be said of the Cheyenne as of the Arapaho. 
(See South Dakota.) 

Comanche. Like the Arapaho and Cheyenne, this tribe hunted and 
warred in the eastern parts of the State. (See Texas.) 

Jicarilla. A Mexican Spanish word, meaning "httle basket," given 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 371 

to the tribe on account of the expertness of Jicarilla women in 
making baskets. Also called: 

Bfi'-xai, or Pex'-g6, Navaho name. 

Kinya-inde, Mescalero name. 

K^op-tagui, Kiowa name, signifying "mountain Apache." 

Pi'-ke-e-wai-i-ne, Picuris name. 

Tan-nah-shis-en, by Yarrow (1879) and signifying "men of the woodland." 

Tashi'ne, Mescalero name. 

Tinde, own name. 

Tu-sa-be', Tesuque name. 

Connections. — The Jicarilla were one of the so-called Apache tribes, 
all of which belonged to the gi"eat Athapascan linguistic stock, but 
with the Lipan (see Texas) constituted a group distinct from the 
Apache proper. (See New Mexico.) 

Location. — Within historic times the homes of the Jicarilla have 
been in southeastern Colorado and northern New Alexico, though 
they have ranged into the adjacent parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, and 
Texas, 

Subdivisions 

Mooney (1928) gives the following: 
Apatsiltlizhihi, who claim the district of Mora, N. Mex. 

Dachizhozhin, original home around the present Jicarilla Reservation, N. Mex. 
Golkahin, claiming a former home south of Taos Pueblo, N. Mex. 
Ketsilind, claiming a former home south of Taos Pueblo, N. Mex. 
Saitinde, claiming the vicinity of present Espanola, N. Max., as their original 

home. 

History. — There is little doubt that the Jicarilla traveled south- 
ward at no very remote period from among the Athapascan tribes 
in northwestern Canada, very likely by way of the eastern flanks of 
the Rocky Mountains. They were probably among the Querechos 
met by Coronado in 1540-42, the same people known to the later 
Spanish explorers as Vaqueros. They first received mention under 
their own name early in the eighteenth century. In 1733 a Spanish 
mission was established for them near Taos, N. Mex., but it did not 
last long, and their relations with the Spaniards were generally hostile. 
In 1853 the governor of New Mexico induced 250 of the tribe to settle 
on the Puerco River, but failure to ratify the treaty he had made 
with them caused them to go on the warpath, and they continued 
hostile until their defeat by United States troops in 1854. In 1870 
they resided on the Maxwell grant in northeastern New Mexico, but 
the sale of it necessitated their removal. In 1872 and again in 1873 
attempts were made to move them to Fort Stanton, but most of them 
were permitted to go to the Tierra Amarilla, on the northern confines 
of the territory, on a reservation of 900 square miles set aside in 1874. 
Their annuities having been suspended in 1878 on account of their 



372 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bdll. 145 

refusal to move southward in accordance with an Act of Congress of 
that year, they resorted to thieving. In 1880 the Act of 1878 was 
repealed, and a new reservation was set aside on the Navajo River, 
to which they were removed. Here they remained until 1883, when 
they were transferred to Fort Stanton. On February 11, 1887, how- 
ever, a reservation was set aside for them in the Tierra Amarilla 
region by Executive Order. They removed to this territory and 
there they have now been allotted land in severalty. 

Population. —Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 800 
Jicarilla in 1845. In 1905 they numbered 795; according to the 
Census of 1910, there were 694; the Report of the United States 
Indian Office for 1923 gave 608, and that for 1937, 714. 

Connection in which they have become noted. — The name Jicarilla is 
given to mountains and a post village in Lincoln County, N. Mex. 

Kiowa. Like the Arapaho, Cheyenne, and Comanche, the Kiowa 
formerly hunted and warred across parts of eastern Colorado. 
(See Oklahoma.) 

Kiowa Apache. This tribe always accompanied the Kiowa. (See 
Oklahoma.) 

Navaho. The Navaho lived just south of the Colorado boundary, 
entering that State only occasionally. (See New Mexico.) 

Pueblos. Most of the Pueblo tribes trace their origin to some place 
in the north and there is no doubt that the ancestors of many of 
them lived in what are now the pueblo and cliff ruins of Colorado. 
In historic times the principal dealings of Colorado Indians with the 
Pueblos have been with the Pueblo of Taos, which was once a 
trading point of importance. Many of its people intermarried with 
the Ute. (See New Mexico.) 

Shoshoni. Together with the Bannock, the Shoshoni roamed over 
the extreme northwestern part of Colorado. (See Idaho.) 

Ute. The Ute formerly occupied the entire central and western por- 
tions of Colorado. (See Utah.) 

UTAH 

Bannock. This tribe and the Shoshoni roamed over the northern 
part of Utah as far as the Uintah Mountains, and beyond Great 
Salt Lake. (See Idaho.) 

Gosiute. The Gosiute were a smaU body of Indians inhabiting the 
region about Great Salt Lake in northern Utah. They were long 
supposed to be a mixture of Ute and Shoshoni but are now known 
to have been connected only with the Shoshoni. They attracted 
particular attention because of their wretched manner of life, which 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 373 

reports frequently exaggerated unduly. (See Shoshoni, Western, 
under Idaho.) 

Navaho. This tribe occupied, at least at times, a small part of the 
southeastern section of Utah as far as the San Juan River. (See 
New Mexico.) 

Paiute, Southern. The Southern Paiute occupied the southwestern 

part of Utah. (See Nevada.) 
Shoshoni, Western. The Western Shoshoni extended into northern 

Utah; they included the Gosiute, as above stated. (See Idaho.) 
Ute. Significance unknown. Also called: 

Grasshopper Indians, Pattie (1833). 

liita-go, Kiowa name. 

letan, a form of their name used widely for Indians of the Shoshonean 

stock. 
Mactcingeha wai", Omaha and Ponca name, signifying "rabbit skin robes.' 
Moh-tau-hai'-ta-ni-o, Cheyenne name, signifying "the black men." 
Ndsuia kwe, Zuni name, signifying "deer-hunting men." 
No-ochi or Notch, own name. 
Nota-^, Navaho name. 

Quazula, seems to be the Jemez name for them. 
Siipa wichasha, Dakota name, signifying "black people." 
T&'hana, Taos name. 
Tcingawdptuh, former Hopi name. 
Wdatenlhts, Atsina name, signifying "black." 

Connections. — The Ute belonged to the Shoshonean division of the 
Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock and were related more closely to the 
true Paiute, Kawaiisu, and Chemehuevi. 

Location. — In central and western Colorado and all of eastern 
Utah, including the eastern part of Salt Lake Valley and Utah Valley 
and extending into the upper drainage area of the San Juan River 
in New Mexico. (See also Nevada and Wyoming.) 

Subdivisions 

Capote, in the Tierra Amarilla and Chama River country, northwestern New- 
Mexico. 

Elk Mountain Ute (perhaps the Sabuaguanos of Escalante (1882) and Tah-bah- 
was-chi of Beckwith (1882), especially if the initial letter in one or the other 
case has been misread, in the Elk Mountains of Colorado. 

Kosunats, on Uintah Reservation in 1873. 

Moache, in southwest Colorado and northwest New Mexico. 

Pahvant, around the lower portion of Sevier Lake and River, Utah. 

Pav6gowunsin, on the upper course of the Sevier River, south of the Salina River. 

Pikakwanarats, on the Uinta Reservation in 1873. 

Sampits or Sanpet, around Manti on San Pitch Creek but wintering on Sevier 
River, Utah. 

Seuvarits or Sheberetch, in the Castle Valley country and on headwaters of 
San Rafael River, in east central Utah. 



374 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Tabeguache, in southwest Colorado, chiefly about Los Pines. 

Tumpanogots or Timpaiavats, about Utah Lake, Utah. 

Uinta, in northeastern Utah. 

Wiminuche, in southwest Colorado, chiefly in the valley of the San Juan and its 

northern tributaries. 
Yampa, on and about Green and Colorado Rivers in eastern Utah. 

The Sogup, in or near New Mexico, and Yubuincariri, west of Green River, 
Utah, are also given as former bands, and a few others of uncertain status also 
appear, such as the Kwiumpus, Nauwanatats, and Unkapanukints. In later 
years the recognized divisions were reduced to three: Tabeguache or Uncom- 
pahgre, Kaviawach or White River, and Yoovte or Uinta. 

History. — The Ute occupied the region above indicated when they 
came to the knowledge of the Spaniards, who were the first Europeans 
to encounter them. Their warlike disposition was early accentuated 
by the introduction of horses among them. Our first intimate knowl- 
edge of them is derived from the diary of Fray Silvestre Velez de 
Escalante, who penetrated their country in 1776. For a brief period 
they were organized into a confederacy under a chief named Tabb}^ 
(Taiwi). The first treaty between the United States Government and 
the Ute was concluded December 30, 1849. By Executive order of 
October 3, 1861, Uintah Valley was set apart for the Uinta Band, 
while the remamder of the land claimed by them was taken without 
formal purchase. By a treaty of October 7, 1863, a reservation was 
assigned to the Tabeguache, and the remainder of their land was 
taken without formal purchase. On May 5, 1864, various reserves, 
established in 1856 and 1859 by Indian agents, were ordered vacated 
and sold. By a treaty of March 2, 1868, a reservation was created 
in Colorado for the Tabeguache, Moache, Capote, Wiminuche, 
Yampa, Grand River, Uinta, and other bands, who relinquished the 
remainder of their lands, but by an agreement of September 13, 1873, 
a part of the reservation was ceded to the United States. When it 
was found that a portion of this last cession w^as included in the Un- 
compahgre Valley, the part so included was retroceded to the Ute 
by Executive order of August 17, 1876. By Executive order of No- 
vember 22, 1875, the Ute Reservation was enlarged, but this additional 
tract was restored to the public domain by an order of August 4, 1882. 
By Act of June 18, 1878, a portion of the Act of May 5, 1864, was 
repealed, and several tracts included m the reservations thereunder 
established were restored to the public domain. Under an agreement 
of November 9, 1878, the Moache, Capote, and Wiminuche ceded 
their right to the confederated Ute Reservation established by the 
1868 treaty, the United States agreeing to establish a reservation for 
them on San Juan River, a promise which was finally fulfilled by 
Executive order of February 7, 1879. On March 6, 1880, the South- 
ern Ute and the Uncompahgre acknowledged an agreement to settle 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OP NORTH AMERICA 376 

respectively on La Plata River and on the Grand River near the 
mouth of the Gunnison, while the White River Ute agreed to move 
to the Uinta Reservation in Utah. Sufficient agricultural land not 
being found at the point designated as the future home of the Uncom- 
pahgre, the President, by Executive order of January 5, 1882, estab- 
lished a reserve for them in Utah, the boundaries of which were defined 
by Executive order of the same date. By Act of May 24, 1888, a 
part of the Uinta Reservation was restored to the public domain. 
The tribe has since been allotted land in severalty. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 4,500 Ute 
in 1845, including the Gosiute. In 1870 there were supposed to be 
4,000. The official reports give 3,391 in 1885 and 2,014 in 1909. 
The census of 1910 returned 2,244; the United States Indian Office in 
1923, 1,922, including some Paiute; and the Indian Office in 1937, 
2,163. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — The Ute shared with 
the Shoshoni the reputation of being the strongest and most warlike 
of the Plateau people. The State of Utah derives its name from 
the Ute. Utah is also the name of a county and a lake in this State, 
There is a place called Utahville in Clearfield County, Pa., and locali- 
ties called Ute in Montrose County, Colo., and Monona County, 
Iowa, and Ute Park in Colfax County, N. Mex. 

NEVADA 

Eoso. This is properly a California tribe, though it sometimes 
ranged into Nevada. (See California.) 

Painte, Northern. The significance of the word "Paiute" is uncer- 
tain, though it has been interpreted to mean "water Ute" or 
"true Ute." Also called: 

Monachi, Yokuts name. 

Monozi, Maidu name. 

Mono-Paviotso, name adopted in the Handbook of American Indians 
(Hodge, 1907, 1910), from an abbreviated form of the above and Paviotso. 

Nutaa, Chukchansi Yokuts name, signifying that they were east or up- 
stream. 

Paviotso, a native term applied by Powell (1891) to a part of the 
Nevada Indians of this group. 

Snake, name commonly given to the Northern Paiute of Oregon. 

Connections. — With the Bannock, the Northern Paiute constituted 
one dialectic group of the Shoshonean Branch of the Uto-Aztecan 
stock. 

Location. — The Northern Paiute were not properly a tribe, the 
name being used for a dialectic division as indicated above. They 



376 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

covered western Nevada, southeastern Oregon, and a strip of Cali- 
fornia east of the Sierra Nevada as far south as Owens Lake except 
for territory occupied by the Washo. According to the students of 
the area, they were pushed out of Powder River Valley and the 
upper course of John Day River in the nineteenth century by Sha- 
haptian tribes and the Cayuse. (See also Idaho.) 

Subdivisions and Villages 

There were no true tribes or bands except in the extreme western and north- 
eastern parts of the area covered, but topography enforced concentration into 
certain valleys. Aside from the detached Bannock, the Northern Paiute were 
divided by the Sierra Nevada Mountains into a widely spread eastern division 
and a small division confined to California, the Eastern and Western Mono of 
Kroeber. Kroeber (1925) distinguishes six divisions of the latter as follows: 

Balwisha, on the Kaweah River, especially on its south side. 

Holkoma, on a series of confluent streams — of which Big Burr and Sycamore 

Creeks are the most important — entering Kings River above Mill Creek. 
Northfork Mono, for whom no native name has survived, on the North Fork of 

San Joaquin River. 
Posgisa or Poshgisha, of the San Joaquin, on Big Sandy Creek, and toward, if 

not on, the heads of Little and Big Dry Creeks. 
Waksachi, on Limekiln and Eshom Creeks and the North Fork of Kaweah River. 
Wobonuch, at the head of Mill Creek, a southern affluent of Kings River, and in 

the pine ridges to the north. 

Away from Owens Valley and the immediate neighborhood the Paiute have 
been divided into a large number of bands with names which usually signify that 
they were "eaters" of some particular kind of food. Although the entire area has 
been filled in with such names, they have been given largely by Indians from areas 
outside those of the supposed bands; different names are given by different inform- 
ants, the same name occurs in a number of places, at times widely separated, and 
there is lack of agreement among informants, including Steward (1933), Kelly 
(1937), Park (1938), and Blyth (1938), as to the numbers, names, and locations of 
the groups under consideration. Instead of attempting any sort of classification, 
therefore, I will simply insert a miscellaneous list of villages and local settlements 
though these were almost as fluctuating and impermanent as the larger groups. 
In most cases, however, it may be assumed that the location was determined by 
economic factors and mention of such a site has, therefore, some permanent value 
however often the name may have changed or the composition of the village 
fluctuated. 

Gifford (1932) gives the following hamlets belonging to Kroeber's Northfork 
Mono besides 83 fishing places and campsites, the exact locations of which are 
entered in his report and accompanying map: 

Apasoraropa. Homohomineu. 

Apayiwe. Howaka. 

Asiahanyu. Kodiva. 

Bakononohoi. Konahinau. 

Dipichugu. Kotuunu. 

Dipichyu. Kunugipii. 

Ebehiwe. Monolu. 

Homenadobema. Moyopaso. 



SWANTON] 



INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 



377 



Muchupiwe. Sihuguwe. 

Musawati. Sikinobi. 

Nabamayuwe. Sipineu. 

Napasiat. Siiigatu. 

Noboihawe. Soyakanim. 

Nosidop. Sukuunu. 

Ohinobi. Supanaminau. 

O'oneu. Takapiwe. 

Oyonagatii. Takatiu. 

Pahabitima. Tasineu. 

Pakasanina. Tiwokiiwe. 

Papavagohira. Topochinatii. 

Pasawapii. Tiibipakwina. 

Pasiaputka. Tiikweninewe. 

Pausoleu. Tumuyuyu. 

Payauta. Ttipipasaguwe. 

Pekeneu. Waapiiwee. 

Pimishineu. Wadakhanau. 

Poniaminau. Wegigoyo. 

Poniwinyu. Wiakwii. 

Ponowee. Wokoiinaha, 

Saganiu. Wokosolna. 

Saiipii. Yatsayau. 

Saksakadiu. Yauwatinyu. 

Sanita. Yauyau. 
Sigineu. 

Steward enumerates the following "districts" of Owens Valley and neighboring 
valleys, each with communistic hunting and seed rights, political unity, and a 
number of villages: 

Kwina patii, Round Valley. 

Panatii, the Black Rock territory, south to Taboose Creek. 

Pitana patii, extending from the volcanic tableland and Norton Creek in the Sierra 

to a line running out into Owens Valley from Waucodayavi, the largest creek 

south of Rawson Creek. 
Tovowahamatii, centering at Big Pine, south to Big Pine Creek in the mountains, 

but with fishing and seed rights along Owens River nearly to Fish Springs. 
Tunuhu witii, of uncertain limits. 
Utu'iitu witii, from the warm springs, now Keough's, south to Shannon Creek. 

The people of Deep Springs Valley called their valley Patosabaya and themselves 
Patosabaya ntinemua; the Fish Lake Valley people to the north of these did not 
constitute a unified band but were distributed into the following villages: 

Ozanwin, on the east or south slope of the Sylvania Mountains and near Tii'nava. 
Pau'uva, in the vicinity of McNett ranch. 
Sohodiihatii, at the present Oasis ranch. 
Suhuyoi, at the Patterson ranch. 

Tuna'va, the present Geroux ranch, marked McFee on the United States Geo- 
logical Survey. 
Tii'nava, at Pigeon Spring at the east end of Fish Lake Valley. 
Watiihad, MoHne ranch on Moline Creek. 
Yogamatii, several miles from the mountains at the present Chiatovich ranch. 



378 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Steward (1933) gives the following village names in and near Owens Valley: 
An unnamed site west of Deep Springs Lake. 
Ahagwa, on Division Creek. 
Antelope Springs, native name not recorded. 
Hudu matu, on Cottonwood Creek. 
Hunadudugo, camp near Wyman Creek. 
Ka'nasi, camp at Dead Horse Meadow on Wyman Creek. 
Mogahu' pina, scattered along Hogback, Lone Pine, Tuttle, and Diez Creeks. 
Mogohopinan watu, on Richter Creek. 
Muhu witu, on Tinnemaha Creek. 
Nataka' matu, at Independence. 
Nuvahu' matu, near Thibaut Creek. 
Oza'n witu, southeast of Deep Springs Lake. 
Padohahu matu, on Goodale Creek. 
Pahago watu, on Tuttle Creek. 
Pakwazi' natu, at Olancha. 

Pa'natu, on Owens River, near mouth of Birch Creek. 
Pau'wahapu, at Hines Spring. 
Pawona witu, on Bishop Creek below Bishop. 
Pa'yapo'o'ha, south of Bishop. 
Pazi'wapi'nwuna, at Independence. 
Posi'da witu, on Baker Creek. 

Suhubadopa, at Fish Springs Creek, at least in prehistoric times. 
Suhu'budu mutu, on Carroll Creek. 
Suhuvakwazi natu, on Wyman Creek. 
Tanova witu, south of Independence. 
Ti'numaha witu, on Tinnemaha Creek. 
To'owiawatu, at Symmes Creek. 
Totsitupi, on Thibaut Creek. 

To'vowaha'matu, at Big Pine on Big Pine Creek. 
Tsagapu witu, at Shepherd Creek. 
Tsaki'shaduka, near Old Fort Independence. 
Tsaksha witu, at Fort Independence. 
Tsa'wawua'a, on Bishop Creek. 
Tsigoki, beyond Owens ranch, east of Bishop. 
Tuhunitogo, near upper course of Birch Creek. 
Tuinu'hu, on Sawmill Creek. 
Tunwa'pu, at the mouth of Taboose Creek. 
Tupico, on Birch Creek, west of Hunadudugo. 
Tupuzi witu, at George's Creek. 
Waushova witu, on Lone Pine Creek. 

Steward gives the following villages in Fish Lake Valley: 

Oza'nwin, on the east or south slope of the Sylvania Mountains and near Tu'nava. 

Pau'uva, in the vicinity of McNett ranch. 

Sohoduhatu, at the present Oasis ranch. 

Suhuyoi, at the Patterson ranch. 

Tuna' va, at the present Geroux ranch. 

Tu' nava, at Pigeon Springs at east end of Fish Lake Valley. 

Watuhad, at Moline ranch. 

Yogamatu, several miles from the mountains at the present Chiatovich ranch. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 379 

The following are miscellaneous local groups of Northern Paiute, the names 
drawn from various sources: 

Agaivanuna, at Summit Lake, western Nevada. 

Duhutcyatikadu, on Silver and Summer Lakes, Oreg. 

Genega's Band, at the mouth of Truckee River 

Gidutikadu, in Surprise, Calif.; Coleman; Warner, Oreg.; and probably also 

Long Valleys, in California, Nevada, and Oregon. 
Goyatikendu, at Yainax and Beatty, Oreg., brought from Silver Lake. 
Hadsapoke's Band, at Gold Canyon, Carson River. 

Hoonebooey, east of the Cascades and south of the Blue Mountains of Oregon. 
Itsaatiaga, about Unionville, Nev. 

Kaivaningavidukw, in Surprise Valley, northeastern California. 
Koeats, in north central Nevada. 
Kosipatuwiwagaiyu, about Carson Sink. 
Koyuhow, about McDermitt, Nev. 
Kuhpattikutteh, on Quinn River, Nev. 
Kuyuidika, near the site of Wadsworth on Truckee River. 
Kuyuitikadu, at Pyramid Lake, Nixon, Nev. 
Kwinaduvaa, at McDermitt, Nev. 
Laidukatuwiwait, about the sink of the Humboldt. 
Lohim, an isolated Shoshonean band, probably of this connection, on Willow 

Creek, a southern affluent of the Columbia, Oreg. 
Loko, on or near Carson River, Nev. 
Nogaie (with 4 subbands), in the vicinity of Robinson District, Spring Valley, 

Duckwater, and White River Valley. 
Odukeo's Band, around Carson and Walker Lakes. 
Oualuck's Band, in Eureka Valley, Oreg. 
Pamitoy, in Mason Valley. 
Paxai-dika, in Bridgeport Valley, Calif. 
Petodseka, about Carson and Walker Lakes. 
Piattuiabbe (with 5 bands), near Belmont, Nev. 
Pitanakwat or Petenegowat, in Owens Valley, but formerly in Esmeralda County, 

Nev. 
Poatsituhtikuteh, on the north fork of Walker River, 
San Joaquin's Band, at the forks in Carson Valley. 
Sawagativa, about Winnemucca. 

Shobarboobeer, probably of this connection, in the interior of Oregon, 
Shuzavi-dika, in Mono Valley, Calif. 
Togwingani, about Malheur Lake, Oreg. 

Tohaktivi, about the White Mountains, near the head of Owens River, Calif. 
Toitikadu, at Fallon and Yerington, Nev. 
Toiwait, about the lower Sink of the Carson. 

Tonawitsowa (with 6 bands), in the vicinity of Battle Mountain and Unionville. 
Tonoyiet's Band, below Big Meadows, Truckee River. 
Torepe's Band, near the lower crossing of Truckee River. 
Tosarke's Band, near Carson and Walker Lakes. 
Tsapakah, in Smith Valley. 
Tubianwapu, about Virginia City. 
Tubuwitikadu, east of Steens Mountain, Oreg. 
Tupustikutteh, on Carson River. 
Tuziyammos, about Warner Lake, Oreg. 
Wahi's Band, at the big bend of Carson River. 



380 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 146 

Wadatikadu, at Burns, Malheur District, Oregon, and Susanville, Calif. 

Wahtatkin, east of the Cascade Mountains and south of the Blue Mountains, 
Oreg. 

Walpapi, on the shores of Goose, Silver, Warner, and Harney Lakes, Oreg. 

Warartika, about Honey Lake, northeastern California. 

Watsequeorda's Band, on Pyramid Lake. 

Winemucca's Band, said to have had a specific location on Smoke Creek near 
Honey Lake, northeastern California, but to have been extended to other 
northern Paiute living west of the Hot Springs Mountains in Nevada, who do not 
seem to have been united into one body until brought together to defend 
themselves against the Whites. 

Wobonuch, at the head of Mill Creek, California, and in the pine ridges to the 
north. 

Yahuskin, about the shores of Goose, Silver, and Harney Lakes, Oreg. 

Yammostuwiwagaiya, in Paradise Valley, Nev. 

History. — Although the territory of the Northern Paiute has been 
occupied for a long period by human beings and has been modified 
from time to time along its margins by neighboring cultures, there 
seem to have been few fundamental changes in the culture of the 
region taken as a whole, the economic life having been based on 
hunting and gathering. Contacts with Europeans began at a com- 
paratively late period, probably with the entrance of trappers about 
1825. Jedediah Smith made journeys across Nevada in 1825 and 
Old Greenwood may have visited it still earlier. Peter Skene Ogden 
visited the Paiute of eastern Oregon between 1826 and 1828 and 
probably reached Humboldt River in Nevada. These men were 
followed by Walker (1833), Russell (1834-43), and many others. 
During this period relations with the Indians seem to have been 
uniformly friendly, but clashes became more numerous with the 
great stream of immigration which began about 1840 and swelled to 
tidal proportions with the discovery of gold in California. The 
Paiute in the remote valleys, however, remained for a long time 
little affected. Descriptions of Indian life in the numerous reports 
of travelers are disappointing. A great crisis in the affairs of the 
Indians was brought about by the discovery of the Comstock lode at 
Virginia City, Nev., since in the next 10 years prospectors penetrated 
every part of the territory, says Steward, "and boom towns sprang up 
in the midst of sheer desert." A greater menace to the lives of the 
Indians was the introduction of livestock and consequent destruction 
of native food plants. Pinyon trees were also cut down for fuel. By 
this time the natives had both guns and horses and were in con- 
sequence much more capable of inflicting damage in the clashes 
which began about 1860 and in consequence of which several military 
posts were established. With the completion of the first trans- 
continental railroad in 1869, the native period came practically to 
an end. On October 1, 1863, the United States Government extended 



SWANTONJ INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 381 

its authority without formal purchase over the territory of the "West- 
ern Shoshoni" and included within it the northern part of the lands 
occupied by the Northern Paiute under discussion. The Government 
assumed "the right of satisfying their claim by assigning them such 
reservations as might seem essential for their occupancy, and sup- 
plying them in such degree as might seem proper with necessaries 
of life" (Royce, 1899). By virtue of the authority thus granted, a 
mill and timber reserve was created on Truckee River by Executive 
order, April 24, 1864, for the Pyramid Lake Indians. In December 
1864 Eugene Monroe surveyed a reservation for the Paiute at Walker 
River, and in January 1865 he surveyed another at Pyramid Lake. 
The former was set aside by Executive order March 19, 1874, and 
the latter 4 days later. "The remainder of the Pai Ute country," 
says Royce, "[was] taken possession of by the United States without 
formal relinquishment by the Indians." On the other hand, the 
Indians by no means confined themselves to these reservations. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that this division, i. e., the 
tribes embraced under the name of Northern Paiute, and the true or 
Southern Paiute numbered 7,500 in 1845. The figures given in the 
Report of the Indian Office for 1903 indicate a population of about 
5,400 for the group. The Census of 1910 reports 1,448 "Mono" and 
3,038 Paviotso, a total of 4,486, but the United States Indian Office 
Report of 1923 seems to give a total of more than 13,000. This is 
evidently erroneous since the United States Census of 1930 reported 
4,420. The figures of the United States Indian Office in 1937 seem to 
yield 4,108, after substracting 270, which plainly belonged to the 
Southern Paiute. 

Paiute, Southern. Also called: 

Auolasus, Pima name. 

Chemegu6 Cuajdla, by Garc63 in 1776, the first name on account of their 

association with the Chemehuevi (see under California; for Cuajdla, see 

Kohoaldje below). 
Da-da'-ze ni'-ka-ci°'-ga, Kansa name, signifying "grasshopper people." 
Diggers, a popular name sometimes used for them. 
Hogipa'goni, Shoshoni name, signifying "rush-arrow people." 
Kohoaldje, originally Mohave name of Virgin River Paiute. 
Niima, own name, signifying "people," "Indians." 
Pa'gonotch, Southern Ute. name. 
Pah-ru-sd-pdh, Chemehuevi name. 
Snake Diggers, or Ute Diggers, by Simpson (1859). 
Yabipai Cajuala, by Carets in 1776. 

Connections. — The Southern Paiute belonged to the Ute-Chemehuevi 
group of the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan stock. 

Location. — In western Utah, northwestern Arizona, southeastern 
Nevada, and parts of southeastern California. 



382 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 145 

Subdivisions 

Powell and Ingalls give the following "tribes" which, as Steward (1933) sug- 
gests, were more likely villages or restricted local groups: 

Ho-kwaits, in the vicinity of Ivanspaw ("Ivanpah Mountain"). 
I'-chu-ar'-rum-pats, in Moapa Valley, "probably in Overton-St. Thomas vicinity" 

(Kelly, 1932). 
Kai'vav-wits, in the vicinity of Kanab ("Kaibab Plateau" — Kelly). 
Kau-yai'-chits, at Ash Meadows but actually in Shoshoni territory. 
Kwai-an'-tikwok-ets, east of Colorado, which is perhaps what the name means 

(Palmer, 1928). 
Kwi-en'-go-mats, at Indian Springs. 
Kwi-um'-pus, in the vicinity of Beaver. 
Mo-a-pa-ri'-ats, in Moapa Valley (on Moapa Creek). 
Mo-quats, in Kingston Mountains. 
Mo-vwi'-ats, at Cottonwood Island. 
Nau-wan'-a-tats, in Moapa Valley. 

No-gwats, in the vicinity of Potosi ("in Spring Mountains" — Kelly). 
Nu-a'gun-tits, in Las Vegas Valley. 
Pa-ga'-its, in the vicinity of Colville. 
Pa-gu'-its, at Pagu Lake. 
Pa-ran-i-guts, in Pa-ran-i-gut Valley. 

Pa-room'-pai-ats, in Moapa Valley "head of Moapa Creek, at Home ranch." 
Pa-room'-pats, at Pa-room Spring. 

Pa-ru'-guns, in the vicinity of Parawau "Paragonah Lakes" (Kelly, 1932). 
Pa-spi'-kai-vats, in the vicinity of Toquerville, "a district on lower Ash Creek" 

(Kelly). 
Pin'-ti-ats, in Moapa Valley. 
Sau-won'-ti-ats, in Moapa Valley. 
Shi'-vwits, on Shi'-vwits Plateau. 
Tim-pa-shau'-wa-got-sits, at Providence Mountains. 
Tsou-wa'-ra-its, in Meadow Valley. 
U'-ai-Nu-ints, in the vicinity of St. George. 
U-in-ka'-rets, in Mountains ("Mount Trumbull" — Kelly). 
Un-ka-ka'-ni-guts, in Long Valley. 
Un-ka'-pa-Nu-kuints', in the vicinity of Cedar (perhaps "second creek south of 

Kanarra . . . slightly southeast of New Harmony" — Kelly). 
U-tum'-pai-ats, in Moapa Valley ("site of Wiser Ranch, near Glendale, Nevada" — 

Kelly). 
Ya'-gats, at Armagoza ("spring just north of Tecopa, in Armagosa Valley" — 

Kelly). 

Kelly (1932) reduces the number of "tribes" or "bands" to 14, some of which 
agree with those given by Powell, while others seem to contain the remnants of a 
number of his "tribes." She also gives two not appearing in his list, viz: the 
Kaiparowits and a band at Gunlock. 

History. — The Southern Paiute came in contact with the Spaniards 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries but were little disturbed by 
them. The first attempt to describe them systematically seems to 
have been made by Father Escalante, who traversed their territory 
in 1776. After the annexation of California and New Mexico to the 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OP NORTH AMERICA 383 

United States, their country was slowly but steadily encroached upon, 
and they were in part removed to reservations though by far the 
greater number remained scattered through the country. There has 
been comparatively little friction between these Indians and the 
Whites. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) gives the population of the Southern 
Paiute and Northern Paiute together as 7,500 in 1845. In 1906 
there were reported to be 129 Indians at Moapa Reservation, 267 at 
Duck Valley, and those not under an agent in Nevada were estimated 
6 years before to number 3,700, but this includes the Northern Paiute; 
in Utah there were 76 Kaibab, 154 Shivwits, and 370 not under an 
agency; and in Arizona there were 350 Paiute under the Western 
Nevada School Superintendent, altogether slightly more than 5,000. 
Even allowing for the Northern Paiute, this figure must be too high or 
the enumerators of 1910 missed a great many Indians, for the census of 
that date reports only 780 Paiute altogether. The Indian Office 
Report for 1923 gives 226 in Nevada and southwestern Utah, but 
others in Utah are enumerated with the Ute. The census of 1930 
enumerates 294 exclusive of the Chemehuevi. According to the Report 
of the United States Indian Office for 1937, there seem to have been 
439 in that year. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — The name Paiute 
has become identified with the name "Diggers." Both have been 
used in a contemptuous sense. A county of south-central Utah is 
named Paiute. 

Panamint, see Paiute, Northern. 

Pueblo. In historic times none of the Pueblo Indians have occupied 
any part of Nevada, but remains in the southern section of the State 
testify to former occupancy by these Indians. (See New Mexico 
and Arizona.) 

Shoshoni. The Western Shoshoni occupied northeastern Nevada as 
far as, and including, Reese River Valley. (See Idaho.) 

Ute. The Ute claimed a small part of eastern Nevada. (See Utah.) 

Washo. From the native term Washiu, signifying "person." Also 
called: 

Tsaisuma, name given them by the northeastern Maidu. 

Connections. — Until recently the Washo were regarded as constitut- 
ing a distinct linguistic stock, but it is now believed that they were 
related to some of the tribes of California. J. P. Harrington has 
announced a linguistic connection between them and the Chumash, but 
other students place them in the Hokan linguistic family. 



384 BT7REAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

Subdivisions 
Lowie gives the following: 

Ha'nale'lti, about Woodfords and in Antelope Valley. 
Pa'walu, near Minden and Gardnerville. 
We'lmelti, about Reno. 

Location. — On Truckee River as far down as the Meadows, though 
their right to the latter was disputed by the Northern Paiute tribes; 
Carson River down to the first large canyon below Carson City; the 
borders of Lake Tahoe; and Sierra and other valleys as far as the first 
range south of Honey Lake, Cafif. 

History. — There is some evidence that the Washo were once estab- 
lished in valleys farther east than the location above given and were 
driven thence by Northern Paiute tribes. In 1860-62, according to 
Mooney (1928), the Northern Paiute conquered them in a contest 
over the site of Carson and forbade them thenceforth to own horses. 
They had little contact with Whites until very recent years. In 
later times they lived between Reno and a point a short distance 
south of Carson City, where they adopted a parasitic mode of life, 
depending almost entirely on the towns and ranches. In 1865 it was 
proposed to set aside two reservations for these Indians in Carson 
and Washoe Valleys, but white settlers had already occupied the 
territory and the plan was abandoned. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) made an estimate of 1,000 as of 1845. 
In 1859 they numbered about 900. In 1907, 300 were reported. 
The census of 1910 reported 819; that of 1930, 668. In 1937, 629 
were reported. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — The name W^asho is 
preserved in the names of Washoe County, Washoe Lake, Washoe 
Valley, and Washoe, a post hamlet, all in Nevada. Another locality 
called Washoe is in Carbon County, Mont. 

WYOMING 

Arapaho, possibly from the Pawnee tirapihu or larapihu, signifiying 
"trader." Also called: 

Xhya'to, Kiowa name. 
Ano's-anyotskano, Kichai name. 
Betides, Kiowa Apache name. 

Detseka'yaa, Caddo name, signifying "dog eaters." 
Dog Eaters. 

E-tah-leh, Hidatsa name, signifying "bison path Indians." 
Hitiinwo'Iv, Cheyenne name, signifying "cloud men" or "sky men." 
Intina-ina, own name, signifying "our people." 
Ita-Iddi, Hidatsa name (Maximilian). 
Kaninahoish, Chippewa name. 

Koms^ka-Ki'nahyup, former Kiowa name, signifying "men of the worn-out 
leggings." 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 385 

Kun na-nar-wesh or Gens des Vachles], by Lewis and Clark (1804). 
Mahplyato, Dakota name, signifying "blue cloud." 
Nii'rharl's-kGrikiwa'ahdski, Wichita name. 

Sargtika, Comanche and Shoshoni name, signifying "dog eaters"; the 
Pawnee, Wichita, and Ute names were forms of this. 

Connections. — Together with their near relatives, the Atsina, the 
Arapaho constitute the most aberrant group of the Algonquian 
hnguistic stock. 

Location. — The Arapaho have occupied a number of different 
regions in the historic period, but after they crossed the Missouri 
they became most closely identified with northeastern Wyoming, 
where the main or northern part of the tribe resided for a long period 
and where they were finally given a reservation. (See also Colorado, 
Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South 
Dakota, and Canada.) 

Subdivisions 

The Arapaho recognized five main divisions, which were evidently originally 
distinct tribes. Mooney (1928) calls these: (1) NdkasinS'na, Bdachingna, or 
Northern Arapaho; (2) NdwunSna, or Southern Arapaho; (3) Aa'ninCna, Hitiingna, 
Atsina, or Gros Ventres of the Prairie, today usually reckoned as a distinct tribe 
(see Montana) ; (4) Basawun?na, principally with the Northern Arapaho ; and (5) 
H^nahawungna, or Aanfi'nhawS, later incorporated with the Northern Arapaho. 
The corresponding names given by Kroeber (1902 b) are: Hinanae'ina" (Arapaho 
proper), Na^waginaha'ana" (evidently Southern Arapaho), Hitoune'na° (Gros 
Ventres), Ba,asa°wuune'na°, and Ha°anaxawuune'na°. Kroeber also states that 
four more divisions recognized in the tribe were evidently in reality divisions of 
the Hinanae'ina". These are: Wa^xue'i^i ("ugly people"), about Cantonment, 
Okla.; Haxaa°9ine'na° ("ridiculous men"), on the South Canadian, Okla.; 
Baa°tcline'na° ("red-willow men"), in Wyoming; and a fourth whose name has 
been forgotten. The following are relatively modern local bands of the .\rapaho: 
Forks-of-t he-River Men, Bad Pipes, Greasy Faces, Wdquithi, Aqdthing'na, Gawun- 
6na, Hdqihana, Sasdbaithi, of which the first three were among the Northern 
Arapaho. 

History. — According to tradition, the Arapaho were once sedentary 
and seem to have lived in the Red River Valley, whence they moved 
southwest across the Missouri at some time prior to the passage of 
that stream by the Cheyenne. Sometime afterward the Atsina 
separated from the rest, possibly cut off from the main body by the 
Crow, and moved off to the north; and within the last centur}'' the 
rest of the tribe have slowly divided into a northern and a vSouthern 
branch, the Northern Arapaho living along the edges of the mountains 
at the headwaters of the Platte, while the Southern Arapaho continued 
on toward the Arkansas. About 1840 they made peace with the Da- 
kota, Kiowa, and Comanche but were at war with the Shoshoni, Ute, 
and Pawnee until they were confined to reservations. By the treaty 
of Medicine Lodge in 1867 the Southern Arapaho were placed upon 
a reservation in Oklahoma along with the Southern Cheyenne; this was 



386 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

thrown open to white settlement and the Indian lands were allotted 
in severalty in 1892. The Northern Arapaho were assigned to a 
reservation on Wind River, Wyo., after having made peace with the 
Shoshoni who occupied the same reserve. The Atsina were associated 
with the Assiniboin on Fort Belknap Reservation, Mont. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 3,000 
Arapaho in 1780 and the same number of Atsina. In 1894 there 
were 2,638 of the two tribes together; in 1904 there were 889 Northern 
Arapaho and 859 Southern Arapaho, a total of 1,748. The census of 
1910 reported 1,419 Arapaho, while the United States Indian Office 
Report for 1923 gives 921 Arapaho in Wyoming and 833 in Oklahoma, 
a total of 1,754. The 1930 census reported 1,241, of whom 867 
belonged to the northern division. In 1937 there were 1,164 Northern 
Arapaho and 2,836 Southern Arapaho and Cheyenne together. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — The Arapaho were one 
of the famous raiding tribes of the Plains; their name appears fre- 
quently coupled with that of the Cheyenne. The name Arapahoe 
has been given to a county and a mountain in Colorado and to localities 
in Furnas County, Nebr.; Pamlico County, N. C; Cheyenne County, 
Colo.; and Fremont County, Wyo.; and the name Arapaho to the 
county seat of Custer County, Okla. 

Bannock. Some Bannock ranged into western Wyoming. (See 
Idaho.) 

Cheyenne. The Cheyemie hunted and warred to some extent in the 
eastern part of Wyoming; were long allied with the Arapaho. (See 
South Dakota.) 

Comanche. Before separating from the Shoshoni the Comanche 
probably occupied territory in Wyoming, afterward moving south- 
ward. (See Texas.) 

Crows. The Crows occupied in Wyoming the valleys of Powder, 
Wind, and Big Horn Rivers and ranged as far south as Laramie. 
(See Montana.) 

Dakota. Dakota hunting and war parties frequently reached the 
territory of Wyoming, but the tribe had no permanent settlements 
there. In 1876 they participated with the Northern Arapaho and 
Northern Cheyenne in the cession of the northeastern territory of 
Wyoming. (See South Dakota.) 

Kiowa. According to tradition, a tradition reinforced by other evi- 
dence, the Kiowa lived for a time in or near the Black Hills before 
moving south. (See Oklahoma.) 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 387 

Kiowa Apache. This tribe lived in close conjunction with the Kiowa. 
(See Oklahoma.) 

Pawnee. The Pawnee were known to Wyoming only as hunters and 
warriors, (See Nebraska.) 

Shoshoni. The Northern Shoshoni formerly occupied the western 
part of Wyoming. (See Idaho.) 

Ute. The Ute were just south of the present Wyoming and entered 
its territory at times to hunt or fight. (See Utah.) 

MONTANA 

Arapaho. The Arapaho proper occupied, or camped in, parts of 
southeastern Montana at various periods of their history. (See 
Wyoming.) 

Arikara. Some Arikara hunted in eastern Montana. In 1869 and 
1880, together with the Hidatsa and Mandan, they relinquished 
rights to land in the southeastern part of the State. (See North 
Dakota.) 

Assiniboin. From a Chippewa term signifying "one who cooks by 
the use of stones." 

E-tans-ke-pa-se-qua, Hidatsa name, from a word signifying "long arrows" 

(Long, 1823). 
Guerriers de pierre, French name. 
Hohe, Dakota name, signifying "rebels." 
Sioux of the Rocks, English name. 

Stonies, or Stone Indians, English name translated from the Indian. 
TlQ'tlama'eka, Kutenai name, signifying "cutthroats," the usual term 

for Dakota derived from the sign language. 
Weepers, given by Henry (1809). 

Connections. — The Assiniboin belonged to the Siouan hnguistic 
family, and were a branch of the Dakota (see South Dakota), having 
sprung traditionally from the Yanktonai whose dialect they spoke. 

Location. — The Assiniboin were most prominently associated his- 
torically with the valleys of the Saskatchewan and Assiniboin Rivers, 
Canada. In the United States they occupied the territory north of 
the Milk and Missouri Rivers as far east as the White Earth. (See 
also North Dakota.) 

Subdivisions 

The latest list is that given by Professor Lowie (1939). He states that, an- 
ciently, there were three principal tribal divisions, viz: Ho'ke (Like-Big-Fish), 
Tu-wa°'huda° (Looking-like-Ghosts), and Sitco°'-ski (Tricksters, lit. "Wrinkled- 
Ankles"). Lowie obtained the names of the following smaller bands: Tca°xta'da», 
U°ska'ha (Roamers), Wazl'a wintca'ct*, (Northern People), Wat5'paxna-o° 
wa° or Wato'paxnatu", Tca°'xe wintca'cta (People of the Woods), Tani°'ta'bin 
(Buffalo-Hip), Hu'deca'bin* (Red-Butt), WacI'azI hyabin (Fat-Smokers), Witcl'- 



388 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

abin, I'''ya°to°Va°bin (Rock People), Wato'pabin (Paddlers), Cuntcg'bi (Canum 
Mentulae), Cahi'a iye'skabin (Speakers of Cree (Half-Crees)), Xe'nato°wan 
(Mountain People), Xe'bina (Mountain People), Icna'umbis', (Those-who-stay- 
alone), and Ini'na u'mbi. Hayden (1862) mentions a band called Min'-i-shi- 
nak'-a-to, or Lake People, which does not seem to be identifiable with any of 
the above. This last may be the band called by Henry (1809) Those-who-have- 
water-for-themselves-only. The following bands cited by Henry are wholly 
unidentifiable: Red River, Rabbit, Eagle Hills, Saskatchewan, Foot, and Swampy 
Ground Assiniboin. 

History. — According to tradition, this tribe separated from the 
Wazikute band of Yanktonai. The separation evidently took place 
before contact with the Whites, but there is evidence that when 
Europeans first heard of the tribe they were south of their later habitat, 
probably in the vicinity of the Lake of the Woods and Lake Nipigon. 
Thence they moved northwest toward Lake Winnipeg and later to 
the banks of the Assiniboin and Saskatchewan Rivers. In the mean- 
time they had allied themselves with the Cree and had become enemies 
of their own southern relatives with whom they were afterward almost 
constantly at war. This northward movement and alliance with the 
Cree was due in large measure to the establishment of British posts 
on Hudson Bay and the desire of the Assiniboin Indians to have access 
to them and thus supply themselves with firearms and other European 
articles. The Assiniboin in the United States were gathered under 
the Fort Belknap and Fort Peck agencies ; those in Canada under the 
Battleford, Edmonton, and Assiniboin agencies, at Moose Mountain, 
and on Stoney Reservation. 

Population. — Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 10,000 
Assiniboin in 1780. In 1829 Porter gave 8,000, and Drake {in Church, 
1825) thought that there were 10,000 before the smallpox epidemic 
of 1836, when 4,000 died. The United States Indian Office Report 
of 1843 gave 7,000; in 1890 they numbered 3,008; and in 1904, 1,234 
in the United States, and 1,371 in Canada, a total of 2,605. The 
census of 1910 gave 1,235 in the United States, and the United States 
Indian Office Report for 1923 gave 1,400, while there was an approxi- 
mately equal number in Canada. The United States Census of 
1930 gave 1,581. In 1937, 2,232 were returned in the United States. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — The Assiniboin 
attained prominence during the dealings of explorers and traders with 
the Indians along the upper Missouri. As Assiniboin or Assiniboine, 
the name has been adopted for an important affluent of the Red 
River of the North in Manitoba and Saskatchewan Provinces. Mount 
Assiniboin is in the Rocky Mountains near the boundary between 
British Columbia and Alberta, about 20 miles south of Banff. 



SWANTONJ INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 389 

Atsina. Probably from Blackfoot fit-se'-na, supposed to mean "^t 
people." Also called: 

Acapatos, by Duflot de Mofras (1844). 

A-re-tear-o-pan-ga, Hidataa name. 

Bahwetego-weninnewug, Chippewa name, signifying "fall people." 

Bot-k'in'ago, signifying "belly men." 

Fall Indians, common early name. 

Gros Ventres des Plaines, derived from an incorrect interpretation of the 

tribal sign and the qualifying phrase "des Plaines" to distinguish them 

from the Hidatsa, the Gros Ventres de la Riviere. 
Haaninin or Aa'nin^na, own name, said to signify "white-clay people," 

"lime-men," or "chalk-men." 
His-tu-i'-ta-ni-o, Cheyenne name. 

Hitiingna, Arapaho name, signifying "beggars" or "spongers." 
Minnetarees of the Plains, Minnetarees of the Prairies, so called to avoid 

confusion with the Hidatsa (q. v. under North Dakota). 
Rapid Indians, from Harmon (1820). 
Sa'pani, Shoshoni name, signifying "bellies." 
Sku'tani, Dakota name. 

Connections. — The Atsina were a part of the Arapaho, of which 
tribe they are sometimes reckoned a division, and both belong to the 
Algonquian linguistic family. 

Location. — On Milk River and adjacent parts of the Missouri, 
in what is now Montana, ranging northward to the Saskatchewan. 
(See also Canada.) 

Subdivisions 

Kroeber (1908 b) has recorded the following names of bands or clans, some of 
which may, however, be duplications: 

Names of clans whose position in the camp circle is known, beginning at the 
south side of the opening at the east: Frozen or Plumes, "Those-who-water-their- 
horses-once-a-day"; Tendons, "Those-who-do-not-give-away," or "Buffalo- 
humps"; Opposite (or Middle) Assiniboin, "Ugly-ones or Tent-poles worn smooth 
[from travel]"; Bloods, "Fighting-alone." 

Other clan names: Berry -eaters. Breech-cloths, CofTee, Dusty-ones, Gray-ones 
or Ash-colored, Ka°hutyi (the name of a chief). Night-hawks, Poor-ones, Torn- 
trousers, Weasel-skin headdress. 

History. — If the Arapaho once lived in the Red River country, the 
Atsina were probably with them. At least, the languages of both 
point to the region of the Algonquian tribes northeast of the Plains 
for their origin. At the same time Kroeber (1900 b) thinks that 
they must have been separated for at least 200 years. According to 
Hayden (1860), they were south of the Saskatchewan about 1800. 
In 1818 they joined the Arapaho and remained with them until 1823 
when they returned to the location given above in the neighborhood 
of Milk River. For a long time they maintained an alliance with the 
Blackfeet but later joined the Crow against them and in the course 



390 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 145 

of the ensuing war, in 1867, suffered a severe defeat. Later they were 
placed on Fort Belknap Reservation, Mont., with the Assiniboin. 

Popvlation. — Mooney (1928) estimates that the Atsina numbered 
3,000 in 1780. In 1904 there were 535. The census of 1910 reported 
510, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs in 1923 reported 
586; 631 were reported by the census of 1930, and 809 in 1937. 

Bannock. The Bannock ranged into the western part of the State. 
(See Idaho.) 

Cheyenne. The Cheyenne frequently entered the eastern part of 
Montana and the Northern Cheyenne were ultimately assigned a re- 
servation within the State. (See South Dakota.) 

Chippewa. The Chippewa had little contact with the region now 
included in Montana until very recent times when a considerable 
number came to live there, 486 according to the census of 1910. 
(See Minnesota.) 

Cree. The original homes of the Cree were north of the present 
United States, though their war parties frequently came into the 
territory now occupied by this country to iBght the Dakota, Black- 
foot, and other tribes. In comparatively late times a number, given 
by the census of 1910 as 309, settled in Montana, and others were 
reported from Washington (91), Michigan, Oregon, North Dakota, 
Idaho, Kansas, and Minnesota. (See also Canada.) 

Crow. A translation, through the French gens des corbeaux, of their 
own name Abs4roke, "crow-, sparrowhawk-, or bird-people." Also 
caUed: 

Hahderuka, Mandan name. 
Haideroka, Hidatsa name. 

Hounena, Arapaho name, signifying "crow men." 
Issa.ppo', Siksika name. 
Kangitoka, Yankton Dakota name. 
Ka'-xi, Winnebago name. 

Kihnatsa, Hidatsa name, signifying "they who refused the paunch," and 
referring to the tradition regarding the separation of these two tribes. 
Kokokiwak, Fox name. 
Long-haired Indians, by Sanford (1819). 
O-e'-tun'-i-o, Cheyenne name, signifying "crow people." 
Par-is-ca-oh-pan-ga, Hidatsa name, signifying "crow people" (Long, 

1823). 
St6mchi, Kalispel name. 
St6mtchi, Salish name. 
Stimk, Okinagan name. 
Yaxka'-a, Wyandot name, signifying "crow." 

Connections. — The Crow belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock and 
were most closely related to the Hidatsa, from whom they claim to 
have separated. 



SWANTON] INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA 391 

Location. — On the Yellowstone River and its branches, extending as 
far north as the Musselshell and as far south as Laramie Fork on the 
Platte, but centering particularly on three southern tributaries of 
Yellowstone River, the Powder, Wind, and Big Horn Rivers. (See 
also Wyoming and Canada.) 

Subdivisions 

There were formerly three local divisions, known to the people themselves as 
Mine'sepere, Dung-on-the-river-banks?, or Black Lodges; the A'^c'araho', Many- 
Lodges; and the Erarapl'o, Kicked-in-their-bellies. The first of these is called 
River Crow by some writers and the last two collectively Mountain Crow. They 
were also divided into 12 clans arranged in pairs. 

History. — As stated above, the Crow tribe claims to have separated 
from the Hidatsa, a tradition shared by the Hidatsa. It is at least 
certain that the two are more closely related linguistically than is 
either to any other Siouan group. Their separation into bands must 
have occurred in the first quarter of the nineteenth century at latest. 
In 1804 they were found in their historic seats and have been in 
approximately the same region ever since, the reservation to which 
they were finally assigned being on the Big Horn River. 

Population. — Mooney's (1928) estimate for the year 1780 is 4,000 
Crow. In 1804 Lewis and Clark estimated 350 lodges and 3,500 souls. 
In 1833 there were said to be 1,200 warriors and a population of from 
3,250 to 3,560. In 1890 a total population of 2,287 was reported, 
and in 1904, 1,826. The census of 1910 gave 1,799, and the United 
States Indian Office Report for 1923, 1,777. The census of 1930, 
reported 1,674, and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 2,173. 

Connections in which they have become noted. — The Crow tribe was 
prominent in the early history of the Northwest, though not to the 
extent of the Dakota and Blackfeet. The Indian form of the name, 
Absarokee, is borne by a post village of Stillwater County, Mont. ; in 
the form Absaraka it appears as the name of a place in Cass County, 
N. Dak.; and as Absaroka, more prominently, as the name of a range 
of mountains and a National Forest in the Yellowstone National Park. 

Dakota. The Dakota entered Montana at times to hunt and fight 
the Crow but were not permanent residents of the State. (See 
South Dakota.) 

Hidatsa. Together with the Arikara and Mandan, in 1869 and 1880 
the Hidatsa took part in treaties ceding territory in southeastern 
Montana to the United States Government. (See North Dakota.) 

Kalispel. This tribe probably visited the westernmost parts of 
Montana at times and most of them finally settled upon the Flat- 
head Reservation in that State. Some of them, together with the 
Salish and Kutenai, ceded Montana lands in 1855. (See Idaho.) 



392 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [B0ll. 145 

Kiowa. According to tradition, the Kiowa at one time lived in the 
southeastern part of this State. (See Oklahoma.) 

Kutenai. Said to be from a term applied to this tribe by the Blackfoot 
Indians and believed by Turney-High (1937) to have come origi- 
nally from the name of a Kutenai tribe or division called Tunaha. 
Also called: 

Flatbows, the name given often to the Lower Kutenai, the origin of which 

is unknown. 
K